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This book describes exemplary selected projects carried out in the Trentino-Alto Adige region (Italy) exploring numerous building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) systems (i.e. modules, construction system, energy systems). It presents 18 case studies analyzing three aspects of PV integration: aesthetic, energy and technology, with information on decision-making, design process and lessons learnt given for each, along with several pictures, including of general system and architectural details. Based on interviews with architects and engineers, experts from facade/glass manufacturers, energy consultants, BIPV experts, PV installers, electricians, private and public building owners and real estate companies, the book provides a source of inspiration and technical knowledge for architects and engineers towards an increased use of PV in architecture.
This book advances the use of biodiesel-more environmentally friendly than traditional fossil fuels-by showing how it can be synthesized at a lower cost, with greater efficiency and as a more pure and stable product. It presents methods based on fluorescence spectroscopy, which are less time-consuming than the traditional Rancimat analysis for monitoring stability, and are therefore less prone to allowing oxidative decay in the biofuel. Biodiesel exploits a variety of raw materials, from freshly harvested cottonseed to recycled cooking oil. These are cheap to produce and generate fuel lower in polluting sulphur and aromatic compounds than its petroleum-based equivalent. Beginning by addressing different protocols for synthesis based on fatty acids, methyl and ethyl esters, it then describes chemical analyses essential to establishing the purity of the biodiesel. It highlights in detail the use of multifunctional and synthetic antioxidants, and investigates the impact of synthetic chalcones and their derivatives on the oxidative stability of biodiesel. The author goes on to explain how to ameliorate various influences - UV irradiation and metal contaminants for example - which increase the hazards of oxidation, such as degradation and instability. New pre-treatment procedures performed using ultrasonic energies, thermostatic bath and vortex stirring are not only more environmentally friendly, but cut down on the time-consuming process of determining metal content, and allow for the use of more environmentally friendly aqueous reagents. The book investigates and demonstrates these techniques on the basis of real-world results. Further, it suggests the practical uses of byproducts of biodiesel production, for example, using glycerol as a source of energy and high valuable chemicals. These useful techniques aid any researcher exploring the production process of biodiesel and its stabilization and characteristics.
This book presents a range of nanocatalysts, together with their primary environmental applications and use in chemical production processes. In addition, it describes the nanomaterials used for catalysts and details their performance. The book introduces readers to the fundamentals and applications of nanocatalysis, synthesis, characterization, modification and application. Further topics include: landfill organic pollutant photodegradation; magnetic photocatalysis; synergistic effects on hydrogenated TiO2; and photoinduced fusion of gold-semiconductor nanoparticles. A detailed explanation of the chemistry of nanostructures and the ability to control materials at the nano-scale rounds out the coverage. Given the central importance of research in nanotechnology and nanoscience for the development of new catalysts, the book offers a valuable source of information for researchers and academics alike. It will also benefit industrial engineers and production managers who wish to understand the environmental impact of nanocatalysts.
This book is unique to be the only one completely dedicated for battery modeling for all components of battery management system (BMS) applications. The contents of this book compliment the multitude of research publications in this domain by providing coherent fundamentals. An explosive market of Li ion batteries has led to aggressive demand for mathematical models for battery management systems (BMS). Researchers from multi-various backgrounds contribute from their respective background, leading to a lateral growth. Risk of this runaway situation is that researchers tend to use an existing method or algorithm without in depth knowledge of the cohesive fundamentals-often misinterpreting the outcome. It is worthy to note that the guiding principles are similar and the lack of clarity impedes a significant advancement. A repeat or even a synopsis of all the applications of battery modeling albeit redundant, would hence be a mammoth task, and cannot be done in a single offering. The authors believe that a pivotal contribution can be made by explaining the fundamentals in a coherent manner. Such an offering would enable researchers from multiple domains appreciate the bedrock principles and forward the frontier. Battery is an electrochemical system, and any level of understanding cannot ellipse this premise. The common thread that needs to run across-from detailed electrochemical models to algorithms used for real time estimation on a microchip-is that it be physics based. Build on this theme, this book has three parts. Each part starts with developing a framework-often invoking basic principles of thermodynamics or transport phenomena-and ends with certain verified real time applications. The first part deals with electrochemical modeling and the second with model order reduction. Objective of a BMS is estimation of state and health, and the third part is dedicated for that. Rules for state observers are derived from a generic Bayesian framework, and health estimation is pursued using machine learning (ML) tools. A distinct component of this book is thorough derivations of the learning rules for the novel ML algorithms. Given the large-scale application of ML in various domains, this segment can be relevant to researchers outside BMS domain as well. The authors hope this offering would satisfy a practicing engineer with a basic perspective, and a budding researcher with essential tools on a comprehensive understanding of BMS models.
This book surveys state-of-the-art research on and developments in lithium-ion batteries for hybrid and electric vehicles. It summarizes their features in terms of performance, cost, service life, management, charging facilities, and safety. Vehicle electrification is now commonly accepted as a means of reducing fossil-fuels consumption and air pollution. At present, every electric vehicle on the road is powered by a lithium-ion battery. Currently, batteries based on lithium-ion technology are ranked first in terms of performance, reliability and safety. Though other systems, e.g., metal-air, lithium-sulphur, solid state, and aluminium-ion, are now being investigated, the lithium-ion system is likely to dominate for at least the next decade - which is why several manufacturers, e.g., Toyota, Nissan and Tesla, are chiefly focusing on this technology. Providing comprehensive information on lithium-ion batteries, the book includes contributions by the world's leading experts on Li-ion batteries and vehicles.
This book consolidates some of the most promising advanced smart grid functionalities and provides a comprehensive set of guidelines for their implementation/evaluation using DIgSILENT Power Factory. It includes specific aspects of modeling, simulation and analysis, for example wide-area monitoring, visualization and control, dynamic capability rating, real-time load measurement and management, interfaces and co-simulation for modeling and simulation of hybrid systems. It also presents key advanced features of modeling and automation of calculations using PowerFactory, such as the use of domain-specific (DSL) and DIgSILENT Programming (DPL) languages, and utilizes a variety of methodologies including theoretical explanations, practical examples and guidelines. Providing a concise compilation of significant outcomes by experienced users and developers of this program, it is a valuable resource for postgraduate students and engineers working in power-system operation and planning.
This book presents an approach to energy-efficient building design, which takes into account the most important challenges in climate change mitigation and adaptation in Southern Europe. It outlines a specific approach related to residential buildings and their intergenerational and vulnerable occupants, such as ageing population and users in fuel poverty. It also focuses on the use of passive energy measures throughout the year, and on pursuing a realistic and affordable approach to the efficient rehabilitation of resilient residential buildings. In addition, the book presents case studies that include surveys, monitoring, and simulation of residential buildings in Spain and other Southern European representative locations, in order to go further on the study of this challenging topic.
This book presents a concise framework for assessing technical and sustainability impacts of existing biorefineries and provides a possible road map for development of novel biorefineries. It offers a detailed, integrated approach to evaluate the entire biomass production chain, from the agricultural feedstock production and transportation, to the industrial conversion and commercialization & use of products. The Brazilian sugarcane biorefinery is used as a case study; however, the methods and concepts can be applied to almost any biomass alternative. Chapters explore the main issues regarding biorefinery assessment, including feedstock production and transportation modeling, biofuels and green chemistry products, as well as assessment of sustainability impacts. This book is a valuable source of information to researchers in bioenergy, green chemistry and sustainability fields. It also provides a useful framework for government agencies, investors and the energy industry to evaluate and predict the success of current and future biorefinery alternatives.
This book reports on the most recent applications of processes with a particular focus on the source and the properties of biogas and on the characteristics of the fuel cells (FCs). It describes adsorbing materials of potential interest are reviewed and the preparation methods and treatments employed to improve the adsorption properties as well as the stability and regenerability. The characterization of the chemical and physical properties involved in these processes is examined in particular detail. The book also covers aspects that concern the development of the adsorption apparatus with particular attention on the target of low residual concentration and high selectivity.High temperature FCs, such as molten carbonates (MCFCs) or solid oxides (SOFCs), are efficient, with a low environmental impact, and they can use a wide variety of fuels, such as biogas. The presence of some poisonous compounds such as sulphides, halides, and siloxanes can react with electrode catalysts and electrolyte, leading to the degradation and short lifetime of the cell. The treatment of raw biogas to obtain a FC-compatible fuel is mainly based on adsorption processes on suitable materials.
This book presents numerical and experimental research in the field of wind energy exploitation in urban environments. It comprises a selection of the best papers from the international colloquium Research and Innovation on Wind Energy Exploitation in Urban Environment (TUrbWind), held in Riva del Garda, Italy in June 2017. The book includes contributions from different research fields in urban wind resources, wind energy conversion systems, and urban integration, mainly focusing on the following topics: * concepts for urban and open landscape micro wind turbines, * integration of micro wind turbines in existing structures, * built-environment and high-turbulence sites' impacts on urban wind turbines, * measuring and modeling wind resource in built environments, * rotor performance and wake features of micro wind turbines. It is a valuable resource for researchers and practitioners interested in the integration of wind energy systems and turbines in urban areas.
This book presents a game changing technology of lower energy-intensive urea production of urea which is used as fertilizer. The technology, from a resource to a knowledge-intensive based industry, investigates a new synthesis approach employing electromagnetic induction and nano-catalyst at lower energy consumption. This clean and green method for a sustainable future might change the landscape of future chemical processes. It is made possible due to the enhancement in nanotechnology where quantum mechanical understanding is called into play. New reactor designs are elaborated on and discussed explicitly. Hematite and nickel oxide nanocatalysts are proposed for the green urea synthesis process, in the presence of static and oscillating magnetic fields. Strategies to increase single to triplet conversion rate are given for better understanding of the improved urea rate. The focus is deliberately on scrutinizing the greenhouse gas effect on the urea yield, in this case CO2 flow rate. Coating techniques for slow release strategies are provided to reduce the volatilization of ammonia and leaching effect, hence offering a complete solution of Green Technology. Agriculture 4.0 that creates the new patterns and precision monitoring of crop rotation and livestock utilization will be able to pave the way for better crop yield. Development of advanced technology in agriculture is important for the implementation of Agriculture 4.0 and currently an inevitable trend of the socioeconomic development in the context of broader international integration for the sustainable future. The author would like to acknowledge Ministry of Higher Education (MOHE) for the grant worth RM 12 million to accomplish Green and Economical Urea project and to have full understanding on Green Technology in Urea. This book is a collaborative effort by her colleagues, Ku Zilati, Khanif, Shahrina, Zainovia, Azizah, Zakaria, and who have carried out the research over the past five years which started in 2011. Their unconditional commitment had brought us together and we completed the project with success. I wish to also thank Dr Menaka Ganeson and all my PhD students, Dr. Saima, Dr. Bilal, Mr. Zia and Mr. Irfan for their commitment to assist me to complete the book. Last but not least, thank you very much to Professor Mike Payne (Cambridge University) and Professor Koziol (Cranfield University) for the comments.
This book examines energy efficiency in the Australian built environment and presents current developments with a particular focus on the temperate setting of Victoria state. It is divided into four main parts discussing policies, climate, and carbon footprint and presenting case studies on the energy performance and indoor environmental quality of various building types. The book is intended for readers wanting to understand the various policies related to different buildings types and their energy performance.
This book comprises a selection of the top contributions presented at the second international conference Smart and Sustainable Planning for Cities and Regions 2017 , held in March 2017 in Bolzano, Italy. Featuring forty-six papers by policy-makers, academics and consultants, it discusses current groundbreaking research in smart and sustainable planning, including the progress made in overcoming cities' challenges towards improving the quality of life. Climate change adaptation and mitigation of global warming, generally identified as drivers of global policies, are just the tip of the iceberg when it comes to smart energy transition. Indeed, equally relevant towards this current transformation - and key topics in this volume - are ICTs, public spaces and society; next economy for the city; strategies and actions for good governance; urban-rural innovation; rethinking mobility. The book's depth in understanding and insightfulness in re-thinking demonstrate the breaking of new ground in smart and sustainable planning. A new ground that policy-makers, academics and consultants may build upon as a bedrock for smart and sustainable planning.
This book highlights a selection of the best papers presented at the 2016 SIEV conference The Laudato si Encyclical Letter and Valuation. Cities between Conflict and Solidarity, Decay and Regeneration, Exclusion and Participation , which was held in Rome, Italy, in April 2016, and brought together experts from a diverse range of fields - economics, appraisal, architecture, energy, urban planning, sociology, and the decision sciences - and government representatives. The book is divided into four parts: Human Ecology: Values and Paradigms; Integral Ecology and Natural Resource Management; Intergenerational Equity; and How to Enhance Dialogue and Transparency in Decision-making Processes. Cities are where 72% of all Europeans live, and this percentage is expected to rise to 80% by 2050. Given this trend towards urbanization, cities are continuously growing, which also entails a growing risk of social segregation, lack of security and mounting environmental problems. All too often, today's cities have to cope with social and environmental crises, shifting the European urban agenda towards regeneration processes. Urban regeneration is more complex than merely renovating existing buildings, as it also involves social and environmental problems, inhabitants' quality of life, protecting tangible and intangible cultural resources, innovation and business.
This open access book addresses the issue of diffusing sustainable energy access in low- and middle-income contexts. Access to energy is one of the greatest challenges for many people living in low- income and developing contexts, as around 1.4 billion people lack access to electricity. Distributed Renewable Energy systems (DRE) are considered a promising approach to address this challenge and provide energy access to all. However, even if promising, the implementation of DRE systems is not always straightforward. The book analyses, discusses and classifies the promising Sustainable Product-Service System (S.PSS) business models to deliver Distributed Renewable Energy systems in an effective, efficient and sustainable way. Its message is supported with cases studies and examples, discussing the economic, environmental and socioethical benefits as well as its limitations and barriers to its implementation. An innovative design approach is proposed and a set of design tools are supplied, enabling readers to create and develop Sustainable Product-Service System (S.PSS) solutions to deliver Distributed Renewable Energy systems. Practical applications of the book's design approach and tools by companies and practitioners are discussed and the book will be of interest to readers in design, industry, governmental institutions, NGOs as well as researchers.
This book discusses recent trends and developments in the microbial conversion process, which serves as an important route for biofuel production, with particular attention to bioreactors. It combines microbial conversion with multiphase flow and mass transfer, providing an alternative perspective for the understanding of microbial biomass and energy production process as well as enhancement strategy. This book is relevant to students and researchers who work in the fields of renewable energy, engineering and biotechnology. Policymakers, economists and industry engineers also benefit from this book, as it can be used as a resource for the implementation of renewable energy technologies.
This book offers a comprehensive overview of the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels, and discusses the applications of radiation, particularly spallation neutrons and gamma rays. The unspent nuclear fuel of a reactor amounts to roughly 95 per cent of the loaded fuel. It contains both fertile and fissile fuels, minor and higher actinides and radioactive fission products. In 2015, out of approximately 4 million metric tons of spent fuel, only 90,000 metric tons was reprocessed worldwide; the rest was either sent to repositories, kept for cooling down, or put on a waiting list for future reprocessing. With regard to the direct reutilization of spent nuclear fuel, the new technique of 'Energy Amplifiers' has attracted considerable attention among the nuclear energy community. Presenting extensive information on this technique, the book is divided into eight major sections: (i) spent nuclear fuel and alternative transmutation methods, (ii) general concept of accelerator-driven subcritical systems (ADSS), (iii) spallation neutron sources and the possibility of incineration, (iv) requirements for nuclear data, (v) transmutation of spent nuclear fuel and extension of the fuel cycle, (vi) spallation neutron production facilities, (vii) major experimental facilities for ADSS, and (viii) software tools for the design and modelling of ADSS. The book is ideally suited as a textbook for graduate students as well as a reference guide for researchers and practitioners.
In addition to describing core concepts and principles, this book reveals professional methodologies and tools used by national agencies and private corporations to predict sites' potential for wind and solar power generation. Each chapter focuses on a different issue, showing readers the corresponding methodology, as well as examples of how to apply the techniques described. These techniques are explained with step-by-step guides that demonstrate how environmental variables in complex terrains can be characterized and forecasted.The authors present an adaptive finite element mass-consistent model, which computes a diagnostic wind field in the three-dimensional area of interest using observed wind data from measurement stations - data which is then interpolated using a physical model of the wind field in the boundary layer. An ensemble method is presented based on the perturbation of the numerical weather prediction models' results. The book goes on to explain solar radiation characterization and forecasting. Solar radiation and electrical power generation temporal and spatial variability are discussed and modelled. Different statistical methods are presented in order to improve solar radiation forecasting using ground measurement, numerical weather predictions (NWPs) and satellite-derived data. This book is focused on both probabilistic and point forecast explaining different models and methodologies to improve the forecasting. The results obtained from various simulations around the world are presented in tables. Finally, the book explains a possible methodology to develop a Solar Map taking into account solar radiation, terrain surface conditions and cast shadows. As such, the book provides an overview of the concepts, principles and practices involved in the treatment of environmental variables related to solar radiation or wind fields, especially when complex terrains are involved, offering useful resources for students and researchers alike. It also equips professionals with the methodologies and tools needed to construct environmental variable maps and conduct forecasting for solar radiation and wind fields.
This book performs a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) analysis to examine the current food crisis and how it relates to the use of crops for energy. It analyses how energy crops may help solve humankind's environmental changes and summarises the economic and practical changes of cultivating and utilising energy crops. Two of humanity's greatest challenges are the need for more food production as well as growing demands for energy. Biofuel cultivation has been identified as a solution to growing energy use, and biomass power plants offer a rare renewable energy source that requires only basic technology. In this context, a dilemma arises concerning whether energy crops should be used for energy or to help remedy the food crisis. SWOT analysis allows us to organise and weigh different pros and cons against each other in terms of economics, job creation, environmental impacts, the climate change agenda, and European Union (EU) directives that promote biofuels over fossil fuels. By pursuing this approach, the book helps researchers and decision-makers cut through the many competing arguments in connection with this complex subject.
This book offers an overview of sustainability and urban mobility in the context of urban planning - topics that are of considerable interest in the development of smart cities. Environmental sustainability is universally recognized as a fundamental condition for any urban policy or urban management activity, while mobility is essential for the survival of complex urban systems. The new opportunities offered by innovations in the mobility of people, goods and information, as well as radically changing interactions and activities are transforming cities. Including contributions by urban planning scholars, the book provides an up-to-date picture of the latest studies and innovative policies and practices in Italy, of particular interest due to its spatial, functional and social peculiarities. Sustainability and mobility must form the basis of smart planning - a new dimension of urban planning linked to two main innovations: procedural innovation in the management of territorial transformations and the technological innovation of the generation, processing and distribution of data (big data) for the creation of new digital environments such as GIS, BIM, models of augmented and mixed reality, useful for describing changes in human settlement in real time.
This book describes the development of a system dynamics-based model that can capture the future trajectories of housing energy and carbon emissions. It approaches energy and carbon emissions in the housing sector as a complex socio-technical problem involving the analysis of intrinsic interrelationships among dwellings, occupants and the environment. Based on an examination of the UK housing sector but with relevance worldwide, the book demonstrates how the systems dynamics simulation can be used as a learning laboratory regarding future trends in housing energy and carbon emissions. The authors employ a pragmatic research strategy, involving the collection of both qualitative and quantitative data to develop a model. The book enriches readers' understanding of the complexity involved in housing energy and carbon emissions from a systems-thinking perspective. As such, it will be of interest to researchers in the fields of architectural engineering, housing studies and climate change, while also appealing to industry practitioners and policymakers specializing in housing energy.
This book discusses aspects of policy and techno-economic analysis of renewable energy in developing countries. Renewable energy technologies have been one of the most important strategies in addressing sustainable energy development and climate change. The roles of renewable energy in developing countries are vital, which include the accessibility of modern energy services in rural areas, climate change mitigation, energy security, green job creation and eventually improvement of quality of life. Part I of this book focuses on policy and strategy, while Part II focuses on technology development and feasibility. Chapters are contributed by leading experts from the ASEAN Center of Energy, government agencies, industries, and universities from five developing countries, including Malaysia, Indonesia, Vietnam, Brunei Darussalam and Bangladesh.
This book presents a state-of-the-art compilation focusing on both technological and policy aspects of sustainable energy production and consumption, which deals with issues like the need for and planning of smart cities, alternative transport fuel options, sustainable power production, pollution control technologies etc. The book comprises contributions from experts from all over the world, and addresses energy sustainability from different viewpoints. Specifically, the book focuses on energy sustainability in the Indian scenario with a background of the global perspective. Contributions from academia, policy makers and industry are included to address the challenge from different perspectives. The contents of this book will prove useful to researchers, professionals, and policy makers working in the area of green and sustainable energy.
This book presents a state-of-the-art compilation focusing on both technological and policy aspects of sustainable energy production and consumption, which deals with issues like the need for and planning of smart cities, alternative transport fuel options, sustainable power production, pollution control technologies etc. The book comprises contributions from experts from all over the world, and addresses energy sustainability from different viewpoints. Specifically, the book focuses on energy sustainability in the Indian scenario with a background of the global perspective. Contributions from academia, policy makers and industry are included to address the challenge from different perspectives. The contents of this book will prove useful to researchers, professionals, and policy makers working in the area of green and sustainable energy.
This is the first book dedicated to solar gas turbines, providing fundamental knowledge and state-of-the-art developments in the field. A gas turbine is a heat engine in which a mixture of fuel and air is burned in a chamber that is an integral part of the flow circuit of the working fluid. The burnt gas mixture expands and turns the turbine, which can be connected to a generator for electricity production. Solar gas turbines offer an important alternative to conventional gas turbines driven by non-renewable, polluting fossil fuels such as diesel or natural gas. The book provides a comprehensive overview of the topic as well as numerous illustrations.
The book investigates the relationship between ecosystem services (ES) and spatial planning, and explores potential means of integrating the two concepts to support the decision-making process. In addition, it presents case studies demonstrating the outcomes, limitations, opportunities and further new developments in ES assessment/mapping for planning support. Then it describes the Restart from Ecosystem Services (RES) methodology, which is aimed at integrating ES into the planning process using an ecological balance, and at promoting new planning parameters for the transformation areas. RES ensures the inclusion of ES in planning processes using the incremental measures of limiting, mitigating and compensating soil sealing and land take process promoting operational strategies in applying it. The implementation of RES is associated with strategic environmental assessment and provides valuable support in the definition of strategies across the entire planning process, especially for the evaluation of alternative scenarios.
This book is devoted to the analysis and applications of energy, exergy, and environmental issues in all sectors of the economy, including industrial processes, transportation, buildings, and services. Energy sources and technologies considered are hydrocarbons, wind and solar energy, fuel cells, as well as thermal and electrical storage. This book provides theoretical insights, along with state-of-the-art case studies and examples and will appeal to the academic community, but also to energy and environmental professionals and decision makers.
This research book provides state-of-the-art advances in several areas of energy generation from, and environmental impact of, fuels and biofuels. It also presents novel developments in the areas of biofuels and products from various feedstock materials along with thermal management, emission control and environmental issues. Availability of clean and sustainable energy is of paramount importance in all applications of energy, power, mobility and propulsion. This book is written by internationally renowned experts from around the globe. They provide the latest innovations in cleaner energy utilization for a wide range of devices. The energy and environment sustainability requires a multipronged approach involving development and utilization of new and renewable fuels, design of fuel-flexible combustion systems and novel and environmentally friendly technologies for improved fuel use. This book serves as a good reference for practicing engineers, educators and research professionals.
This book presents new application processes in the context of anaerobic digestion (AD), such as phosphorus recovery, microbial fuel cells (MFCs), and seaweed digestion. In addition, it introduces a new technique for the modeling and optimization of AD processes. Chapters 1 and 2 review AD as a technique for converting a range of organic wastes into biogas, while Chapter 3 discusses the recovery of phosphorus from anaerobically digested liquor. Chapters 4 and 5 focus on new techniques for modeling and optimizing AD. Chapters 6 and 7 then describe the state of the art in AD effluent treatment. The book's final three chapters focus on more recent developments, including microbial fuel cells (MFCs) (Chapter 8), seaweed production (Chapter 9), and enzyme technologies (Chapter 10).
This book presents the latest advances in thermal energy storage development at both the materials and systems level. It covers various fields of application, including domestic, industrial and transport, as well as diverse technologies, such as sensible, latent and thermochemical. The contributors introduce readers to the main performance indicators for thermal storage systems, and discuss thermal energy storage (TES) technologies that can be used to improve the efficiency of energy systems and increase the share of renewable energy sources in numerous fields of application. In addition to the latest advances, the authors discuss the development and characterization of advanced materials and systems for sensible, latent and thermochemical TES, as well as the TES market and practical applications. They also report on and assess the feasibility of uniform characterization protocols and main performance indicators, compared to previous attempts to be found in the literature. The book will help to increase awareness of thermal energy storage technologies in both the academic and industrial sectors, while also providing experts new tools to achieve a uniform approach to thermal energy storage characterization methods. It will also be of interest to all students and researchers seeking an introduction to recent innovations in TES technologies.
This book provides in-depth coverage of the latest research and development activities concerning innovative wind energy technologies intended to replace fossil fuels on an economical basis. A characteristic feature of the various conversion concepts discussed is the use of tethered flying devices to substantially reduce the material consumption per installed unit and to access wind energy at higher altitudes, where the wind is more consistent. The introductory chapter describes the emergence and economic dimension of airborne wind energy. Focusing on Fundamentals, Modeling & Simulation , Part I includes six contributions that describe quasi-steady as well as dynamic models and simulations of airborne wind energy systems or individual components. Shifting the spotlight to Control, Optimization & Flight State Measurement , Part II combines one chapter on measurement techniques with five chapters on control of kite and ground stations, and two chapters on optimization. Part III on Concept Design & Analysis includes three chapters that present and analyze novel harvesting concepts as well as two chapters on system component design. Part IV, which centers on Implemented Concepts , presents five chapters on established system concepts and one chapter about a subsystem for automatic launching and landing of kites. In closing, Part V focuses with four chapters on Technology Deployment related to market and financing strategies, as well as on regulation and the environment. The book builds on the success of the first volume Airborne Wind Energy (Springer, 2013), and offers a self-contained reference guide for researchers, scientists, professionals and students. The respective chapters were contributed by a broad variety of authors: academics, practicing engineers and inventors, all of whom are experts in their respective fields.
This book presents an authoritative and comprehensive overview of the production and use of microalgal biomass and bioproducts for energy generation. It also offers extensive information on engineering approaches to energy production, such as process integration and process intensification in harnessing energy from microalgae. Issues related to the environment, food, chemicals and energy supply pose serious threats to nations' success and stability. The challenge to provide for a rapidly growing global population has made it imperative to find new technological routes to increase the production of consumables while also bearing in mind the biosphere's ability to regenerate resources. Microbial biomass is a bioresource that provides effective solutions to these challenges. Divided into eight parts, the book explores microalgal production systems, life cycle assessment and the bio-economy of biofuels from microalgae, process integration and process intensification applied to microalgal biofuels production. In addition, it discusses the main fuel products obtained from microalgae, summarizing a range of useful energy products derived from algae-based systems, and outlines future developments. Given the book's breadth of coverage and extensive bibliography, it offers an essential resource for researchers and industry professionals working in renewable energy.
This book offers an introduction to the meteorological boundary conditions for power generation from wind - both onshore and offshore, and provides meteorological information for the planning and running of this important renewable energy source. It includes the derivation of wind laws and wind-profile descriptions, especially those above the logarithmic surface layer, and discusses winds over complex terrains and nocturnal low-level jets. This updated and expanded second edition features new chapters devoted to the efficiency of large wind parks and their wakes and to offshore wind energy.
The book summarizes the current state of the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology in power generation applications. It describes the single cells, SOFC stacks, micro-combined heat and power systems, large-scale stationary power generators and polygeneration units. The principles of modeling, simulation and controls of power systems with solid oxide fuel cells are presented and discussed. Authors provide theoretical background of the technology followed by the essential insights into the integrated power systems. Selected aspects of the design, construction and operation of power units in range from single kilowatts to hundreds of kilowatts are presented. Finally, the book reports the selected studies on prototype systems which have been constructed in Europe. The book discusses the theoretical and practical aspects of operation of power generators with solid oxide fuel cells including fabrication of cells, design of stacks, system modeling, simulation of stationary and non-stationary operation of systems, fuel preparation and controls.
This book is primarily intended to serve as a textbook and reference work for graduate and professional training coursework on solar desalination of water. The book begins with an introduction to the increasing demand for potable water, various types of water pollution and its impacts on human health, and goes on to cover basics of desalination technologies. It covers all aspects of solar-energy based distillation and desalination for producing potable water resources, including radiation and heat transfer concepts, a history of solar distillation systems, and background on solar collectors. The contents include thermal modeling and parametric study of solar distillation. Energy and exergy aspects are analyzed in detail, including energy matrices of solar distillation. A special chapter on exeroeconomics introduces fundamental equations which include the general balance equation, thermodynamic balance equations, and economic balance equations. A chapter on Economic Analysis of Solar Distillation completes the coverage. The book includes solved examples and end-of-chapter exercises in the form of both problems and objective-type questions. The contents of this book are useful to students, researchers, professionals, and policymakers looking for a comprehensive resource on solar desalination.
This book comprehensively introduces fundamentals and applications of fermentative hydrogen production from organic wastes, consisting of eight chapters, covering the microbiology, biochemistry and enzymology of hydrogen production, the enrichment of hydrogen-producing microorganisms, the pretreatment of various organic wastes for hydrogen production, the influence of different physicochemical factors on hydrogen production, the kinetic models and simulation of biological process of fermentative hydrogen production, the optimization of biological hydrogen production process and the fermentative hydrogen production from sewage sludge. The book summarizes the most recent advances that have been made in this field and discusses bottlenecks of further development. This book gives a holistic picture of this technology and details the knowledge through illustrative diagrams, flow charts, and comprehensive tables. It is intended for undergraduate and graduate students who are interested in bioenergy and wastes management, researchers exploring microbial fermentation process, and engineers working on system optimization or other bioenergy applications.
This book offers essential insights into c-Si based solar cells and fundamentals of reflection, refraction, and light trapping. The basic physics and technology for light trapping in c-Si based solar cells are covered, from traditional to advanced light trapping structures. Further, the book discusses the latest developments in plasmonics for c-Si solar cell applications, along with their future scope and the requirements for further research. The book offers a valuable guide for graduate students, researchers and professionals interested in the latest trends in solar cell technologies.
This book addresses the problem of building an optimal community energy network in a decentralized distributed energy context. The book introduces a few novel modeling frameworks to assist a single customer or a community of multiple end-user customers in building their optimal electricity system/network and operating their own local energy system. The content of the book is suitable for students, academics and industrial practitioners studying or working in the area of energy management and smart grid energy networks.
This book provides essential information on and case studies in the fields of energy technology, clean energy, energy efficiency, sustainability and the environment relevant to academics, researchers, practicing engineers, technologists and students. The individual chapters present cutting-edge research on key issues and recent developments in thermo-fluid processes, including but not limited to: energy technologies in process industries, applications of thermo-fluid processes in mining industries, applications of electrostatic precipitators in thermal power plants, biofuels, energy efficiency in building systems, etc. Helping readers develop an intuitive understanding of the relevant concepts in and solutions for achieving sustainability in medium and large-scale industries, the book offers a valuable resource for undergraduate, honors and postgraduate research students in the field of thermo-fluid engineering.
This book describes step-by-step the entire building process of a passive, energy-efficient house in a Mediterranean climate. It chronicles the creation of the Fiorita Passive House in Cesena, Italy, offering designers valuable tips and practical advice for their own projects. Written as a logbook, it not only provides essential technical information but is also an exciting story of the challenges encountered and the solutions that were found. How and where do I start when building a passive house? Do I need consultants? Will it cost too much? What precautions should I take in a Mediterranean region? What tools do I need? I want to build in wood, but what technical solutions should I use? What must I do regarding plants and equipment? And then, finally, will it really work? These and many other questions filled the head of the author and designer when he tried his hand at building a passive house in the Mediterranean. The designer, S. Piraccini, had long sought a book that would answer these answers - in vain. So he decided to brave these dangerous waters alone, and after successfully completing his project, he decided to write a book to help others in the same situation. The book is accompanied by detailed information on building physics and HVAC systems by his fellow architect, K. Fabbri.
This book offers a comprehensive reference guide to the latest developments and advances in solar drying technology, covering the concept, design, testing, modeling, and economics of solar drying technologies, as well as their impact on the environment. The respective chapters are based on the latest studies conducted by reputed international researchers in the fields of solar energy and solar drying. Offering a perfect blend of research and practice explained in a simple manner, the book represents a valuable resource for researchers, students, professionals, and policymakers working in the field of solar drying and related agricultural applications.
This monograph addresses the needs of readers interested in wind energy converters. The authors achieve to strike a balance between a concise presentation of the material and a detailed book for experts in the field. The book covers aspects such as design and technical challenges of wind converters, but also policy issues as well as life cycle assessment considerations. In the past few decades, growth in the wind energy sector has been most phenomenal among all renewable energy resources. In this context, it is nearly universally agreed that wind energy can definitely play an important part in ensuring a sustainable future.The topic is highly interdisciplinary and requires an accessible format for non-experts. Hence, this compact version is suitable for many students and practitioners who intend to read concisely on wind energy.
This book focuses on the water-energy-climate nexus, which can be used to improve energy security and quality of life for millions of people in developing countries. It enhances the reader's understanding of the link between energy and climate, through the development of new approaches to and methods for energy generation, energy use, and climate change adaptation and resilience. By presenting case studies and research reports, the book addresses the relevant issues needed in order to analyze and successfully implement technologies in the water-energy-climate nexus. It focuses on the contributions of higher education institutions in terms of capacity-building for energy efficiency, energy access and energy security, as they relate to climate change mitigation. The book combines results from the authors' own research with detailed analyses, and the research presented lays the foundation for innovative new concepts and ideas, which the authors subsequently discuss. The book will appeal to all those interested in the links between energy issues, sustainability and climate change, as it focuses on the exchange between science and technology experts, as well as decision makers. It also supports students studying renewable energies and energy security, while serving as a valuable reference source for researchers, professionals, practitioners and scientists.
This book presents a state-of-the-art analysis of energy efficiency as applied to mining processes. From ground fragmentation to mineral processing and extractive metallurgy, experts discuss the current state of knowledge and the nagging questions that call for further research. It offers an excellent resource for all mine managers and engineers who want to improve energy efficiency to boost both production efficiency and sustainability. It will also benefit graduate students and experienced researchers looking for a comprehensive review of the current state of knowledge concerning energy efficiency in the minerals industry.
This book is a systematic compilation of the most recent body of knowledge in the rapidly developing research area of greenhouse gas interaction with clay systems. Unexpected results of the most recent studies - such as unusually high sorption capacity and sorption hysteresis of swelling clays -stimulated theoretical activity in this fascinating field. Classical molecular dynamics (MD) explains swelling caused by intercalation of water molecules and to a certain degree of CO2 molecules in clay interlayer. However, unusual frequency shifts in the transient infrared fingerprints of the intercalated molecules and the following accelerated carbonation can be tackled only via quantum mechanical modeling. This book provides a streamlined (from simple to complex) guide to the most advanced research efforts in this field.
This book provides the short history, current state, main problems and historical perspective for the development of electrical power engineering. The focus of the textbook is on the two most important issues related to meeting of the growing needs of humanity in electricity: Hunger for energy and Ecological infarct . In the book are discussed the methods of their solution: optimization of energy balance, use of renewable energy resources, new methods of electricity production, increase of the efficiency of production, accumulation, transmission, distribution and consumption electricity. The third issue - social and geopolitical threats due to the increasing need for energy - in the textbook is not considered inasmuch it details in non-stop regime discussed in the mass media. Choosing the structure and content of the textbook is based on the ten years of the author experience of giving lectures to Tomsk Polytechnic University students who study according to the program Electric Power Engineering. This textbook is addresed to students, masters and post-graduates. It can be interesting for everyone who is thinking about the future of our civilization, in general, and meeting of human needs in electric power, in particular.
This book is a concise review of the current status and future prospects of concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) technology. Starting with a summary of the current technical and economic status of CPV technology, it identifies the factors that hold CPV back in the commercial market. The main technical areas considered are solar cells, tracking and optics. The solar cells section focuses on spectrum splitting systems, which offer potentially higher efficiency than multi-junction cells with reductions in the manufacturing constraints that lead to high costs. It also offers a brief survey of the latest developments in spectral splitting alongside a discussion of the advances in solar cell manufacturing that aid the development of such systems. Further, it examines electrical design principles for spectral splitting systems that can improve the spectral stability of these systems' performance. The section on tracking includes a description of tracking integration with an update of the review published in Nature, presenting the latest advances in the field and focusing on surveying conceptual approaches rather than providing an exhaustive description of the literature. The optics section explores 3D printing and other emerging methods of fabricating optics for both prototype and large-scale production, as well as new classes of concentrators, particularly those based on novel photonic materials such as angular filters. Lastly, the authors consider the impact that environmental factors have on the performance of CPV in non-standard environments before concluding with a discussion of the combinations of technologies that they anticipate will most effectively boost CPV in the commercial market.
The text describes the main features of currently available heat pumps, focusing on system operation and interactions with external heat sources. In fact, before choosing a heat pump, several aspects must be assessed in detail: the actual climate of the installation site, the building's energy requirements, the heating system, the type of operation etc. After discussing the general working principles, the book describes the main components of compression machines - for EHPs, GHPs and CO2 heat pumps. It then addresses absorption heat pumps and provides additional details on the behavior of two-fluid mixtures. The book presents a performance comparison for the different types, helping designers choose the right one for their needs, and discusses the main refrigerants. Notes on helpful additional literature, websites and videos, also concerning relevant European regulations, round out the coverage. This book will be of interest to all engineers and technicians whose work involves heat pumps. It will also benefit students in energy engineering degree programs who want to deepen their understanding of heat pumps.
This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. This book aims to inspire decision makers and practitioners to change their approach to climate planning in the tropics through the application of modern technologies for characterizing local climate and tracking vulnerability and risk, and using decision-making tools. Drawing on 16 case studies conducted mainly in the Caribbean, Central America, Western and Eastern Africa, and South East Asia it is shown how successful integration of traditional and modern knowledge can enhance disaster risk reduction and adaptation to climate change in the tropics. The case studies encompass both rural and urban settings and cover different scales: rural communities, cities, and regions. In addition, the book looks to the future of planning by addressing topics of major importance, including residual risk integration in local development plans, damage insurance and the potential role of climate vulnerability reduction credits. In many regions of the tropics, climate planning is growing but has still very low quality. This book identifies the weaknesses and proposes effective solutions.
This book analyzes the relationship between large-scale industrial activity and the carbon footprint, and provides a theoretical framework and tools to calculate the carbon footprint of industrial activities at every stage of their life cycles, including urban-planning master plans, recycling activities, project and building stages as well as managing and manufacturing. Discussing the main preventative and corrective measures that can be utilized, it includes case studies, reports on technological developments and examples of successful policies to provide inspiration to readers. This book collects the contributions of authors from four continents, in order to analyze from as many as possible points of view and using many different approaches, the problem of sustainability in today's globalized world.
This book is intended to serve as a compendium on the state-of-the-art research in the field of biofuels. The book includes chapters on different aspects of biofuels from renowned international experts in the field. The book looks at current research on all aspects of biofuels from raw materials to production techniques. It also includes chapters on analysis of performance of biofuels, particularly biodiesel, in engines. The book incorporates case studies that provide insights into the performance of biofuels in applications such as automotive engines and diesel generators. The contents of the book will be useful to graduate students and researchers working on all aspects of biofuels. The book will also be of use to professionals and policymakers interested in biofuels.
This book examines ways of assessing the rational management of nonrenewable resources. Integrating numerous methods, it systematically exposes the strengths of exergy analysis in resources management. Divided into two parts, the first section provides the theoretical background to assessment methods, while the second section provides practical application examples. The topics covered in detail include the theory of exergy cost and thermo-ecological cost, cumulative calculus and life cycle evaluation. This book serves as a valuable resource for researchers looking to investigate a range of advanced thermodynamic assessments of the influence of production processes on the depletion of nonrenewable resources.
This book describes the importance of catalysis for the sustainable production of biofuels and biochemicals, focusing primarily on the state-of-the-art catalysts and catalytic processes expected to play a decisive role in the green production of fuels and chemicals from biomass. The book also includes general sections exploring the entire chain of biomass production, conversion, environment, economy, and life-cycle assessment.
This book provides in-depth information on topics relating to anthropogenic carbon dioxide utilization processes. Presenting a collection of state-of-the-art scientific reviews and research perspectives on carbon management strategies of relevance to the energy industry, it features contributions by leading scientists and technocrats across 19 chapters as an Indian contribution In the energy industry, new processes for carbon dioxide removal and recycling are developing quickly, and it is in this context that the book provides an opportunity to review the current status of and promote efforts to achieve effective carbon capture and management. The contents presented here will prove useful to researchers, students, industry experts, scientists and policymakers alike.
This book identifies the challenges, solutions, and opportunities offered by smart energy grids (SEGs) with regard to the storage and regulation of diversified energy sources such as photovoltaic, wind, and ocean energy. It provides a detailed analysis of the stability and availability of renewable sources, and assesses relevant socioeconomic structures. The book also presents case studies to maximize readers' understanding of energy grid management and optimization. Moreover, it offers guidelines on the design, implementation, and maintenance of the (SEG) for island countries.
This book offers an interdisciplinary discussion of the fundamental issues concerning policies for sustainable transition to renewable energies from the perspectives of sociologists, physicists, engineers, economists, anthropologists, biologists, ecologists and policy analysts. Adopting a combined approach, these are analysed taking both complex systems and social practice theories into consideration to provide deeper insights into the evolution of energy systems. The book then draws a series of important conclusions and makes recommendations for the research community and policy makers involved in the design and implementation of policies for sustainable energy transitions.
This book introduces the concept, design and application of green biocomposites, with a specific focus on the current demand for green biocomposites for automotive and aerospace components. It discusses the mathematical background, innovative approaches to physical modelling, analysis and design techniques. Including numerous illustrations, tables, case studies and exercises, the text summarises current research in the field. It is a valuable reference resource for researchers, students and scientists working in the field of materials science.
This book documents the state of the art and the emerging operational perspectives in the field of the appraisal discipline. It covers a wide range of topics, including energy efficiency, environmental sustainability, socio-economic evaluation of regional and urban transformations, real estate and facility management, risk management. It also discusses the potential role of appraisal in minimising unexpected consequences; the role of evaluators in urban development projects as well as the contribution of several methodologies with respect to the overall planning and design processes; the need to manage the complexity of the current decision contexts, while at the same time promoting efficient and effective evaluation processes; improving the quality of discussion and communication of the outcomes of evaluation processes; as well as the appropriateness of current regulation and policy regimes (EU, national, regional etc.). It comprises a selection of the best papers presented at the SIEV 2015 conference Appraisal: Current Issues and Problems , which was held in Bari, Italy, in July 2015, and brought together architects, engineers, urban planners, decision-makers and government representatives.
This book reviews and characterises promising single-compound solvents, solvent blends and advanced solvent systems suitable for CO2 capture applications using gas-liquid absorption. Focusing on energy efficient solvents with minimal adverse environmental impact, the contributions included analyse the major technological advantages, as well as research and development challenges of promising solvents and solvent systems in various sustainable CO2 capture applications. It provides a valuable source of information for undergraduate and postgraduate students, as well as for chemical engineers and energy specialists.
This book introduces several simple analytical approaches to aid the seamless integration of renewable distributed generation. It focuses on the idea of intelligent integration, which involves locating and developing suitable operational characteristics of renewable distributed generation. After reviewing the options available, the best location should be chosen, an appropriately sized operation should be installed and the most suitable operational characteristics should be adopted. Presenting these simple analytical approaches, their step-by-step implementation and a number of cases studies using test distribution systems, the book clearly demonstrates the technical, economic and environmental benefits of intelligent integration.
This book presents the first comprehensive text on construction biomaterials and bioprocesses. It details aspects of construction biotechnology, a new interdisciplinary area involving applications of environmental and industrial microbiology and biotechnology in geotechnical and civil engineering. It also critically reviews all existing and potential construction biotechnology processes. It discusses a number of topics including the biotechnological production of new construction materials such as self-healing concrete, construction biocomposites, construction bioplastics, and biotechnological admixtures to cement. It also addresses construction-related processes like biocementation, bioclogging, soil surface fixation and biosealing, microbial cements and grouts, the biocoating of construction material surfaces, the microbiology and biosafety of the construction environment, the prevention of biocorrosion as well as biodeterioration and biofouling in civil engineering. Biomediated precipitation of calcium, magnesium, and iron compounds as carbonates, phosphates, sulphides, and silicate minerals in soil for its clogging and strengthening are considered from geotechnical, chemical, and microbiological points of view. It offers an overview of the basic microbiology that will enable civil engineers to perform the construction biogeochemical processes. Design principles and considerations for different field implementations are discussed from a practical point of view. The book can be used as a textbook for graduate and senior undergraduate students in biotechnology, civil engineering and environmental engineering as well as a reference book for researchers and practitioners working in this new interdisciplinary area.
This book addresses different aspects of green biocomposite manufacture from natural fibres and bioplastics, including the manufacturing procedures and the physical, mechanical, thermal and electrical properties of green biocomposites. Featuring illustrations and tables that maximize reader insights into the current research on biocomposites, it emphasises the role of green technology in the manufacture of biocomposites and analysis of properties of biocomposites for different applications. It is a valuable resource for researchers and scientists in industry wanting to understand the need for biocomposites in the development of green, biodegradable and sustainable products for different applications.
This book addresses the evaluation and optimization of key elements in concentrating solar thermal (CST) technologies, such as solar receivers and working fluids, using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. It discusses both general and specific aspects, explaining the methodology used to analyze and evaluate the influence of different parameters on the facility performance. This information provides the basis for optimizing design and operating conditions in CST systems.
This book focuses on the operating conditions of wind, photovoltaic and off-grid power systems. It provides data collected from long-term measurements of actual industrial wind and solar farms, and offers detailed analyses of the results. This unique data is supported by a wealth of examples, tables, graphs and drawings based on real-world measurements. By providing comprehensive insights into the operation of renewable energy systems, this book broadens readers' understanding of energy sources and their practical application.
This work presents a comprehensive investigation of the most significant renewable hydrogen production processes. Technical, economic and ecological studies are described for the processes of steam reforming of ethanol, natural gas and biogas; water electrolysis with energy from renewable sources (wind power, photovoltaic and hydroelectric), and hydrogen production using algae. Aimed at mechanical and chemical engineering graduate students and researchers involved in environmental sciences, sustainable energy and bioenergy research, this book introduces readers to the latest developments in the field and provides essential reference material for future research. The book first presents a comprehensive literature review of the processes studied. Subsequently, it provides a technical report on assessing the energetic efficiency for each hydrogen production process, as well as an economic study of the respective hydrogen production costs. Lastly, the ecological efficiency of each process is addressed. Over the past few decades, the UNESP's Group of Optimization of Energetic Systems, headed by Professor Jose Luz Silveira, has been pursuing research in the field of renewable energy generation. A major part of the group's research focuses on the production of hydrogen as a fuel and its important contribution to mitigating the environmental impacts caused by pollutant emissions.
This book provides a systematic assessment of the performance of electric and hybrid buses in urban areas on a daily basis and presents a complete set of technical scenarios to promote their efficient exploitation. It will also help readers understand how future buses will perform on specific roads and how the latest technologies can be integrated into existing fleets by proposing a methodology for evaluating the energy consumption for general and specific routes and scenarios. Covering all aspects relating to the daily use of electric and hybrid buses, including maintenance strategies, power train configuration, battery replacements, route evaluation, and charging speed, emphasis is placed on energy efficiency and effective implementation. Addressing key developments in intelligent vehicle technologies, the book presents innovative transportation technologies and a broad range of topics in transportation-related sustainability research, from vehicle systems and design, to mass transit systems.
This book introduces an innovative and high-efficiency technology for mechanical energy harvesting. The book covers the history and development of triboelectric nanogenerators, basic structures, working principles, performance characterization, and potential applications. It is divided into three parts: Part A illustrates the fundamental working modes of triboelectric nanogenerators with their prototype structures and theoretical analysis; Part B and Part C introduce two categories of applications, namely self-powered systems and self-powered active sensors. The book will be an ideal guide to scientists and engineers beginning to study triboelectric nanogenerators or wishing to deepen their knowledge of the field. Readers will be able to place the technical details about this technology in context, and acquire the necessary skills to reproduce the experimental setups for fabrication and measurement.
This book focuses on the fundamental principles and latest research findings in hydrogen energy fields including: hydrogen production, hydrogen storage, fuel cells, hydrogen safety, economics, and the impact on society. Further, the book introduces the latest development trends in practical applications, especially in commercial household fuel cells and commercial fuel cell vehicles in Japan. This book not only helps readers to further their basic knowledge, but also presents the state of the art of hydrogen-energy-related research and development. This work serves as an excellent reference for beginners such as graduate students, as well as a handbook and systematic summary of entire hydrogen-energy systems for scientists and engineers.
This book examines state-of-the-art techniques for using recycled materials for structural concrete production, and explores the use of concrete with metallurgical slag, rheology of fresh recycled concrete, and life-cycle analysis of building materials. It reviews recent codes, guidelines and practices for using recycled materials in structural concrete application, and presents research recently carried out by the authors. Focusing on techniques that limit the environmental impacts of the concrete industry, the text explores the use of recycled components in the place of virgin aggregates and ordinary binders. Chapters focus on topics including processing procedures, mixture proportioning, mechanical properties, durability and structural applications. Providing a valuable resource to engineering postgraduates and researchers, this book is also intended for civil engineers, geologists, and concrete engineers.
Focused on renewable energy systems and the development of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for their integration in smart grids, this book presents recent advances and methods that help to ensure that power generation from renewable sources remains stable, that power losses are minimized, and that the reliable functioning of these power generation units is maintained. The book highlights key topics and technologies for renewable energy systems including the intelligent control of power generators, power electronics that connect renewable power generation units to the grid, and fault diagnosis for power generators and power electronics. In particular, the following topics are addressed: * Modeling and control of power generators (PMSGs, DFIGs); * Modeling and control of power electronics (converters, inverters); * Modeling and fault diagnosis of the transmission and distribution Grid; and * Modelling and control of distributed power generation units (interconnected synchronous generators or photovoltaic units). Because of the above coverage, members of the wider engineering community will find that the nonlinear control and estimation methods presented provide essential insights into the functioning of renewable energy power systems, while the academic community will find the book a valuable textbook for undergraduate or graduate courses on renewable energy systems.
This book provides a detailed analysis of absorption refrigeration systems, covering single effect to multi-effect systems and their applications. Both the first and second laws of thermodynamics are discussed in relation to refrigeration systems to show how system performance differs from one law to another. Comparative energy and exergy analyses and assessments of single effect, double effect, triple effect and quadruple effect absorption refrigeration system are performed to illustrate the impact of an increase in the number of effects on system performance. In particular, the second law (exergy) formulation for absorption refrigeration systems, rarely discussed by other works, is covered in detail. Integrated Absorption Refrigeration Systems will help researchers, students and instructors in the formulation of energy and exergy efficiency equations for absorption refrigeration systems.
This book presents key recent developments in biofuel policy, products, processes, patents and innovative technologies. It presents several case studies, which maximize reader insights into how innovative green energy technologies can be implemented on an industrial scale, with illustrations, photos and new approaches. It also analyzes in detail several different technological aspects of the research into and production of green fuels from the first, second and third generation, such as, bioethanol, biogas, biohydrogen, biobutanol, biofuels from pyrolysis, and discusses their economic and environmental impacts. A new source of information for engineers, technicians and students involved in production and research in the biofuels sector, this book also provides a valuable resource for industry, covering the current and future status of biofuels.
This book presents a holistic view of climate change by examining a number of energy and transportation technologies and their impact on the climate. High-quality technical research results from specific test-cases around the globe are presented, and developments in global warming are discussed, focusing on current emissions policies from air and maritime transport to fossil fuel applications. Novel technologies such as carbon capture and storage are investigated together with the corresponding process and systems analysis, as well as optimization for mitigating CO2 emissions. Water resources management, waste water treatment, and waste management issues are also covered. Finally, biomass, hydrogen and solar energy applications are presented along with some insights on green buildings. Energy, Transportation and Global Warming is of great interest to researchers in the field of renewable and green energy as well as professionals in climate change management, the transportation sector, and environmental policy.
This book focuses on the latest research and developments in photovoltaic (PV) power plants, and provides extensive coverage of fundamental theories, current research and developmental activities, and new approaches intended to overcome a number of critical limitations in today's grid integration technologies. The design and implementation process for large-scale solar PV power plants is introduced. The content provided will actively support the development of future renewable power plants and smart grid applications. The book will be of interest to researchers, professionals and graduate students in electrical and electronics fields seeking to understand the related technologies involved in PV power plants.
This book provides technical data and information on unconventional- and inactive energy sources. After reviewing the current global energy situation, individual chapters discuss fossil fuel sources and renewable energy sources. It focuses on future energy systems and explores renewable energy scenarios including water energy and power, biofuels and algae energy. It also provides essential information on energy from inactive sources, energy from waste materials and the optimization of energy systems.
This book examines the energy dimension of the smart city from the perspective of urban planning, providing a complete overview that ranges from theoretical aspects to practical considerations and projects. In addition, it aims to illustrate how the concept of the smart city can enhance understanding of the urban system and foster new forms of management of the metropolis, including with respect to energy supply and use. Specifically, the book explores the different dimensions of the relationship between energy and the city, discusses methodological issues with a special focus on ontological approaches to sustainability, and describes practices, tools, and good examples of energy-related urban planning. The authors represent the main Italian research groups working in the field, Italy being an excellent example of a country exposed to energy problems due to, for example, vulnerability to climate change and lack of primary energy resources. This book will be valuable for students of urban planning, town planners, and researchers interested in understanding the changing nature of the city and the challenges posed by energy issues.
Presenting an analysis of different approaches for predicting the service life of buildings, this monograph discusses various statistical tools and mathematical models, some of which have rarely been applied to the field. It explores methods including deterministic, factorial, stochastic and computational models and applies these to facade claddings. The models allow (i) identification of patterns of degradation, (ii) estimation of service life, (iii) analysis of loss of performance using probability functions, and (iv) estimation of service life using a probability distribution. The final chapter discusses the differences between the different methodologies and their advantages and limitations. The authors also argue that a better understanding of the service life of buildings results in more efficient building maintenance and reduced environmental costs. It not only provides an invaluable resource to students, researchers and industry professionals interested in service life prediction and sustainable construction, but is also of interest to environmental and materials scientists.
The evidence suggests that many solar programs are being designed and implemented in isolation and without reliance on published guidelines or the experience gained by others. The conclusion is obvious: the likelihood of a program being successful would be greatly improved if program implementers were made more aware of best practice guidelines and of the lessons and experience learned by others in implementing previous programs. Furthermore, the best practice guidelines not only need to be readily available but need to describe the stages, issues and the stakeholders' roles in designing and implementing a SHS program. This book showcases a detailed road map that has been developed for the implementation of rural electrification projects in developing countries using solar PV. Features of this book will be case studies derived from personal participatory observation of the authors on Solar Home Systems, their impact, their advantages and disadvantages and their operation.
This book draws upon the expertise of academic researchers, urban planners and architects to explore the challenge of building the sustainable cities of the future. It addresses this challenge by considering current cities and those of the near future, and creates a picture of the sustainable city from the bottom up. Individual chapters cover topics such as transport, energy supply, sustainable urbanism and promoting social equality in large infrastructure projects. Real-world examples are presented to illustrate how systems thinking is used to integrate different components of a city so as to ensure that the whole is more sustainable than its parts. Written in an accessible style, this book is intended for general readers as much as it is for students and researchers interested in sustainable cities and related topics. It is also ideal for urban planners seeking best-practice guidelines for sustainable urban development.
This work presents and discusses the latest approaches and strategies for implementing Sustainability and Green IT into higher education and business environments. Following the global financial crisis in 2007/2008, businesses began to struggle coping with the increased IT/IS cost and their environmental footprint. As a consequence, action by universities to incorporate sustainability and 'Green IT' as parts of their teaching and learning materials, acknowledging their importance for global and local businesses, is being increasingly implemented. The book addresses the cooperation and coordination between academics and practitioners needed in order to achieve the changes required to obtain sustainability. Intended for researchers, lecturers and post-graduate students, as well as professionals in the Information Society and ICT and education sectors, and policy makers.
The book explores advanced building-facade daylighting design practices based on diverse energy and human-factor performance metrics. It also defines effective daylighting by rethinking the simplified approach to glazing and facade systems to incorporate the local climate and the needs of building occupants as critical drivers of building performance, design solutions and technological innovation. It discusses state-of-the-art approaches in the context of simulation-based design workflows, innovative technologies and real project case studies, all targeting low and net-zero energy solutions that enhance occupant comfort. Readers benefit from a comprehensive approach that improves the feedback loop between design intent and performance in use. The book is intended for architects, lighting designers, facade engineers, manufacturers and building owners/operators, as well as advanced students.
This book provides an overview of hydrogen production from renewable resources such as ethanol using plasma or plasma-catalytic technologies. Further, it presents a balanced and comprehensive treatment of the core principles, novel plasma reactors and diagnostics, as well as state-of-the-art plasma energy applications. It brings together technological advances and research on plasma generators and their application in hydrogen production, including plasma-assisted alcohol reforming technology, plasma-catalytic alcohol reforming technology, the alcohol reforming mechanism, models of alcohol reforming for hydrogen production, the energy balance of hydrogen production from ethanol, and a comparison of alcohol reforming assisted by different plasma treatment systems. As such, it offers a valuable reference guide for scientists, engineers and graduate students in the fields of energy and environment, plasma physics and chemistry.
This book highlights the various technologies that are currently available or are now being developed for the green and smart buildings of the future. It examines why green building performance is important, and how it can be measured and rated using appropriate benchmarking systems. Lastly, the book provides an overview of the state-of-the-art in green building technologies and the trend towards zero energy or net positive energy buildings in the future.
This book provides an overview of floating offshore wind farms and focuses on the economic aspects of this renewable-energy technology. It presents economic maps demonstrating the main costs, and explores various important aspects of floating offshore wind farms. It examines topics including offshore wind turbines, floating offshore wind platforms, mooring and anchoring, as well as offshore electrical systems. It is a particularly useful resource in light of the fact that most water masses are deep and therefore not suitable for fixed offshore wind farms. A valuable reference work for students and researchers interested in naval and ocean engineering and economics, this book provides a new perspective on floating offshore wind farms, and makes a useful contribution to the existing literature.
This book provides an up-to-date, rigorous analysis of the state of the art of solar photovoltaic (PV) generation. It focuses on the economic analysis of solar PV generation technologies as well as the policies that have been devised and implemented around the globe to support it. It provides the main theoretical tools for understanding the cost of these technologies, and discusses them from both a historical and comparative perspective with respect to other competing technologies (both conventional and renewable). In addition, it presents the conceptual rationale to maximize reader insights into whether and how public support for these technologies is justified as well as the consequences for the economy of different promotion measures. Integrating concepts from different economics disciplines (environmental economics, innovation economics, industrial economics and public economics) into a coherent basis for the analysis of the costs and policies for solar PV electricity, it provides an update to the literature to reflect recent advances in and deployments of solar electricity and the drastic reduction in associated costs.
This book provides a state-of-the-art review of floating offshore wind turbines (FOWT). It offers developers a global perspective on floating offshore wind energy conversion technology, documenting the key challenges and practical solutions that this new industry has found to date. Drawing on a wide network of experts, it reviews the conception, early design stages, load & structural analysis and the construction of FOWT. It also presents and discusses data from pioneering projects. Written by experienced professionals from a mix of academia and industry, the content is both practical and visionary. As one of the first titles dedicated to FOWT, it is a must-have for anyone interested in offshore renewable energy conversion technologies.
This book presents a series of significant methods and examples for the design of sustainable intelligent facades in a variety of contexts. Emphasis is placed on how intelligence has been applied for successful energy-saving efforts in the planning of building envelopes. Readers will find essential information on the core principles involved in designing, calculating and organizing intelligent facades according to the need for a new or retrofitted building. Not only are different materials and technologies considered, but also efficient ways to combine them according to user needs and other project-specific constraints. Illustrations, tables and graphs accompany the text, clarifying the concepts discussed. Architects, facade consultants and all those interested in and energy-saving measures and improved indoor comfort will find this book useful not only as an introduction to the subject but also as a guide to achieving more responsive building methods.
Expanding on the first edition, 'Energy: Production, Conversion, Storage, Conservation, and Coupling (2nd Ed.)' provides readers with a practical understanding of the major aspects of energy. It includes extended chapters with revised data and additional practice problems as well as a new chapter examining sustainability and sustainable energy technologies. Like the first edition, it also explores topics such as energy production, conservation of energy, energy storage and energy coupling. Written for students across a range of engineering and science disciplines, it provides a comprehensive study guide. It is particularly suitable for courses in energy technology, sustainable energy technologies and energy conversion & management, and offers an ideal reference text for students, engineers, energy researchers and industry professionals. * Presents a clear introduction to the basic properties, forms and sources of energy * Includes a range of supporting figures, tables and thermodynamic diagrams * Provides course instructors with a solution manual for practice problems
This book examines the utilization of algae for the development of useful products and processes with the emphasis towards green technologies and processes, and the requirements to make these viable. Serving as a complete reference guide to the production of biofuels and other value added products from micro and macro algae, it covers various aspects of algal biotechnology from the basics to large scale cultivation, harvesting and processing for a variety of products. It is authored and edited by respected world experts in the field of algal biotechnology and provides the most up to date and cutting edge information on developments in the field. Over the past decade there has been substantial focus and related literature on the application of algal biomass for the generation of novel processes and products. 'Algae Biotechnology: Products and Processes' encompasses a holistic approach to critically evaluating developments in the field of algal biotechnology whilst taking into account recent advances and building on the body of knowledge. Aspects of the effects of harmful algae are also discussed, as well as the potential commercial application of algal biotechnology, the techno-economic feasibility of algal biodiesel production and the use of genetic and metabolic engineering for the improvement of yield. Other bioenergy sources such as alcohol fuels, aviation fuels, biohydrogen and biogas are also covered. This book is intended for postgraduates and researchers working in the biofuels and algal industry; it constitutes ideal reference material for both early stage and established researchers.
This book explores sustainability within manufacturing enterprises and examines the concepts and principles of this field. It also reviews the quantitative and qualitative tools available for analytic assessment. It presents a new framework for sustainable manufacturing requirements and discusses the implementation of sustainable manufacturing in terms of practices, indicators, and sustainability level assessments. The book also details the important conditions necessary for the conversion of existing traditional plants to ones with more sustainable processes. Chapters explore topics including the assessment of economic sustainability, social sustainability, environmental sustainability, sustainable manufacturing practices, and sustainability optimization. Serving as a reference for engineers, managers, and practitioners involved in manufacturing, this book will also be a valuable resource to students and researchers of industrial engineering, manufacturing engineering, systems engineering, and operations management.
Encompassing a thorough survey of the lighting techniques applied to internal illumination characterized by high efficiency, optimized color and architectural integration, a consolidated summary of the latest scientific, technical and architectural research is presented in order to give the reader an overview of the different themes with their interactions and mutual effects. This book describes light principles, methodologies and realisations for indoor illumination at low consumption. Power efficiency, color characteristics and architectural aspects are analyzed in terms of their practical application, with the interactions between scientific, technological and architectural features considered in order to supply a complete overview, which can be read both at technical level and at user level. Introducing photometric and radiometric quantities and laws, the book first discusses tests and measurements assessing lighting and color characteristics before examining in detail artificial light sources with particular attention paid to measures to reduce consumption and optimize efficiency. Key sources are illustrated with producers and suppliers with technical details and use specifications included. Serving to maximize reader insights into the use of sunlight - considering light transfer, application to indoor illumination and in particular to museum lighting - in the color rendering properties of light sources and the architectural aspects for natural indoor lighting, the final part of this boo collects other related but important elements including architectural issues, environmental integration and the possibility of changing the light color by introducing suitable coatings. The physiological effects of internal illumination quality on user comfort is discussed and several possibilities for energy saving using domotics are outlined.
This reference offers an overview of the field of airborne wind energy. As the first book of its kind, it provides a consistent compilation of the fundamental theories, a compendium of current research and development activities as well as economic and regulatory aspects. In five parts, the book demonstrates the relevance of Airborne Wind Energy and the role that this emerging field of technology can play for the transition towards a renewable energy economy. Part I on Fundamentals contains seven general chapters explaining the principles of airborne wind energy and its different variants, of meteorology, the history of kites and financing strategies. Part II on System Modeling, Optimization and Control contains eight contributions that develop and use detailed dynamic models for simulation, optimization, and control of airborne wind energy systems, while Part III on Analysis of Flexible Kite Dynamics collects four chapters that focus on the particularly challenging simulation problems related to flexible kites. Part IV Implemented Concepts contains eleven contributions each of which presents developed prototypes together with real-world experimental results obtained with the different concepts. Finally, in Part V on Component Design , five papers are collected that address in detail the technical challenges for some of the components of airborne wind energy. Airborne Wind Energy presents all basics in a single source to someone starting to explore wind power in the upper atmosphere and serves as a valuable reference for researchers, scientists, professionals and students active in the innovative field of Airborne Wind Energy.
Presenting a complete guide for the planning, design and implementation of solar PV systems for off-grid applications, this book features analysis based on the authors' own laboratory testing as well as their in the field experiences. Incorporating the latest developments in smart-digital and control technologies into the design criteria of the PV system, this book will also focus on how to integrate newer smart design approaches and techniques for improving the efficiency, reliability and flexibility of the entire system. The design and implementation of India's first-of its-kind Smart Mini-Grid system (SMG) at TERI premises, which involves the integration of multiple renewable energy resources (including solar PV) through smart controllers for managing the load intelligently and effectively is presented as a key case study. Maximizing reader insights into the performance of different components of solar PV systems under different operating conditions, the book will be of interest to graduate students, researchers, PV designers, planners, and practitioners working in the area of solar PV design, implementation and assessment.
This book will assess and compare several options for ammonia co-fueling of diesel locomotives with integrated heat recovery, multigeneration (including on-board hydrogen fuel production from ammonia), and emission reduction subsystems from energy, exergy, and environmental perspectives. Economic considerations will be presented to compare the cost of the proposed systems for different scenarios such as carbon-tax rates, diesel fuel cost and ammonia cost. Fossil fuel consumption and the associated negative environmental impact of their combustion is a significant global concern that requires effective, practical, and sustainable solutions. From a Canadian perspective, the Transportation Sector contributes more than 25% of national greenhouse gas emissions due to fossil fuel combustion, largely due to road vehicles (cars, light and heavy duty trucks). This is a complex and critical challenge to address, particularly in urban areas with high population density. There is a need to develop alternative energy solutions for mass passenger and freight transportation systems that will reduce both the traffic-volume of road vehicles as well as the emissions from the mass transportation systems. The book will be helpful to students in senior-level undergraduate and graduate level courses related to energy, thermodynamics, thermal sciences, combustion, HVAC&R, etc. The quantitative comparative assessment of such alternative energy systems provided by this book will be useful for researchers and professionals interested sustainable development.
Climate change, energy production and consumption, and the need to improve the sustainability of all aspects of human activity are key inter-related issues for which solutions must be found and implemented quickly and efficiently. To be successfully implemented, solutions must recognize the rapidly changing socio-techno-political environment and multi-dimensional constraints presented by today's interconnected world. As part of this global effort, considerations of climate change impacts, energy demands, and incorporation of sustainability concepts have increasing importance in the design, construction, and maintenance of highway and airport pavement systems. To prepare the human capacity to develop and implement these solutions, many educators, policy-makers and practitioners have stressed the paramount importance of formally incorporating sustainability concepts in the civil engineering curriculum to educate and train future civil engineers well-equipped to address our current and future sustainability challenges. This book will prove a valuable resource in the hands of researchers, educators and future engineering leaders, most of whom will be working in multidisciplinary environments to address a host of next-generation sustainable transportation infrastructure challenges. This book proposes a broad detailed overview of the actual scientific knowledge about pavements linked to climate change, energy and sustainability at the international level in an original multidimensional/multi-effects way. By the end, the reader will be aware of the whole global issues to care about for various pavement technical features around the world, among which the implications of modelling including data collection, challenging resources saving and infrastructures services optimisation. This is a complete and varied work, rare in the domain. Dr. Agnes Jullien Research Director Director of Environmental, Development, Safety and Eco-Design Laboratory (EASE) Department of Development, Mobility and Environment Ifsttar Centre de Nantes Cedex- France An excellent compilation of latest developments in the field of sustainable pavements. The chapter topics have been carefully chosen and are very well-organized with the intention of equipping the reader with the state-of-the-art knowledge on all aspects of pavement sustainability. Topics covered include pavement Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), pervious pavements, cool pavements, photocatalytic pavements, energy harvesting pavements, etc. which will all be of significant interest to students, researchers, and practitioners of pavement engineering. This book will no doubt serve as an excellent reference on the topic of sustainable pavements. Dr. Wei-Hsing Huang Editor-in-Chief of International Journal of Pavement Research and Technology (IJPRT) and Professor of Civil Engineering National Central University Taiwan
The book presents a stochastic analysis based on production risk and application of this method in the industrial sector under production risk where energy use is an input factor. Using South Korea as a case study, the book empirically models energy demand at the industrial level and analyzes the results to identify key determinants of energy demand, productions level, productions risk and energy usage efficiency. Particular attention is paid to the factors that enhance production risk or increase variations in energy input during production. A dynamic panel model is specified and applied to 25 Korean industrial sectors over the period 1970-2007. The determinants of energy usage are identified and their effects in the form of elasticities of energy usage are estimated. In addition the structural changes in the energy demand pattern are explored. Stochastic production technology is applied to create two primary models: A production model where the energy usage is a determinant of output and an energy demand model based on an inverted factor demand model where demand is a key determinant of the level of energy usage. The findings reveal that: First, there are large variations in the degree of overuse or inefficiency in energy usage among the individual industries and over time; second, ICT (information and communication technology) capital and labor are substituting energy; third, ICT capital and value added services are two input factors decreasing the variability of energy demand while non-ICT capital, material and labor are increasing the variability of energy demand. Finally, the results suggest that technical progress contributes more to the increase of mean of energy demand than to the reduction of the level of risk. An emerging recommendation is that industries increase the level of ICT capital and digitalization and invest more in R&D activities and value added services to reduce the uncertainty related to their demand for energy. This study forms the structure of the demand for energy under stochastic production risk for the South Korean industrial sector. Public research programs aimed at the industrial sector should be concerned about both mean and risk properties in research on new technologies and in the investigation of possible alternative energy inputs. This book describes the state of the art in energy usage analysis and production risk, applying factor requirement methodology. It will be of use as a main or supplementary text in the teaching of advanced graduate courses but also as a reference for those working on empirically advanced research. The book is an important addition to the existing literature on industrial development, with its focus on energy as a core production input.
This book shares the latest developments and advances in materials and processes involved in the energy generation, transmission, distribution and storage. Chapters are written by researchers in the energy and materials field. Topics include, but are not limited to, energy from biomass, bio-gas and bio-fuels; solar, wind, geothermal, hydro power, wave energy; energy-transmission, distribution and storage; energy-efficient lighting buildings; energy sustainability; hydrogen and fuel cells; energy policy for new and renewable energy technologies and education for sustainable energy development.
The aim of this book is to provide a comprehensive overview of the fundamentals and engineering of high concentrator photovoltaic (HCPV) technology and to elucidate how this complex and emerging technology is applied in power plants. It is the first of its kind to focus exclusively on HCPV technology and offers a valuable reference volume to readers. This book is the result of an international collaboration among experts and each chapter is written by a specialist in the field. The conversion of solar energy to electricity plays an important role in power generation and HCPV is signalled by many researchers and professionals as one of the most promising sources of solar power. Therefore this book provides an important resource for companies, research institutes and universities to assist with the understanding of fundamentals, different applications and potential of such technology.
Featuring a detailed analysis and presentation of innovative researches, methods, algorithms and technologies that deal with integrated intelligent systems for the efficient management of energy and indoor environment in buildings, this book encompasses the regulations, directives and standards regarding the energy and the indoor environment of buildings as well as a literature review and discussion on the current state-of-the-art for buildings' energy efficiency classification. Maximizing reader insight into this topic with the aid of simulation models for buildings and energy audits at office buildings are presented including tables and figures with the detailed information regarding the parameters, inputs, outputs and the outcomes of the surveys. This book also outlines the development of a Virtual Building Dataset (VBD) of office buildings as an innovative benchmarking and classification tool. The proposed methodology overcomes the difficulties and time required for collecting the necessary massive building constructional and energy bills data by creating them virtually using efficient stochastic simulation and by taking into account all parameters that may affect the energy performance and indoor thermal comfort of office buildings. The knowledge and ideas conveyed by the book are supported with equations and algorithms and 137 colored figures and 55 tables, and features a rich bibliography, references and web sources. The book contains the basic knowledge undergraduate and especially postgraduate courses on the emergent subject of energy management and saving in buildings. The innovative aspects and guides of the book give serious opportunities to the postgraduate students in this scientific area to further develop their research skills and capabilities.
This book is designed as an interdisciplinary platform for specialists working in electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles powertrain design and development, and for scientists who want to get access to information related to electric and hybrid vehicle energy management, efficiency and control. The book presents the methodology of simulation that allows the specialist to evaluate electric and hybrid vehicle powertrain energy flow, efficiency, range and consumption. The mathematics behind each electric and hybrid vehicle component is explained and for each specific vehicle the powertrain is analyzed and output results presented through the use of specific automotive industrial software (AVL Cruise , IPG CarMaker, AVL Concerto). This methodology of electric and hybrid powertrain design serves to broaden understanding of how the energy flow, efficiency, range and consumption of these vehicles can be adjusted, updated and predicted via development processes.
This book updates the latest advancements in new chemistries, novel materials and system integration of rechargeable batteries, including lithium-ion batteries and batteries beyond lithium-ion and addresses where the research is advancing in the near future in a brief and concise manner. The book is intended for a wide range of readers from undergraduates, postgraduates to senior scientists and engineers. In order to update the latest status of rechargeable batteries and predict near research trend, we plan to invite the world leading researchers who are presently working in the field to write each chapter of the book. The book covers not only lithium-ion batteries but also other batteries beyond lithium-ion, such as lithium-air, lithium-sulfur, sodium-ion, sodium-sulfur, magnesium-ion and liquid flow batteries.
This book describes the Sustainable High Quality Healthcare (SustHealth) project, which had the goal of developing an original multidisciplinary evaluation tool that can be applied to assess and improve hospitals' overall sustainability. The comprehensive nature of the appraisal offered by this tool exceeds the scope of most current rating systems, which typically permit a thorough evaluation of relevant environmental factors when designing a new building but fail to consider social and economic impacts of the design phase or the performance of the hospital's operational structure in these fields. The multidisciplinary evaluation system was developed, from its very inception through to its testing, by following a scientific experimental method in which a global perspective was constantly maintained, as opposed to a focus only on specific technical issues. Application of the SustHealth rating tool to a currently functioning hospital, or one under design, will identify weaknesses and guide users to potential low-cost short-term solutions and longer-term strategies for improvement.
This book provides a valuable resource for anyone who wishes to understand how sustainable use of energy can lead to increased efficiency of industrial supply chains and improved financial profitability. The book is organized around real examples and case studies that can be applied to real-world problems. Furthermore, insight is provided by an international panel of contributors, and the book provides comprehensive coverage of current practice and future developments in the evolution of sustainable supply chains and energy consumption. The text underlines how organizations are now looking seriously at supply chain assets in order to help their suppliers retool and focus on renewable energy. Renewable energy technology is a fast growing market with promising financial returns and substantial environmental gains; this book shows how the right management of renewable investments can have significant advantages by: * providing critical opportunities in driving costs down and making renewable energy sources more competitive with conventional energy; * making infrastructure expansion easier; * increasing employment in manufacturing and services supply chains in order to support renewable energy generation; and * mitigating the impacts of climate change. This book is intended for business professionals, researchers and students working in supply chain management or energy management.
Focusing on technical, policy and social/societal practices and innovations for electrified transport for personal, public and freight purposes, this book provides a state-of-the-art overview of developments in e-mobility in Europe and the West Coast of the USA. It serves as a learning base for further implementing and commercially developing this field for the benefit of society, the environment and public health, as well as for economic development and private industry. A fast-growing, interdisciplinary sector, electric mobility links engineering, infrastructure, environment, transport and sustainable development. But despite the relevance of the topic, few publications have ever attempted to document or promote the wide range of electric mobility initiatives and projects taking place today. Addressing this need, this publication consists of case studies, reports on technological developments and examples of successful infrastructure installation in cities, which document current initiatives and serve as an inspiration for others.
This book addresses the key concerns regarding the operation of wind turbines in cold climates and focuses in particular on the analysis of icing and methods for its mitigation. Topics covered include the implications of cold climates for wind turbine design and operation, the relevance of icing for wind turbines, the icing process itself, ice prevention systems and thermal anti-icing system design. In each chapter, care is taken to build systematically on the basic knowledge, providing the reader with the level of detail required for a thorough understanding. An important feature is the inclusion of several original analytical and numerical models for ready computation of icing impacts and design assessment. The breadth of the coverage and the in-depth scientific analysis, with calculations and worked examples relating to both fluid dynamics and thermodynamics, ensure that the book will serve not only as a textbook but also as a practical manual for general design tasks.
This book discusses how energy efficiency benefits the global environment, national energy security, local pollution mitigation, natural resource conservation, and utility bill reduction. In addition, this book provides many hands-on skills and knowledge to identify and develop energy efficiency projects. The literature review shows that energy efficiency has become the first fuel in the world energy supply. With empirical analyses, this book indicates that without continued investment in energy efficiency, neither China nor the U.S. could achieve their carbon emission reduction targets that were announced on November 13, 2014 during the Beijing 2014 APEC meeting. The authors argue that energy efficiency will become the first tool to mitigate climate change. These include (1) identifying energy efficiency barriers, (2) developing energy policies, (3) investing in energy efficient technologies, (4) undertaking project cost-effectiveness analysis, (5) de-risking and financing energy efficiency projects; (6) developing and managing energy service companies, and (7) promoting urban transport efficiency. Two case studies in energy efficiency improvement in electrical motors and industrial boilers are also presented. This book is written for college and university students, practitioners, researchers, consultants, project developers, and policy makers who want to dedicate their professional careers in global energy efficiency improvement, climate change mitigation, local clean air initiatives, and energy bill reduction.
This book reports the latest findings on intelligent energy management of Internet data centers in smart-grid environments. The book gathers novel research ideas in Internet data center energy management, especially scenarios with cyber-related vulnerabilities, power outages and carbon emission constraints. The book will be of interest to university researchers, R&D engineers and graduate students in communication and networking areas who wish to learn the core principles, methods, algorithms, and applications of energy management of Internet data centers in smart grids.
This book sets out some positive directions to move forward including government policy and regulatory options, an innovative GRID (Greening, Regenerative, Improvement Districts) scheme that can assist with funding and management, and the first steps towards an innovative carbon credit scheme for the built environment. Decarbonising cities is a global agenda with huge significance for the future of urban civilisation. Global demonstrations have shown that technology and design issues are largely solved. However, the mainstreaming of low carbon urban development, particularly at the precinct scale, currently lacks sufficient: standards for measuring carbon covering operational, embodied and transport emissions; assessment and decision-making tools to assist in design options; certifying processes for carbon neutrality within the built environment; and accreditation processes for enabling carbon credits to be generated from precinct-wide urban development. Numerous barriers are currently hindering greater adoption of high performance, low carbon developments, many of which relate to implementation and governance. How to enable and manage precinct-scale renewables and other low carbon technologies within an urban setting is a particular challenge.
This textbook starts with a review of the principles of operation, modeling and control of common solar energy and wind-power generation systems before moving on to discuss grid compatibility, power quality issues and hybrid models of Solar PV and Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS). MATLAB/SIMULINK models of fuel cell technology and associated converters are discussed in detail. The impact of soft computing techniques such as neural networks, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithms in the context of solar and wind energy is explained with practical implementation using MATLAB/SIMULINK models. This book is intended for final year undergraduate, post-graduate and research students interested in understanding the modeling and control of Solar PV and Wind Energy Conversion Systems based on MATLAB/SIMULINK. - Each chapter includes Learning Objectives at the start, a Summary at the end and helpful Review Questions - Includes MATLAB/SIMULINK models of different control strategies for power conditioning units in the context of Solar PV - Presents soft computing techniques for Solar PV and WECS, as well as MATLAB/SIMULINK models, e.g. for wind turbine topologies and grid integration - Covers hybrid solar PV and Wind Energy Conversion Systems with converters and MATLAB/SIMULINK models - Reviews harmonic reduction in Solar PV and Wind Energy Conversion Systems in connection with power quality issues - Covers fuel cells and converters with implementation using MATLAB/SIMULINK
This book presents a Two-Stage Anaerobic Digestion (TSAD) technique for producing hydrogen and methane, following a step-by-step approach in order to guide readers through the experimental verification of the related hypothesis. In the first stage of AD, the reaction conditions are optimized to obtain the maximum amount of hydrogen, while in the second the liquid residue from the first phase is used as a substrate to produce fuel-methane. AD has traditionally been used to reduce the organic content of waste; this results in a biogas that is primarily constituted of CH4 and CO2. Over the last few decades, the conversion of organic matter into hydrogen by means of AD and selecting Hydrogen Producing Bacteria (HPB) has matured into a viable and sustainable technology among the pallet of H2 generation technologies. The combined bio-production of hydrogen and methane from Organic Waste Materials (OWM) is considered to be an ideal way of utilizing waste, and can increase energy efficiency (the substrate Heat Value converted into H2 and CH4 fuel) to roughly 80%, since the energy efficiency of H2-production alone (15%) is not energetically competitive. The two gas streams can be used either separately or in combination (Hytane (R)), be supplied as civilian gas or used for transportation purposes. All the aspects of this sustainable technology are taken into account, from the basic biochemical implications to engineering aspects, establishing the design criteria and the scale-up procedures for full-scale application. The sustainability of the TSAD method is assessed by applying EROI (Energy Return On Investment) and EPT (Energy Payback Time) criteria, and both the general approach and application to the field of Anaerobic Digestion are illustrated.
The book examines the future deployment of renewable power from a normative point of view. It identifies properties characterizing the cost-optimal transition towards a renewable power system and analyzes the key drivers behind this transition. Among those drivers, particular attention is paid to technological cost reductions and the implications of uncertainty. From a methodological perspective, the main contributions of this book relate to the field of endogenous learning and uncertainty in optimizing energy system models. The primary objective here is closing the gap between the strand of literature covering renewable potential analyses on the one side and energy system modeling with endogenous technological change on the other side. The models applied in this book demonstrate that fundamental changes must occur to transform today's power sector into a more sustainable one over the course of this century. Apart from its methodological contributions, this work is also intended to provide practically relevant insights regarding the long-term competitiveness of renewable power generation.
Contributing to the growing debate on the need for sustainable water use and management, with concrete examples of new approaches, concepts, arguments, methods and findings which illustrate how this can be achieved, this book will be attractive for large groups of readers familiar with one or more of the themes it tackles, and to the general public. Within this context, the book makes use of many tables and graphics, which bring the many messages together. This approach is intended not only for those working on water matters (e.g. bureaucrats, water managers, policymakers, journalists, etc.) and interested in water management issues and sustainability at large, but also for students of water management, water politics, environmental policy, water economics, water engineering and sustainability studies. Located at the crossroads of two key phenomena: sustainability and water, this book brings forward academic research and discussions on water efficiency, new technologies, and the water-agriculture nexus. It also benefits readers by tackling matters related to trans-boundary cooperation on water (including rainwater) and river-basin management, pricing issues, participatory water management, and the role of women in sustainable water use, amongst others.
This book presents different aspects of renewable energy integration, from the latest developments in renewable energy technologies to the currently growing smart grids. The importance of different renewable energy sources is discussed, in order to identify the advantages and challenges for each technology. The rules of connecting the renewable energy sources have also been covered along with practical examples. Since solar and wind energy are the most popular forms of renewable energy sources, this book provides the challenges of integrating these renewable generators along with some innovative solutions. As the complexity of power system operation has been raised due to the renewable energy integration, this book also includes some analysis to investigate the characteristics of power systems in a smarter way. This book is intended for those working in the area of renewable energy integration in distribution networks.
This book focuses on the issues of integrating large-scale renewable power generation into existing grids. The issues covered in this book include different types of renewable power generation along with their transmission and distribution, storage and protection. It also contains the development of medium voltage converters for step-up-transformer-less direct grid integration of renewable generation units, grid codes and resiliency analysis for large-scale renewable power generation, active power and frequency control and HVDC transmission. The emerging SMES technology for controlling and integrating large-scale renewable power systems is also discussed. Since the protection issues with large-scale distributed renewable power systems are different compared to the existing protection system for one way power flow, this book includes a new protection technique for renewable generators along with the inclusion of current status of smart grid. This book is a good reference for the researchers who are working the area of renewable power generation and smart grids.
This book will cover the most recent progress on the use of low-cost nanomaterials and development of low-cost/large scale processing techniques for greener and more efficient energy related applications, including but not limited to solar cells, energy storage, fuel cells, hydrogen generation, biofuels, etc. Leading researchers will be invited to author chapters in the field with their expertise. Each chapter will provide general introduction to a specific topic, current status of research and development, research challenges and outlook for future direction of research. This book aims to benefit a broad readership, from undergraduate/graduate students to researchers working on renewable energy.
This book addresses the use, operation and maintenance of new renewable energy systems, taking into account their integration in the current electrical markets and in the new emergent uses of energy. The book is based on practical experiences which present different perspectives about what occurs once an energy production plant based on sources of renewable energy is in production. Questions to be addressed include: how the energy produced is integrated into the current system of energy production, what is its consideration in the electrical market, what the impact is on society, how differential the strategies of operation and maintenance are with respect to conventional systems of energy production, etc.
This book presents innovations for sustainable building design and refurbishment developed and tested through feasibility studies undertaken by researchers at Scottish universities in collaboration with small to medium size enterprises in Scotland during the 'CIC Start Online' project that ran from September 2009 to February 2013. The project was led by Glasgow Caledonian University in collaboration with Edinburgh Napier University, Glasgow School of Art, Heriot-Watt University, the Robert Gordon University, University of Edinburgh and the University of Strathclyde Glasgow. The book includes chapters on Context and Policies, Planning, Building Design, Technologies, Construction, Refurbishment and Performance. The contents of each chapter are based on 63 completed studies that were initiated by businesses operating in the construction sector or providing services to the sector, indicating the scope of research required to assist the industry to develop more sustainable products and processes. The book informs the reader about the range of innovations that were tested and highlight potential future research areas. Readers can find in-depth information by accessing the project website www.cicstart.org, where full reports on most studies and the video recordings of interactive online seminars that presented the outcomes of the studies are available. Along with the new knowledge on how innovations for sustainable building design and refurbishment can be applied in practice, the book demonstrates how joint projects of several universities can be successfully managed and how an immediate knowledge transfer can be organized by using web tools to reach over 2,200 current members nationally and internationally (in UK and 53 other countries).
Wind-Turbine Aerodynamics is a self-contained textbook which shows how to come from the basics of fluid mechanics to modern wind turbine blade design. It presents a fundamentals of fluid dynamics and inflow conditions, and gives a extensive introduction into theories describing the aerodynamics of wind turbines. After introducing experiments the book applies the knowledge to explore the impact on blade design.The book is an introduction for professionals and students of very varying levels.
Addressing the major issues associated with green energy and energy efficiency, this book examines the economics of energy from the theoretical as well as applied perspectives. It makes a valuable contribution to existing discussion around environment and climate change issues, and provides an analysis of the socioeconomic and policy-oriented aspects of this topic. Each chapter is self-contained and tackles the fundamental issues and latest developments of a particular sub-topic. Combining rigour and accessibility, this book allows non-specialized readers to understand the complexity of the topic, and to likewise access the most relevant and up-to-date literature. It simultaneously enables more specialized readers to broaden their understanding of complex energy topics and it provides a comprehensive overview of the cutting-edge developments of the issues covered by the book. This book covers important themes including regulation for green energy, the promotion of green energy and efficiency, the challenges and options of renewable energy, and efficiency in economic sectors. It is intended for researchers and postgraduates with an interest in energy, climate change and environmental economics, and also policymakers and energy companies.
This text seeks to illuminate, mainly for the electrical power engineers of the future, the topic of large scale solar flux gathering schemes, which arguably represent the major source of renewable power available. The aim of the content is to impart, from an electromagnetic perspective, a deep and sound understanding of the topic of solar flux collection, ranging from the characteristics of light to the properties of antennas. To do this five chapters are employed to provide a thorough grounding in relevant aspects of electromagnetism and electromagnetic waves including optics, electromagnetic radiation and reception, aperture antennas and array antennas and the quantum electrodynamics aspects of optical absorption, as it relates to photovoltaic techniques. The principles developed in these chapters are then used to underpin and elucidate the main chapters on photovoltaic collectors, concentrated solar power collectors, satellite based collection systems and optical nantennas. To establish the novel and transformative renewable technologies, which civilisation will soon require, in order to achieve sustainability quickly and effectively, the availability of professional engineers and scientists with a thorough and commanding grasp of the fundamental science is an absolutely essential prerequisite. This book provides this for solar power generating systems.
Gaining public attention due, in part, to their potential application as energy storage devices in cars, Lithium-ion batteries have encountered widespread demand, however, the understanding of lithium-ion technology has often lagged behind production. This book defines the most commonly encountered challenges from the perspective of a high-end lithium-ion manufacturer with two decades of experience with lithium-ion batteries and over six decades of experience with batteries of other chemistries. Authors with years of experience in the applied science and engineering of lithium-ion batteries gather to share their view on where lithium-ion technology stands now, what are the main challenges, and their possible solutions. The book contains real-life examples of how a subtle change in cell components can have a considerable effect on cell's performance. Examples are supported with approachable basic science commentaries. Providing a unique combination of practical know-how with an in-depth perspective, this book will appeal to graduate students, young faculty members, or others interested in the current research and development trends in lithium-ion technology.
This book provides a manual for the technical and structural design of systems for supplying decentralised energy in residential buildings. It presents the micro-combined cooling, heating & power systems Stirling engines & renewable energy sources (mCCHP-SE-RES) systems in an accessible manner both for the public at large, and for professionals who conceive, design or commercialise such systems or their components. The high performance levels of these systems are demonstrated within the final chapter by the results of an experiment in which a house is equipped with a mCCHP-SE-RES system. The reader is also familiarized with the conceptual, technical and legal aspects of modern domestic energy systems; the components that constitute these systems; and advanced algorithms for achieving the structural and technical design of such systems. In residential buildings, satisfying demands of durable development has gradually evolved from necessity to obligation and institutionalisation. Consequently a major paradigm change has appeared in the supply of energy to residential buildings, from the centralised production of energy using fossil fuels to the decentralised production of energy using local renewable sources. Furthermore, on the energy system market, energy micro systems which use renewable energy sources are increasingly commercialised. From among these, the mCCHP-SE-RES systems are particularly striking because they offer a high performance and they enhance the relationship between humans and the environment. This book is intended for postgraduate students of electrical engineering, applied mathematicians, and researchers of modelling and control of complex systems or power system technologies.
In recognition of the fact that billions of people in the developing world do not have access to clean energies, the United Nations launched the Sustainable Energy for All Initiative to achieve universal energy access by 2030. Although electricity grid extension remains the most prevalent way of providing access, it is now recognized that the central grid is unlikely to reach many remote areas in the near future. At the same time, individual solutions like solar home systems tend to provide very limited services to consumers. Mini-grids offer an alternative by combining the benefits of a grid-based solution with the potential for harnessing renewable energies at the local level. The purpose of this book is to provide in-depth coverage of the use of mini-grids for rural electrification in developing countries, taking into account the technical, economic, environmental and governance dimensions and presenting case studies from South Asia. This book reports on research carried out by a consortium of British and Indian researchers on off-grid electrification in South Asia. It provides state-of-the art technical knowledge on mini-grids and micro-grids including renewable energy integration (or green mini-grids), smart systems for integration with the central grid, and standardization of systems. It also presents essential analytical frameworks and approaches that can be used to analyze the mini-grids comprehensively including their techno-economic aspects, financial viability and regulatory issues. The case studies drawn from South Asia demonstrate the application of the framework and showcase various successful efforts to promote mini-grids in the region. It also reports on the design and implementation of a demonstration project carried out by the team in a cluster of villages in Odisha (India). The book's multi-disciplinary approach facilitates understanding of the relevant practical dimensions of mini-grid systems, such as demand creation (through interventions in livelihood generation and value chain development), financing, regulation, and smart system design. Its state-of-the art knowledge, integrated methodological framework, simulation exercises and real-life case analysis will allow the reader to analyze and appreciate the mini-grid-related activities in their entirety. The book will be of interest to researchers, graduate students, practitioners and policy makers working in the area of rural electrification in developing countries.
In this book we will introduce the modeling process of turbulent particulate flows which are encountered in many engineering and environmental applications. These types of flows usually also involve heat and mass transfer and turbulence adds another dimension to the complexity of the problem and hence a rigorous mathematical treatment is usually required. This required mathematical background makes the learning curve for new research students and practicing engineers extremely steep. Therefore modeling process for new or existing problems is extremely slow and is usually restricted to minor improvements to the to the available models. In this book we try to gather the required mathematical knowledge and introduce them more intuitively. Many numerical simulations of basic processes and equation will be given to provide the reader with a physical understanding of the different terms in the underlying equations. We will start the modeling process from a mesoscopic level which deals with the system of an intermediate length scale between the size of the atoms or molecules and the bulk of the material. This provides a unique opportunity for the reader to intuitively add different phenomena to their models and equipped with the necessary mathematical tools derive the final models for their problems.
In Europe, the building sector accounts for 40% of energy consumption which has a strong influence on greenhouse gas emissions. The book deals with efficient methodologies aimed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the building sector. This includes analyses of the building envelopes, the heating systems, the use of solar energy and the assessment of the environmental and energy sustainability of the proposed solutions. After a brief introduction to the physical fundamentals involved in the study, results are presented to support cost-effective technical strategies to promote actions for energy saving, in the most critical fields and with the most economic advantage.
This book brings together recent research from across the world on enriched methane, and examines the production, distribution and use of this resource in internal combustion engines and gas turbines. It aims to provide readers with an extensive account of potential technological breakthroughs which have the capacity to revolutionize energy systems. Enriched methane, a gas mixture composed by methane and hydrogen (10-30%vol), constitutes the first realistic step towards the application of hydrogen as an energy vector. It provides strong benefits in terms of emissions reduction, that is -11% of CO2, eq emission with the combustion of a 30%vol H2 mixture, if hydrogen is produced from renewable energy sources. Enriched methane offers the following advantages:* it can be produced at competitive costs; * it can be distributed by means of the medium pressure natural gas grid;* it can be stored in traditional natural gas storage systems;
Wetland Systems covers broad water and environmental engineering aspects relevant for the drainage and treatment of storm water and wastewater. It provides a descriptive overview of complex 'black box' treatment systems and the general design issues involved. Standard and novel design recommendations for predominantly constructed wetlands and related sustainable drainage systems are given to take into account the interests of professional engineers and environmental scientists. Wetland Systems deals comprehensively with not only the design, operation, maintenance and water quality monitoring of traditional and novel wetland systems, but also covers: * Analysis of asset performance * Modelling of treatment processes * Performances of existing infrastructure * Sustainability and economic issues Solutions to pressing water quality problems associated with constructed treatment wetlands, integrated constructed wetlands, farm constructed wetlands and storm water ponds, and other sustainable biological filtration and treatment technologies linked to public health engineering are explained. Case study topics are diverse: natural wetlands and constructed treatment wetlands; sustainable water management; and specific applications, such as wetlands treating hydrocarbons. The research projects discussed are multi-disciplinary, holistic, experimental and modelling-orientated. Wetland Systems is a useful reference for the design and operation of wetland systems by engineers and scientists working for the water industry, non-governmental organisations, local authorities and governmental bodies. It is also a valuable text for undergraduate and postgraduate students, lecturers and researchers in civil and environmental engineering fields.
The aim of this book is to review innovative physical multiscale modeling methods which numerically simulate the structure and properties of electrochemical devices for energy storage and conversion. Written by world-class experts in the field, it revisits concepts, methodologies and approaches connecting ab initio with micro-, meso- and macro-scale modeling of components and cells. It also discusses the major scientific challenges of this field, such as that of lithium-ion batteries. This book demonstrates how fuel cells and batteries can be brought together to take advantage of well-established multi-scale physical modeling methodologies to advance research in this area. This book also highlights promising capabilities of such approaches for inexpensive virtual experimentation. In recent years, electrochemical systems such as polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells, water electrolyzers, lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors have attracted much attention due to their potential for clean energy conversion and as storage devices. This has resulted in tremendous technological progress, such as the development of new electrolytes and new engineering designs of electrode structures. However, these technologies do not yet possess all the necessary characteristics, especially in terms of cost and durability, to compete within the most attractive markets. Physical multiscale modeling approaches bridge the gap between materials' atomistic and structural properties and the macroscopic behavior of a device. They play a crucial role in optimizing the materials and operation in real-life conditions, thereby enabling enhanced cell performance and durability at a reduced cost. This book provides a valuable resource for researchers, engineers and students interested in physical modelling, numerical simulation, electrochemistry and theoretical chemistry.
Energy technologies in the future will need to be based on renewable sources of energy and will, ultimately, need to be sustainable. This book provides insight into unintended, negative impacts and how they can be avoided. In order to steer away from the pitfalls and unintended effects, it is essential that the necessary knowledge is available to the developers and decision makers engaged in renewable energy. The value of this book lies in its presentation of the unintended health and environmental impacts from renewable energies. The book presents results from cross-disciplinary research on the implementation of alternative fuels in the transport sector, namely hydrogen, electricity and biodiesel. This is followed by an assessment of environmental impacts from the production of solar cells. Critical reviews on the use of nanotechnology and nanomaterials in the energy technologies is then provided, with the formation of nanoparticles during combustion of bio-blended diesel and their toxic effects, discussed in detail.
Germany is seen as a leader in thermal retrofit policy and practice, but how effective is its approach? A Critical Appraisal of Germany's Thermal Retrofit Policy examines this policy in context and assesses its effectiveness. It finds that technical constraints and the costs of retrofitting reduce the rate of progress, while planning underestimates the influence of user behavior in the form of rebound and prebound effects. A key finding is that savings can be maximized within a policy that understands the actual behavior and motivation of households, the area where most energy savings are already taking place. The book suggests a new policy paradigm that would encourage a better balance of partial and comprehensive retrofits, utilizing household behavior changes based on a better understanding of fuel saving motivation and fuel price elasticity. In this approach, the thermal building regulations would be made more flexible so that policymakers would: - Promote partial, transitional and cost-optimal retrofits, which are more certain to pay back through fuel savings if they are appropriate to building typology and homeowner budgets. - Promote comprehensive retrofits for reasons other than economic gain, focusing instead on the comfort and environmental benefits of energy-efficient homes. - Invest more heavily in educating households to heat economically, learning from the prebound effect so as to maximize the utility of the homes they currently occupy, and base payback time calculations on actual consumption. The results and findings of this book would be of interest to policymakers, researchers and graduate students alike.
Governments are setting challenging targets to increase the production of energy and transport fuel from sustainable sources. The emphasis is increasingly on renewable sources including wind, solar, geothermal, biomass based biofuel, photovoltaics or energy recovery from waste. What are the environmental consequences of adopting these other sources? How do these various sources compare to each other? Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources tries to answer these questions based on the universally adopted method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This book introduces the concept and importance of LCA in the framework of renewable energy sources and discusses the key issues in conducting their LCA. This is followed by an in-depth discussion of LCA for some of the most common bioenergy sources such as agricultural production systems for biogas and bioethanol, biogas from grass, biodiesel from palm oil, biodiesel from used cooking oil and animal fat, Jatropha biodiesel, lignocellulosic bioethanol, ethanol from cassava and sugarcane molasses, residential photovoltaic systems, wind energy, microalgal biodiesel, biohydrogen and biomethane. Through real examples, the versatility of LCA is well emphasized. Written by experts all over the globe, the book is a cornucopia of information on LCA of bioenergy systems and provides a platform for stimulation of new ideas and thoughts. The book is targeted at practitioners of LCA and will become a useful tool for researchers working on different aspects of bioenergy.
Cost optimal and nearly zero energy performance levels are principles initiated by the European Union's (EU) Energy Performance of Buildings Directive which was recast in 2010. These will be major drivers in the construction sector in the next few years, because all new buildings in the EU from 2021 onwards are expected to be nearly zero energy buildings (nZEB). This book introduces the technical definitions, system boundaries, energy calculation methodology and input data needed to set primary energy based minimum/cost optimal and nZEB requirements in national energy frames. Worked examples are provided to illustrate the calculation of delivered, exported and primary energy, and renewable energy contribution. Five case studies of high performance nZEB office buildings across Europe are reported to show alternative technical solutions and to draw some general design rules based on completed nZEB buildings. Specific features of the nZEB design process, especially in the early stages, and architectural competitions are included. These describe important design issues in the scoping and conceptual design phase, allowing design streams to be controlled so that specified targets can be met. This book is intended for readers who need to be aware of or are working with the energy performance of buildings - for decision makers in public and private sectors, architects, engineers, construction clients, consultants, contractors, manufacturers and students. The editor of this book, Professor Jarek Kurnitski has made major contributions to the preparation of the European REHVA nZEB technical definition and has developed energy calculation frames for current Estonian and Finnish energy performance regulations. He is the leader of nZEB research at Tallinn University of Technology in Estonia and Aalto University in Finland, and he has over 300 publications.
The concept of the smart grid promises the world an efficient and intelligent approach of managing energy production, transportation, and consumption by incorporating intelligence, efficiency, and optimality into the power grid. Both energy providers and consumers can take advantage of the convenience, reliability, and energy savings achieved by real-time and intelligent energy management. To this end, the current power grid is experiencing drastic changes and upgrades. For instance, more significant green energy resources such as wind power and solar power are being integrated into the power grid, and higher energy storage capacity is being installed in order to mitigate the intermittency issues brought about by the variable energy resources. At the same time, novel power electronics technologies and operating strategies are being invented and adopted. For instance, Flexible AC transmission systems and phasor measurement units are two promising technologies for improving the power system reliability and power quality. Demand side management will enable the customers to manage the power loads in an active fashion. As a result, modeling and control of modern power grids pose great challenges due to the adoption of new smart grid technologies. In this book, chapters regarding representative applications of smart grid technologies written by world-renowned experts are included, which explain in detail various innovative modeling and control methods.
This overview compiles the on-going research in Europe to enlarge and deepen the understanding of the reaction mechanisms and pathways associated with the combustion of an increased range of fuels. Focus is given to the formation of a large number of hazardous minor pollutants and the inability of current combustion models to predict the formation of minor products such as alkenes, dienes, aromatics, aldehydes and soot nano-particles which have a deleterious impact on both the environment and on human health. Cleaner Combustion describes, at a fundamental level, the reactive chemistry of minor pollutants within extensively validated detailed mechanisms for traditional fuels, but also innovative surrogates, describing the complex chemistry of new environmentally important bio-fuels. Divided into five sections, a broad yet detailed coverage of related research is provided. Beginning with the development of detailed kinetic mechanisms, chapters go on to explore techniques to obtain reliable experimental data, soot and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, mechanism reduction and uncertainty analysis, and elementary reactions. This comprehensive coverage of current research provides a solid foundation for researchers, managers, policy makers and industry operators working in or developing this innovative and globally relevant field.
The construction industry is the largest single waste producing industry in the UK. Ensuring a supply chain of recycled materials affords many potential gains, achieved through: reducing the material volume transported to already over-burdened landfill sites, possible cost reductions to the contractor/client when considering the landfill tax saved and the potential for lower cost material replacements, a reduction in the environmental impact of quarrying and the saving of depleting natural material resources. Reuse of Materials and Byproducts in Construction: Waste Minimization and Recycling addresses use of waste and by products in the construction industry. An over view of new green design guides to encourage best practice will be examined and current legislation that channels on site practices, such as site waste management plans. Fundamental individual construction materials are discussed and the process of reforming by products and waste products into new construction materials is investigated, examining the material performance, energy required to convert waste into new products and viability of recycling. The main range of constructional materials will be examined. Aimed at postgraduate students, lecturers and researchers in construction and civil engineering, the book will also be of interest to professional design practices.
Reflecting the rapid growth of nanotechnology research and the potential impact of the growing energy crisis, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Through Nanotechnology provides comprehensive coverage of cutting-edge research in the energy-related fields of nanoscience and nanotechnology, which aim to improve energy efficiency and the generation of renewable energy. Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Through Nanotechnology tightly correlates nanotechnology with energy issues in a general, comprehensive way that makes it not only suitable as a desk reference for research, but also as a knowledge resource for the non-expert general public. Readers will find Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Through Nanotechnology useful in a variety of ways, ranging from the creation of energy policy, to energy research development, and to education in nanotechnology and its application to energy-related problems. It can also be used as a primary or supplementary textbook for energy-related courses for advanced undergraduate and graduate students.
This book provides the latest research on a new alternative form of technology, the magnetocaloric energy conversion. This area of research concerns magnetic refrigeration and cooling, magnetic heat pumping and magnetic power generation. The book's systematic approach offers the theoretical basis of magnetocaloric energy conversion and its various sub domains and this is supported with the practical examples. Besides these fundamentals, the book also introduces potential solutions to engineering problems in magnetocalorics and to alternative technologies of solid state energy conversion. The aim of the book is therefore to provide engineers with the most up-to-date information and also to facilitate the understanding, design and construction of future magnetocaloric energy conversion devices. The magnetocaloric energy conversion represents an alternative to compressor based refrigerators and heat pumps. It is a serious alternative to power generation with low enthalpy heat sources. This green technology offers an opportunity to use environmentally friendly solid refrigerants and the potentially high energy efficiency follows the trends of future energy conversion devices. This book is intended for postgraduate students and researchers of refrigeration, heat pumping, power generation alternatives, heat regenerators and advanced heat transfer mechanisms.
This book examines a number of topics, mainly in connection with advances in semiconductor devices and magnetic materials and developments in medium and large-scale renewable power plant technologies, grid integration techniques and new converter topologies, including advanced digital control systems for medium-voltage networks. The book's individual chapters provide an extensive compilation of fundamental theories and in-depth information on current research and development trends, while also exploring new approaches to overcoming some critical limitations of conventional grid integration technologies. Its main objective is to present the design and implementation processes for medium-voltage converters, allowing the direct grid integration of renewable power plants without the need for step-up transformers.
Meeting today's energy and climate challenges require not only technological advancement but also a good understanding of stakeholders' perceptions, political sensitivity, well-informed policy analyses and innovative interdisciplinary solutions. This book will fill this gap. This is an interdisciplinary informative book to provide a holistic and integrated understanding of the technology-stakeholder-policy interactions of smart grid technologies. The unique features of the book include the following: (a) interdisciplinary approach - by bringing in the policy dimensions to smart grid technologies; (b) global and Asian perspective and (c) learning from national case studies. This book is organised into five sections. Part 1 discusses the historical and conceptual aspects of smart grids. Part 2 introduces the technological aspects and showcase the state of the art of the technologies. Part 3 explores the policy and governance dimensions by bringing in a stakeholder perspective. Part 4 presents a collection of national case studies. Part 5 shares insights and lesson learnt and provide policy recommendations. This book showcases the state-of-the-art R&D developments and policy experiences. This book contributes to a better understanding of governance institution and policy challenges and helps formulate policy recommendations for successful smart grid deployment.
This textbook discusses engineering principles relating to air pollution and greenhouse gases (GHGs); it focuses on engineering principles and designs of related devices and equipment for air emission control for a variety of industries such as energy, chemical, and transportation industries. The book aims primarily at senior undergraduate and graduate students in mechanical, chemical and/or environmental engineering departments; it can also be used as a reference book by technical staff and design engineers who are interested in and need to have technical knowledge in air pollution and GHGs. The book is motivated by recent rapid advances in air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions and their control technologies. In addition to classic topics related to air pollution, this book is also featured with emerging topics related to air pollution and GHGs. It covers recent advances in engineering approaches to the reduction of GHG emissions including, but are not limited to, green energy technologies and carbon sequestration and storage. It also introduces an emerging topic in air pollution, which is referred to as Nano Air Pollution. It is a growing concern in air pollution, but largely missing in similar books, likely because of recent rapid advances in nanotechnology has outpaced the advances in nano air pollution control.
The book presents Slovenia's contemporary timber architecture. Thanks to its abundant forests, Slovenia has preserved the tradition of wood construction. As much as 60% of its surface is covered by forests. Slovenia is also the third most forested country in Europe. The high share of forest-covered surface allows for a sustainable production of high-quality wood. In the past, wood was used primarily in the construction of farm buildings, but now timber architecture is used for everything from residences and office buildings to public buildings such as community centres and schools. Timber construction is becoming increasingly popular. Apart from larger companies taking this approach, a great number of wooden houses have sprung up, built either on personal initiative or with the support of carpenter workshops. Slovenian timber architecture has taken a new approach to environmental and energy-efficiency problems and received great international recognition. The book discusses over fifty projects built over a ten-year period, and includes descriptions, photographs and plans. The projects include residential areas, administration, and office as well as tourist, educational and industrial buildings. Timber architecture is presented as an integral part of the Slovenian landscape. The monograph will be useful to designers and future experts in their planning of optimal timber buildings and will highlight the main benefits of using timber construction.
The book helps readers understand key concepts in standalone and grid connected wind energy systems and features analysis into the modeling and optimization of commonly used configurations through the implementation of different control strategies. Utilizing several electrical machinery control approaches, such as vector control and direct torque control 'Wind Power Electric Systems' equips readers with the means to understand, assess and develop their own wind energy systems and to evaluate the performance of such systems. Mathematical models are provided for each system and a corresponding MATLAB/SIMULINK example is included at the end of each section in order to demonstrate key processes and methods.
As the annual production of carbon Dioxide (CO2) reaches 30 billion tones, the growing issue of the greenhouse effect has triggered the development of technologies for CO2 sequestration, storage and use as a reactant. Collecting together the reports of the Congress at University of Rome (Campus Bio-medico) held 16th April 2012, CO2: A Valuable Source of Carbon presents and discusses promising technologies for the industrial exploitation of CO2. Divided into two parts, the current technology is evaluated and summarized before European and national projects are presented. The focus on CO2 recovery, particularly in value-added production, proposes applicable methods to develop sustainable practices and even to mitigate greenhouse gas emission from large-scale fossil fuels usage. Including current data and real-world examples, CO2: A valuable source of carbon provides students, engineers, researchers and industry professional with up-to-date material and potential areas for development and research.
This book includes 19 chapters contributed by the world's leading experts on pretreatment methods for biomass. It extensively covers the different types of biomass (e.g. molasses, sugar beet pulp, cheese whey, sugarcane residues, palm waste, vegetable oil, straws, stalks and wood), various pretreatment approaches (e.g. physical, thermal, chemical, physicochemical and biological) and methods that show the subsequent production of biofuels and chemicals such as sugars, ethanol, extracellular polysaccharides, biodiesel, gas and oil. In addition to traditional methods such as steam, hot-water, hydrothermal, diluted-acid, organosolv, ozonolysis, sulfite, milling, fungal and bacterial, microwave, ultrasonic, plasma, torrefaction, pelletization, gasification (including biogas) and liquefaction pretreatments, it also introduces and discusses novel techniques such as nano and solid catalysts, organic electrolyte solutions and ionic liquids. This book offers a review of state-of-the-art research and provides guidance for the future paths of developing pretreatment techniques of biomass for biofuels, especially in the fields of biotechnology, microbiology, chemistry, materials science and engineering. It intends to provide a systematic introduction of pretreatment techniques. It is an accessible reference work for students, researchers, academicians and industrialists in biorefineries. Zhen Fang is a Professor of Bioenergy and the leader and founder of the biomass group at the Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. He is also an adjunct full Professor of Life Sciences at the University of Science and Technology of China.
Research for the development of more efficient photocatalysts has experienced an almost exponential growth since its popularization in early 1970's. Despite the advantages of the widely used TiO2, the yield of the conversion of sun power into chemical energy that can be achieved with this material is limited prompting the research and development of a number of structural, morphological and chemical modifications of TiO2 , as well as a number of novel photocatalysts with very different composition. Design of Advanced Photocatalytic Materials for Energy and Environmental Applications provides a systematic account of the current understanding of the relationships between the physicochemical properties of the catalysts and photoactivity. The already long list of photocatalysts phases and their modifications is increasing day by day. By approaching this field from a material sciences angle, an integrated view allows readers to consider the diversity of photocatalysts globally and in connection with other technologies. Design of Advanced Photocatalytic Materials for Energy and Environmental Applications provides a valuable road-map, outlining the common principles lying behind the diversity of materials, but also delimiting the imprecise border between the contrasted results and the most speculative studies. This broad approach makes it ideal for specialist but also for engineers, researchers and students in related fields.
Energy audits have multiple goals including reducing energy consumption, managing costs and environmental impact. Improving the energy performance of existing buildings through energy retrofit measures is a great opportunity for developing sustainability in our structures and developing a green building economy. Green Energy Audit of Buildings considers this opportunity with a new and modern interpretation of the classic methodologies. This comprehensive guide to green energy audits integrates energy audit and LEED (R) methodologies to focus on energy and environment as strategic elements. In addition to these methodologies, Green Energy Audit of Buildings includes 45 check-list for field surveys and 97 technical sheets of possible energy retrofit actions that can be applied to existing real-world cases. Covering both the technical and economical points of view, Green Energy Audit of Buildings provides a comprehensive understanding and method for analyzing buildings and facilities in order to promote sustainability. Engineers, architects, energy assessors and mangers in charge of building maintenance will all find this a key reference as well as lecturers, students and researchers looking to develop their understanding of sustainable buildings.
The Global COE is setting out a zero-emission technology roadmap and is promoting socioeconomic studies of energy, studies of new technologies for renewable energies, and research for advanced nuclear energy. It has also established the Global COE Unit for Energy Science Education to support young researchers as they apply their skills and knowledge and a broad international perspective to respond to issues of energy and the environment in our societies. This book follows on the earlier volumes Zero-Carbon Energy Kyoto 2009, 2010, and 2011.
Within all areas of transportation, solutions for economical and environmentally friendly technology are being examined. Fuel consumption, combustion processes, control and limitation of pollutants in the exhaust gas are technological problems, for which guidelines like 98/69/EC and 99/96 determine the processes for the reduction of fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions. Apart from technological solutions, the consequences of international legislation and their effects on environmental and climate protection in the area of the transportation are discussed.
Dielectric Spectroscopy in Biodiesel Production and Characterization presents the application of dielectric techniques in the production process of biodiesel, and in the characterization of biofuels, raw materials and effluents. In this comprehensive text, the reader will find information about biodiesel, production processes and biofuel characterization, including a description of dielectric techniques that are a useful alternative to - and have some important advantages over - international standards. Dielectric Spectroscopy in Biodiesel Production and Characterization is written in a language that is easy for both specialists and non-specialists to understand. It provides the concepts and tools needed for the application and correlation of the results of dielectric measurement with those from other techniques that are included in international standards. Aimed at a broad audience, the book gives a unified presentation, in a clear and concise way, of up-to-date information that has been gathered from a wide range of sources. Based on the ample research and teaching experience of the authors, Dielectric Spectroscopy in Biodiesel Production and Characterization will be of interest to professionals working in the liquid biofuels industry, researchers entering the field and also advanced university students on related courses.
Since 2008, the Global Center of Excellence (COE) at Kyoto University, Japan, has been engaged in a program called Energy Science in the Age of Global Warming-Toward a CO2 Zero-Emission Energy System. Its aim is to establish an international education and research platform to foster educators, researchers, and policy makers who can develop technologies and propose policies for establishing a CO2 zero-emission society no longer dependent on fossil fuels. It is well known that the energy problem cannot simply be labeled a technological one, as it is also deeply involved with social and economic issues. The establishment of a low-carbon energy science as an interdisciplinary field integrating social sciences with natural sciences is necessary. The Global COE is setting out a zero-emission technology roadmap and is promoting socioeconomic studies of energy, studies of new technologies for renewable energies, and research for advanced nuclear energy. It has also established the Global COE Unit for Energy Science Education to support young researchers as they apply their skills and knowledge and a broad international perspective to respond to issues of energy and the environment in our societies. Comprising the proceedings of the Second International Symposium of the Global COE Program, this book follows on the earlier volume Zero-Carbon Energy Kyoto 2009, published in March 2010.
The present book was written to address the needs of those readers interested in wind energy converters. The authors have tried to strike a balance between a short book chapter and a very detailed book for experts in the field. There were three prime reasons behind doing so: first, the field is highly interdisciplinary and requires a more accessible format for non-experts. The second reason for this more compact version is that both authors have encountered many students and technically oriented people who were searching for this type of book on wind energy. The third reason and motivation for writing this book was to provide some initial information to people who are embarking on a career in the wind industry. It is this group of people that the present book is targeted at.
Rational Exuberance for Renewable Energy is a beyond-the-hype account of the underlying issues that encourage or plague widespread dissemination of renewable energy (RE) technologies. Renewable energy operates in the real world, and it cannot be assumed that the conventional theories and incentive structures of economics and business do not apply. The author argues that grants and subsidies could be provided to support research, development and technology improvement efforts, but should not be employed as an instrument of state policy to intervene in specific markets. It is important to recognize that although investors often demonstrate an appetite for market risk, they find technology risks and policy uncertainty much less appealing. Rational Exuberance for Renewable Energy blends classical economic theory with the everyday realities of the RE industry to identify incentive structures contributing to the success - or otherwise - of project implementation involving renewable sources and appropriate technologies. The book is a compilation of articles that analyze individual RE technologies, and offer multiple perspectives of the RE industry and markets. Rational Exuberance for Renewable Energy is intended for policy makers, advanced students of energy economics and sustainable development, and for potential mainstream investors.
Fossil fuels are widely used for electricity generation and heating, creating greenhouse gas emissions and other toxic pollutants, which should be minimised according to the most recent environmental legislation. The utilisation of solid fuels with biogenic origin could contribute to the minimisation of these emissions. Solid Biofuels for Energy presents the current status of the engineering disciplines in this specific area, providing an improved background on the energy exploitation options of solid biomass. Within this framework, all thematic priorities related to the solid bioenergy potential and standardisation, commercialised and emerging energy technologies, and quality of solid residues are presented. Special attention has been given to biomass co-firing with coal, since it has the highest potential for commercial application, while combustion and gasification are more promising for units of medium to small scale. This strong practical focus is evident throughout the book, particularly in discussions of: * international standards for solid biofuel specifications; * supply, cost and sustainability of solid biofuels; * technical issues and non-technical barriers in biomass/coal co-firing; and * biomass combustion and gasification characteristics. Solid Biofuels for Energy is an informative reference, written for researchers and postgraduate students working in the field of biomass. It can also be a useful guide for chemical and mechanical engineers, involved in the environment and energy production sectors.
A vast amount has been written on climate change and what should be our response. Rise and Fall of the Carbon Civilisation suggests that most of this literature takes a far too optimistic position regarding the potential for conventional mitigation solutions to achieve the deep cuts in greenhouse gases necessary in the limited time frame we have available. In addition, global environmental problems, as exemplified by climate change, and global resource problems - such as fossil fuel depletion or fresh water scarcity - have largely been seen as separate issues. Further, proposals for solution of these problems often focus at the national level, when the problems are global. The authors argue that the various challenges the planet faces are both serious and interconnected. Rise and Fall of the Carbon Civilisation takes a global perspective in its treatment of various solutions: * renewable energy; * nuclear energy; * energy efficiency; * carbon sequestration; and * geo-engineering. It also addresses the possibility that realistic solutions cannot be achieved until the fundamentally ethical question of global equity - both across nations today and also inter-generational - is fully addressed. Such an approach will also involve reorienting the global economy away from an emphasis on growth and toward the direct satisfaction of basic human needs for all the Earth's people. Rise and Fall of the Carbon Civilisation is aimed at the many members of the public with an awareness of climate change, but who wish to find out more about how we need to respond to the challenge. It will also be of interest to technical professionals, as well as postgraduate students and researchers, from the environmental and engineering science sectors.
Although conventional cogeneration systems have been used successfully in the last two decades, most of them have been large units using mainly hydrocarbon fuels that are becoming increasingly expensive. New cogeneration systems based on fuel cells and sorption air conditioning systems promise to be an energy-saving alternative for situations when cooling, heating and power are needed at low and medium capacities. Cogeneration Fuel Cell-Sorption Air Conditioning Systems examines the thermodynamic principles of fuel cell performance and sorption air conditioning systems, and gives relevant information about the state of the art of these technologies. It also provides the reader with the theoretical bases and knowledge needed to understand the operation of these new cogeneration systems, as well as discussing the design basis and economical evaluation. Topics covered include: * selected fuel cells for cogeneration CHP processes; * state-of-the-art sorption refrigeration systems; * potential applications in demonstration projects; and * profitability assessment of the cogeneration system. Air conditioning and fuel cell engineers; postgraduates and researchers in energy fields; and designers of cooling, heating and power cogeneration systems will find Cogeneration Fuel Cell-Sorption Air Conditioning Systems a useful and informative reference.
This book is intended to give an introduction into the meteorological boundary conditions for power generation from the wind, onshore and offshore. It is to provide reliable meteorological information for the planning and running of this important kind of renewable energy. This includes the derivation of wind laws and wind profile descriptions, especially those above the logarithmic surface layer. Winds over complex terrain and nocturnal low-level jets are considered as well. A special chapter is devoted to the efficiency of large wind parks and their wakes.
The Chinese government set a target to reduce China's carbon intensity by 40%-45% in 2020 at its 2005 level. To achieve this target, the government has allocated targets to provinces, cities, and large enterprises, and selected five pilot provinces and eight cities for CO2 emission trading. Such emission trading process will involve decentralization, optimization, and negotiation. The prime objective of this book is to perform academic research on simulating the negotiation process. Through this research, a methodological framework and its implementation are set up to analyze, model and facilitate the process of negotiation among central government and individual energy producers under environmental, economical and social constraints. Negotiation In Decentralization: Case Study Of China's Carbon Trading In The Power Sector discusses research carried out on negotiation issues in China regarding Chinese power sector reform over the past 30 years. Results show that conflicts exist between power groups and the national government, and that the most current negotiation topics in China's power industry are demand and supply management, capital investment, energy prices, and CO2 emission mitigations. Negotiation In Decentralization: Case Study Of China's Carbon Trading In The Power Sector is written for government policy makers, energy and environment industry investors, energy program and project managers, environment conservation specialists, university professors, researchers, and graduate students. It aims to provide a methodology and a tool that can resolve difficult negotiation issues and change a loss-loss situation to a win-win situation for key players in a decentralized system, including government policymakers, energy producers, and environment conservationists.
Environmental Silicate Nano-Biocomposites focuses on nano-biocomposites, which are obtained by the association of silicates such as bioclays with biopolymers. By highlighting recent developments and findings, green and biodegradable nano-composites from both renewable and biodegradable polymers are explored. This includes coverage of potential markets such as packaging, agricultures, leisure and the fast food industry. The knowledge and experience of more than twenty international experts in diverse fields, from chemical and biochemical engineering to applications, is brought together in four different sections covering: Biodegradable polymers and Silicates, Clay/Polyesters Nano-biocomposites, Clay/Agropolymers Nano-biocomposites, and Applications and biodegradation of Nano-biocomposites. By exploring the relationships between the biopolymer structures, the processes, and the final properties Environmental Silicate Nano-Biocomposites explains how to design nano-materials to develop new, valuable, environmentally friendly properties and uses. The combination of fundamental and applied science makes this an ideal reference for a range of readers from students and lecturers to material and polymer scientists and even industrial engineers who are interested in bringing new environmental nano-materials to the current market.
Since 2008, the Global Center of Excellence (COE) at Kyoto University, Japan, has been engaged in a program called Energy Science in the Age of Global Warming-Toward a CO2 Zero-Emission Energy System. Its aim is to establish an international education and research platform to foster educators, researchers, and policy makers who can develop technologies and propose policies for establishing a CO2 zero-emission society no longer dependent on fossil fuels. It is well known that the energy problem cannot simply be labeled a technological one, as it is also deeply involved with social and economic issues. The establishment of a low-carbon energy science as an interdisciplinary field integrating social sciences with natural sciences is necessary. The Global COE is setting out a zero-emission technology roadmap and is promoting socioeconomic studies of energy, studies of new technologies for renewable energies, and research for advanced nuclear energy. It has also established the Global COE Unit for Energy Science Education to support young researchers as they apply their skills and knowledge and a broad international perspective to respond to issues of energy and the environment in our societies. Comprising the proceedings of the Third International Symposium of the Global COE Program, this book follows on the earlier volumes Zero-Carbon Energy Kyoto 2009 and 2010, published in March 2010 and February 2011, respectively.
It's the new rock and roll. It's the new black. Sustainability is trendy, and not just among hipsters and pop stars. The uncool chemical sector helped pioneer it, and today, companies inside and outside the sector have embraced it. But what have they embraced? Surely not the Brundtland definition of meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Sustainability describes a change in the chemical industry's approach to the external world: to regulators, to greens, to neighbors, to investors and to the general public. Displacing the adversarialism of the 1970s-80s, sustainability is a new approach to social/political conflict, and an attempt to rebuild the industry's long-suffering public image. In practice, it consists of: A 'stakeholder' approach to communications and external relations A rebranding of regulatory compliance and risk management, with the emphasis on their benefits to stakeholders Recognition (and even celebration) of the opportunities, not just the costs, of environmental and social protection The core of this book is a survey of the world's 29 largest chemical companies: how they put sustainability into action (six of the 29 do not), and the six 'sustainability brands' they have created. It begins with a history of stakeholders conflict, before looking at various definitions of sustainability - by academics, by the public and by investors. After the survey and analysis, the book covers sustainability and 'greenwash' plus the ROI of sustainability, and it gives five recommendations.
Energy has moved to the forefront in terms of societal and economic development. Modern Energy Markets is a comprehensive, economically oriented, exploration of modern electricity networks from production and distribution to deregulation and liberalization processes. Updating previous work by the authors, different aspects are considered resulting in a complete and detailed picture of the systems and characteristics of modern electricity markets. Modern Energy Markets provides clear detail whilst encompassing a broad scope of topics and includes: *A method to model energy production systems including the main characteristics of future demand side management, *Different applications of this model in nuclear and renewable energy scenarios, *An analysis of Real-Time Pricing of electricity and its potential effects across the market, and, *A discussion of the need for regulation in an easily monopolized industry. Engineering and Economics students alike will find that Modern Energy Markets is a succinct and informative resource, as will researchers interested in environmental and energy issues. The inclusion of timely and relevant issues related to economic decision will also be of value to industry and civil officials.
This book evaluates and discusses the main sustainability challenges encountered in the production of biofuel and bio-products from oil palm biomass. It starts off with the emphasis on oil palm production, oil palm products recovery and oil palm wastes utilization. The simultaneous production of these bio-products for sustainable development is discussed. This is followed by the key factors defining the sustainability of biofuel and bio-product production from oil palm biomass. The environmental issues including ecological, life cycle assessment and environmental impact assessment of oil palm plantation, milling and refining for the production of biofuels and bio-products are presented. Socio-economic and thermodynamic analysis of the production processes are also evaluated using various sustainability assessment tools such as exergy. Lastly, methods of improving biofuel production systems for sustainable development are highlighted.
A Smart Grid delivers renewable energy as a main source of electricity from producers to consumers using two-way monitoring through Smart Meter technology that can remotely control consumer electricity use. This can help to storage excess energy; reduce costs, increase reliability and transparency, and make processes more efficiently. Smart Grids: Opportunities, Developments, and Trends discusses advances in Smart Grid in today's dynamic and rapid growing global economical and technological environments. Current development in the field are systematically explored with an introduction, detailed discussion and an experimental demonstration. Each chapter also includes the future scope and ongoing research for each topic. Smart Grids: Opportunities, Developments, and Trends provides up to date knowledge, research results, and innovations in Smart Grids spanning design, implementation, analysis and evaluation of Smart Grid solutions to the challenging problems in all areas of power industry. Providing a solid foundation for graduate and postgraduate students, this thorough approach also makes Smart Grids: Opportunities, Developments, and Trends a useful resource and hand book for researchers and practitioners in Smart Grid research. It can also act as a guide to Smart Grids for industry professionals and engineers from different fields working with Smart Grids.
The Power Makers - the producers of our electricity - must meet the demands of their customers while also addressing the threat of climate change. There are widely differing views about solutions to electricity generation in an emission constrained world. Some see the problem as relatively straight forward, requiring deep cuts in emissions now by improving energy efficiency, energy conservation and using only renewable resources. Many electricity industry engineers and scientists see the problem as being much more involved. The Power Makers ' Challenge: and the need for Fission Energy looks at why using only conventional renewable energy sources is not quite as simple as it seems. Following a general introduction to electricity and its distribution, the author quantifies the reductions needed in greenhouse gas emissions from the power sector in the face of ever increasing world demands for electricity. It provides some much needed background on the many energy sources available for producing electricity and discusses their advantages and limitations to meet both the emission reduction challenge and electricity demand. By analyzing the three main groups of energy sources: renewable energy, fossil fuels and fission energy (nuclear power), readers can assess the ability of each group to meet the challenge of both reducing emissions and maintaining reliable supply at least cost. It is written for both non-technical and technical readers.
The demand for renewable energies from biomass is growing steadily as policies are enacted to encourage such development and as industry increasingly sees an opportunity to develop bio-energy enterprises. Recent policy changes in the EU, USA and other countries are spurring interest in the cultivation of energy crops such as switchgrass. Switchgrass has gained and early lead in the race to find a biomass feedstock for energy production (and for the almost requisite need for bio-based products from such feedstocks). Switchgrass: A Valuable Biomass Crop for Energy provides a comprehensive guide to the biology, physiology, breeding, culture and conversion of switchgrass as well as highlighting various environmental, economic and social benefits. Considering this potential energy source, Switchgrass: A Valuable Biomass Crop for Energy brings together chapters from a range of experts in the field, including a foreword from Kenneth P. Vogel, to collect and present the environmental benefits and characteristics of this a crop with the potential to mitigate the risks of global warming by replacing fossil fuels. Including clear figures and tables to support discussions, Switchgrass: A Valuable Biomass Crop for Energy provides a solid reference for anyone with interest or investment in the development of bioenergy; researchers, policy makers and stakeholders will find this a key resource.
Wind Energy Conversion System covers the technological progress of wind energy conversion systems, along with potential future trends. It includes recently developed wind energy conversion systems such as multi-converter operation of variable-speed wind generators, lightning protection schemes, voltage flicker mitigation and prediction schemes for advanced control of wind generators. Modeling and control strategies of variable speed wind generators are discussed, together with the frequency converter topologies suitable for grid integration. Wind Energy Conversion System also describes offshore farm technologies including multi-terminal topology and space-based wind observation schemes, as well as both AC and DC based wind farm topologies. The stability and reliability of wind farms are discussed, and grid integration issues are examined in the context of the most recent industry guidelines. Wind power smoothing, one of the big challenges for transmission system operators, is a particular focus. Fault ride through and frequency fluctuation mitigation using energy storage options are also covered. Efficiency analyses are presented for different types of commercially available wind turbine generator systems, large scale wind generators using superconducting material, and the integration of offshore wind and marine current farms. Each chapter is written by a leader in the wind energy arena, making Wind Energy Conversion System a valuable reference for researchers and students of wind energy.
Solid waste management is currently a major issue worldwide with numerous areas reaching critical levels. Many developing countries and countries in transition still miss basic waste management infrastructure and awareness. It is here that many of the solid waste management problems and challenges are currently being faced. As such, waste-to-energy (WTE) consists of a proven and continuously developing spectrum and range of technologies in a number of (mostly) developed countries. However, it's integration in developing countries and systems in transition is often faced with scepticism and a complex set of barriers which are quite unique and differ greatly from those where WTE has been validated and applied over the years. Waste-to-Energy: Opportunities and Challenges for Developing and Transition Economies will address this issue both theoretically and using concrete examples, including: * contributions from numerous scholars and practitioners in the field, * useful lessons and rules of thumb, * both successful and failed cases, and * real-life examples and developments. Waste-to-Energy approaches this dynamic aspect of environmental engineering and management in a methodical and detailed manner making it an important resource for SWM planners and facility operators as well as undergraduate and post graduate students and researchers.
Although fossil fuels remain the primary global energy source, developing and expanding economies are creating an ever-widening gap between supply and demand. Efficient energy management offers a cost-effective opportunity for both industrialized and developing nations to limit the enormous financial and environmental costs associated with burning fossil fuels. The implication of photovoltaic systems in particular presents the potential for clean and sustainable electrical energy to be generated from an unrestricted source. Energy Management in Buildings Using Photovoltaics demonstrates how adopting 'best practices' for energy management and harvesting can reduce the need to construct new generating facilities. Illustrated with figures, tables and photos, Energy Management in Buildings Using Photovoltaics provides an introduction and step by step instructions on designing and planning photovoltaic systems and energy policies for both residential and industrial buildings. With particular focus on the example of provided by European industry, the creation of energy efficient systems is explored including chapters on: Zero Energy Buildings, Photovoltaics Technology, and Connection of the Network By presenting this topic from basic introduction to highly technical analysis, Energy Management in Buildings Using Photovoltaics acts a study guide for postgraduate students as well as a key point of reference for researchers and technical consultants in the field of photovoltaic systems.
Tribology is the study of friction, wear and lubrication. Recently, the concept of green tribology as the science and technology of the tribological aspects of ecological balance and of environmental and biological impacts was introduced. The field of green tribology includes tribological technology that mimics living nature (biomimetic surfaces) and thus is expected to be environmentally friendly, the control of friction and wear that is of importance for energy conservation and conversion, environmental aspects of lubrication and surface modification techniques, and tribological aspects of green applications such as wind-power turbines or solar panels. This book is the first comprehensive volume on green tribology. The chapters are prepared by leading experts in their fields and cover such topics as biomimetics, environmentally friendly lubrication, tribology of wind turbines and renewable sources of energy, and ecological impact of new technologies of surface treatment.
Photovoltaic generation is one of the cleanest forms of energy conversion available. One of the advantages offered by solar energy is its potential to provide sustainable electricity in areas not served by the conventional power grid. Optimisation of Photovoltaic Power Systems details explicit modelling, control and optimisation of the most popular stand-alone applications such as pumping, power supply, and desalination. Each section is concluded by an example using the MATLAB (R) and Simulink (R) packages to help the reader understand and evaluate the performance of different photovoltaic systems. Optimisation of Photovoltaic Power Systems provides engineers, graduate and postgraduate students with the means to understand, assess and develop their own photovoltaic systems. As such, it is an essential tool for all those wishing to specialise in stand-alone photovoltaic systems. Optimisation of Photovoltaic Power Systems aims to enable all researchers in the field of electrical engineering to thoroughly understand the concepts of photovoltaic systems; find solutions to their problems; and choose the appropriate mathematical model for optimising photovoltaic energy.
Decision makers in the Renewable Energy sector face an increasingly complex social, economic, technological, and environmental scenario in their decision process. Different groups of decision-makers become involved in the process, each group bringing along different criteria therefore, policy formulation for fossil fuel substitution by Renewable Energies must be addressed in a multi-criteria context. Multi Criteria Analysis in the Renewable Energy Industry is a direct response to the increasing interest in the Renewable Energy industry which can be seen as an important remedy to many environmental problems that the world faces today. The multiplicity of criteria and the increasingly complex social, economic, technological, and environmental scenario makes multi-criteria analysis a valuable tool in the decision-making process for fossil fuel substitution. The detailed chapters explore the use of the Multi-criteria decision-making methods and how they provide valuable assistance in reaching equitable and acceptable solutions in the selection of renewable energy projects. Common multi-criteria decision-making methods including Analytical Hierarchy Process, PROMETHEE, ELECTRE, TOPSIS and VIKOR are explored in detail with an application case of each method included at the end of each chapter. As such, Multi Criteria Analysis in the Renewable Energy Industry is an ideal resource for those groups of individuals, institutions and administration such as local authorities, academic institutions, environmental groups, and governments that, through their priorities and evaluation systems, have interests at stake and directly or indirectly influence the decision-making process.
Understanding the sustainable use of energy in various processes is an integral part of engineering and scientific studies, which rely on a sound knowledge of energy systems. Whilst many institutions now offer degrees in energy-related programs, a comprehensive textbook, which introduces and explains sustainable energy systems and can be used across engineering and scientific fields, has been lacking. Energy: Production, Conversion, Storage, Conservation, and Coupling provides the reader with a practical understanding of these five main topic areas of energy including 130 examples and over 600 practice problems. Each chapter contains a range of supporting figures, tables, thermodynamic diagrams and charts, while the Appendix supplies the reader with all the necessary data including the steam tables. This new textbook presents a clear introduction of basic vocabulary, properties, forms, sources, and balances of energy before advancing to the main topic areas of: * Energy production and conversion in important physical, chemical, and biological processes, * Conservation of energy and its impact on sustainability, * Various forms of energy storage, and * Energy coupling and bioenergetics in living systems. A solution manual for the practice problems of the textbook is offered for the instructor. Energy: Production, Conversion, Storage, Conservation, and Coupling is a comprehensive source, study guide, and course supplement for both undergraduates and graduates across a range of engineering and scientific disciplines. Resources including the solution manual for this textbook are available for instructors on sending a request to Dr. Yaar Demirel at email@example.com
As the availability of fossils fuels becomes more limited, the negative impact of their consumption becomes an increasingly relevant factor in our choices with regards to primary energy sources. The exponentially increasing demand for energy is reflected in the mass generation of by-products and waste flows which characterize current society's development and use of fossil sources. The potential for recoverable material and energy in these ever-increasing refuse flows is huge, even after the separation of hazardous constituent elements, allowing safe and sustainable further exploitation of an otherwise 'wasted' resource. Fuel Cells in the Waste-to-Energy Chain explores the concept of waste-to-energy through a 5 step process which reflects the stages during the transformation of refuse flows to a valuable commodity such as clean energy. By providing selected, integrated alternatives to the current centralized, wasteful, fossil-fuel based infrastructure, Fuel Cells in the Waste-to-Energy Chain explores how the concept of waste-to-energy can be constructed and developed into a realistic solution. The entire spectrum of current and future energy problems is illuminated through the explanation of the operational, integration and marketing implications of high efficiency technological solutions using the real context of developed regions such as Europe. Up-to-date reviews are provided on the status of technology and demonstration, implementation and marketing perspectives. The detailed technological information and insight gathered from over twenty years of experience in the field makes Fuel Cells in the Waste-to-Energy Chain a valuable resource for all engineers and researchers in the fields of energy supply systems and waste conversion, as well as providing a key reference for discussions by policy makers, marketing experts and industry developers working in energy supply and waste management.
There are many aspects to consider when evaluating or improving an indoor environment; thermal comfort, energy saving, preservation of materials, hygiene and health are all key aspects which can be improved by passive methods of environmental control. Passive Methods as a Solution for Improving Indoor Environments endeavours to fill the lack of analysis in this area by using over ten years of research to illustrate the effects of methods such as thermal inertia and permeable coverings; for example, the use of permeable coverings is a well known passive method, but its effects and ways to improve indoor environments have been rarely analyzed. Passive Methods as a Solution for Improving Indoor Environments includes both software simulations and laboratory and field studies. Through these, the main parameters that characterize the behavior of internal coverings are defined. Furthermore, a new procedure is explained in depth which can be used to identify the real expected effects of permeable coverings such as energy conservation and local thermal comfort as well as their working periods in controlling indoor environments. This theoretical base is built on by considering future research work including patents and construction indications which will improve indoor environmental conditions with evidence from real data. This makes Passive Methods as a Solution for Improving Indoor Environments an ideal resource for specialists and researchers focusing on indoor air quality, thermal comfort, and energy saving or with a general interest in controlling indoor environments with passive methods.
Sustainable Bioenergy and Bioproducts considers the recent technological innovations and emerging concepts in biobased energy production and coproducts utilization. Each chapter in this book has been carefully selected and contributed by experts in the field to provide a good understanding of the various challenges and opportunities associated with sustainable production of biofuel. Sustainable Bioenergy and Bioproducts covers a broad and detailed range of topics including: production capacity of hydrocarbons in the plant kingdom, algae, and microbes; biomass pretreatment for biofuel production; microbial fuel cells; sustainable use of biofuel co-products; bioeconomy and transportation infrastructure impacts and assessment of environmental risks and the life cycle of biofuels. Researchers, practitioners, undergraduate and graduate students engaged in the study of biorenewables, and members of the well-informed public will find Sustainable Bioenergy and Bioproducts to be a useful and comprehensive research tool, describing the state of the art and recent developments in this field.
An apparently appropriate control scheme for PEM fuel cells may actually lead to an inoperable plant when it is connected to other unit operations in a process with recycle streams and energy integration. PEM Fuel Cells with Bio-Ethanol Processor Systems presents a control system design that provides basic regulation of the hydrogen production process with PEM fuel cells. It then goes on to construct a fault diagnosis system to improve plant safety above this control structure. PEM Fuel Cells with Bio-Ethanol Processor Systems is divided into two parts: the first covers fuel cells and the second discusses plants for hydrogen production from bio-ethanol to feed PEM fuel cells. Both parts give detailed analyses of modeling, simulation, advanced control, and fault diagnosis. They give an extensive, in-depth discussion of the problems that can occur in fuel cell systems and propose a way to control these systems through advanced control algorithms. A significant part of the book is also given over to computer-aided engineering software tools that can be used to evaluate the dynamic performance of the overall plant. PEM Fuel Cells with Bio-Ethanol Processor Systems is intended for use by researchers and advanced students on chemical, electrical-electronic and mechanical engineering courses in which dynamics and control are incorporated with the traditional steady-state coverage of flowsheet synthesis, engineering economics and optimization.
What lies beyond the era of fossil fuels? While most answers focus on different primary energy resources, Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors provides a completely new approach. Instead of providing a traditional consumption analysis of classical primary energy resources such as oil, coal, nuclear power and gas, Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors describes and assesses energy technologies, markets and future strategies, focusing on their capacity to produce, exchange, and use energy vectors. Special attention is given to the renewable energy resources available in different areas of the world and made exploitable by the integration of energy vectors in the global energy system. Clear definitions of energy vectors and energy systems are used as the basis for a complete explanation and assessment of up-to-date, available technologies for energy resources, transport and storage systems, conversion and use. The energy vectors scheme allows the potential realization of a worldwide sustainable energy system to fulfill global development expectations by minimizing both the impact on the environment, and the international political frictions for access to limited and concentrated resources. Energy Systems in the Era of Energy Vectors is an informative read for researchers and advanced students in industrial, energy and environmental engineering. It also contains valuable information for managers and technicians working in the energy sector.
Limited availability of grid-based electricity is a major challenge faced by many developing countries, particularly the rural population. Fuel-based lighting, such as the kerosene lantern, is widespread in these areas, but it is a poor alternative, contributing to global warming and causing serious health problems. Several developing countries are therefore now encouraging the use of sustainable lighting. Solar Lighting gives an in-depth analysis of energy-efficient light production through the use of solar-powered LED systems. The authors pay particular attention to the interplay between energy transformation and device efficiency. They also discuss diverse aspects of renewable energy, including how an improvement in the efficiency of appliances can reduce the cost of energy. Solar Lighting is written for physicists, environmental experts and lighting engineers. It is also suitable for undergraduate students in the fields of environmental science, electrical engineering and renewable energy.
Gas hydrates are both a huge energy resource and an environmental challenge. They have a significant impact on society because of their applications to the future of energy, protection of the environment and fuel transportation. Gas Hydrates opens up this fascinating, multidisciplinary field to non-specialists. It provides a scientific study of gas hydrates that considers their potential as an energy source while assessing the possible risk to the environment. The authors also examine the feasibility of using these natural compounds for storing and transporting gases such as methane and carbon dioxide. Diagrams and photos are used throughout Gas Hydrates to help readers understand the scientific and technical content. Each section has been designed so it can be read independently by academics and professionals in the oil and gas industry, as well as by all those with an interest in how hydrates combine to be an energy resource, an industrial challange and a geological hazard.
Natural plant fibers fibres are being increasingly used in manufacturing industrial products because of their renewable and biodegradable natures. Kenaf is an annual bast fibre crop that can provide fibres for several industrial applications (composites, insulation mats, absorbents, bedding material, etc.) as well as raw material for energy exploitation (solid biofuels). Kenaf: A Multi-Purpose Crop for Several Industrial Applications introduces the physiology and field management of kenaf, agronomy, productivity, harvesting as well as its the industrial and energy uses of this promising non-food crop. Including recent research collected by the BIOKENAF project, Kenaf: A Multi-Purpose Crop for Several Industrial Applications provides a global picture of state of the art research and developments with Kenaf from Asia, USA and Australia. This thorough introduction if followed up with an assessment of the crops economic viability as well as an the environmental impact assessment of kenaf. Although not a new crop, Kenaf: A Multi-Purpose Crop for Several Industrial Applications provides a comprehensive introduction to this crop and its developing applications for energy engineers, industry managers, politicians and managers working to develop sustainable energy sources and bio-economies.
Solar Energy in the Winemaking Industry fully documents all aspects of the modern solar winery, beginning with the main drivers (environmental, economic and political) and detailing the current winemaking industry and solar technologies available. It details the various energy demands in the winemaking process from harvest to bottling and beyond. Solar Energy in the Winemaking Industry catalogues the range of wineries globally that have installed a substantial solar collecting system and uses case study material to give the reader an appreciation of the diversity of solar winery facilities. From large industrial-style wineries to boutique family-run wineries; from new state-of-the-art facilities to 15th-century palaces, the application for solar is limitless. The book deals finally with the physical design, installation and operation of the solar system within the winery environment, detailing the equipment, methodologies, processes and concerns that must be addressed in their creation. This presents the reader with a range of solar design and system options, including: generic system type; installation; mounting arrangements; operation; different module and inverter components and configurations; connection; and finance. Owners, managers and planners involved in the design, building or management of a winemaking facility will derive particular benefit from Solar Energy in the Winemaking Industry, but it will also be of interest to anyone with an interest in the wine or solar industries.
Syngas from Waste presents the most recent concepts, methods and techniques for the preliminary design of a promising emerging technology: production of clean syngas from waste materials. An in-depth account is given of the steps necessary to achieve the optimum design and up-to-date tools are presented to support the designer's decision-making tasks: modelling, simulation and optimization. Numerous illustrations and tables are included to facilitate the reader's understanding, as well as suggestions for further reading. The text is complemented with practical examples and industrial applications ranging from clean power generation to complex combined heat and power systems and high purity hydrogen for use in fuel cells. Syngas from Waste contains high-quality contributions from leading experts in the field. It is intended for academics at MSc or PhD level, researchers and industry practitioners in syngas production and applications, who are involved in the design, retrofit design and evaluation activities of alternative scenarios. It contains valuable teaching material for lecturers and provides industry professionals with the know-how to evaluate and improve existing installations or even to design a new one.
Multicriteria Analysis and LCA Techniques introduces the reader to the basic principles of multicriteria analysis (MCA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques. The use of these tools is rapidly becoming essential in any feasibility study for comparing different solutions, selecting the most suitable ones, and for analyzing the interface of economy and environment. The main feature of Multicriteria Analysis and LCA Techniques is the application of a new approach to the analysis of energy balance and environmental impact of agro-industrial production chains. It gives detailed descriptions of a number of food and non-food agro-industrial applications of MCA and LCA, thereby providing the reader with practical examples of the implementation of these tools in the field of agro-industry. Multicriteria Analysis and LCA Techniques represents a subsidiary reference book for both undergraduate and graduate students, and can also be used for basic or applied academic research.
Small Wind Turbines provides a thorough grounding in analysing, designing, building, and installing a small wind turbine. Small turbines are introduced by emphasising their differences from large ones and nearly all the analysis and design examples refer to small turbines. The accompanying software includes MATLAB (R) programs for power production and starting performance, as well as programs for detailed multi-objective optimisation of blade design. A spreadsheet is also given to help readers apply the simple load model of the IEC standard for small wind turbine safety. Small Wind Turbines represents the distilled outcome of over twenty years experience in fundamental research, design and installation, and field testing of small wind turbines. Small Wind Turbines is a suitable reference for student projects and detailed design studies, and also provides important background material for engineers and others using small wind turbines for remote power and distributed generation applications.
The authors have tried to strike a balance between a short book chapter and a very detailed book for subject experts. There are three prime reasons behind for doing so: first, the field is quite interdisciplinary and requires simplified presentation for a person from non-parent discipline. The second reason for this short-version of a full book is that both the authors have seen students and technically oriented people, who were searching for this type of book on hydro energy. The third reason and motivation was considering engineers who are starting their career in hydro energy sector. This book is targeted to present a good starting background and basic understanding for such professionals.
Thermophotovoltaics is the science and technology associated with the direct generation of electricity from high temperature heat. Potential applications include combined heat and power, portable and auxiliary power, radioisotope space power, industrial waste heat recovery and concentrated solar power. This book aims at serving as an introduction to the underlying theory, overview of present day components and system arrangements, and update of the latest developments in the field. The emphasis is placed on the understanding of the critical aspects of efficient thermophotovoltaic system design. The aim is to assist researchers in the field.
Greening Airports considers the greening , i.e., more sustainable development, of the entire air transport system - airports, air traffic control, and airlines - that could be achieved by the development and implementation of advanced operations and technologies. A broad overview of the general concept is given at the start of Greening Airports, which then goes on to provide a system for monitoring and assessing the level of greening of both the air transport system and individual airports. These are followed by analysis and modelling of the potential effects of particular advanced operations and technologies on the greening of airports and their local airspace. These include: the development of a large airport into a multimodal transport node by connecting it to a high speed rail network; the use of operations supported by new and existing air traffic control technologies to increase landing capacity of existing runways; the use of liquid hydrogen as a commercial aviation fuel; and the improvement of airport ground accessibility by a light rail rapid transit system. Greening Airports is written for researchers, planners, operators and policy makers in air transport.
Differing interpretations, perspectives and expectations on the term sustainability exist. To take sustainability as an action guiding mandate for implementation it needs to be concrete and measurable as well it should weigh pros and cons. But how can such an integrated measurement in the field of renewable energy be conducted balancing the trade-offs between opposing indicators? Glances at Renewable and Sustainable Energy provides a thorough overview on the generic principles of sustainability assessment, including projective, thresholding and systemic principles and summarizes five common approaches for a holistic measurement. Approaches such as multi criteria decision analysis, ecological footprint analysis and normative-functional concepts are applied to different case studies in developed-, emerging and developing countries to cover a wide bandwidth of various renewable energy carriers under various conditions. Each case study includes 2 boxes illustrating the scheme behind the approach and exemplary calculations to allow a systematic comparison and a critical reflection of the methods applied. Compiling results on renewable energy assessment of the last decades, Glances at Renewable and Sustainable Energy gives researchers, students, consultants, politicians and entrepreneurs the tools to advance their oriental and instructional knowledge on sustainability and sustainability measurement, to reflect their decisions and tools for analysis and to transfer this knowledge into problem-solving.
Hybrid Hydrogen Systems for Stationary and Transportation Applications presents an original, comprehensive approach to hybrid energy system optimization and provides a much-needed systems approach to hydrogen energy applications. This textbook will be bought by graduate and senior undergraduate students studying renewable energy and the design and optimisation of hydrogen energy systems as well as the lecturers who teach these subjects. Hybrid Hydrogen Systems for Stationary and Transportation Applications will also be bought by researchers and practitioners working with hydrogen and fuel cells as well as policy makers and advocates of renewable energy.
Technologies such as renewable energy alternatives including wind, solar and biomass, storage technologies and electric engines are creating a different landscape for the electricity industry. Using sources and ideas from technologies such as renewable energy alternatives, Research and Technology Management in the Electricity Industry explores a different landscape for this industry and applies it to the electric industry supported by real industry cases. Divided into three sections, Research and Technology Management in the Electricity Industry introduces a range of methods and tools including technology assessment, forecasting, roadmapping, research and development portfolio management and technology transfer. These tools are the applied to emerging technologies in this industry with case studies including data from various organizations including Bonneville Power Administration and Energy Trust of Oregon, from sectors including lighting and wind energy. The final section considers innovation through these technologies. A product result of a collaboration between Bonneville Power Administration and Portland State University, Research and Technology Management in the Electricity Industry is a comprehensive collection of methods, tools, examples and pathways for future innovation in the electricity industry.
The problem of storing hydrogen safely and effectively is one of the major technological barriers currently preventing the widespread adoption of hydrogen as an energy carrier and the subsequent transition to a so-called hydrogen economy. Practical issues with the storage of hydrogen in both gas and liquid form appear to make reversible solid state hydrogen storage the most promising potential solution. Hydrogen Storage Materials addresses the characterisation of the hydrogen storage properties of the materials that are currently being considered for this purpose. The background to the topic is introduced, along with the various types of materials that are currently under investigation, including nanostructured interstitial and complex hydrides, and porous materials, such as metal-organic frameworks and microporous organic polymers. The main features of Hydrogen Storage Materials include: an overview of the different types of hydrogen storage materials and the properties that are of interest for their practical use; descriptions of the gas sorption measurement methods used to determine these properties, and the complementary techniques that can be used to help corroborate hydrogen uptake data; and extensive coverage of the practical considerations for accurate hydrogen sorption measurement that drive both instrument design and the development of experimental methodology. Hydrogen Storage Materials provides an up-to-date overview of the topic for experienced researchers, while including enough introductory material to serve as a useful, practical introduction for newcomers to the field.
This book investigates the existing situation of photovoltaic systems regarding environmental questions and energy efficiency in the European Industry, particularly the industrial units at the Greek area. A model of energy management based on economical, technical and administrative aspects is proposed in order to combine industrial uses of photovoltaics with environment protection.
Hydrogen Fuel Cells for Road Vehicles addresses the main issues related to the application of hydrogen fuel cell technology in the road transportation sector. A preliminary treatment is given on fuel resources and atmospheric pollution concerns which are closely related to the current technology (internal combustion engine) used for moving people and goods. The authors deal, in particular, with the problems that can hinder a widespread hydrogen market (production, storage and distribution), as well as giving an analysis of fuel cell technologies available for utilization of this energy carrier in the automotive field. Hydrogen Fuel Cells for Road Vehicles also examines the concerns faced during the design and realization of a PEM fuel cell system with optimal size and efficiency, evidencing the impact of the individual auxiliary components on energy losses and dynamic stack performance. The book ends with the analysis of two practical case studies on fuel cell propulsion systems. Hydrogen Fuel Cells for Road Vehicles is a useful text for researchers, professionals and advanced students in the fields of automotive and environmental engineering.
House Rating Schemes provides information to students, architects and researchers in the field of the built environment. It reviews current House Rating Schemes (HRS) used in different countries and investigates how these schemes assess the thermal performance of a house. It challenges the way that these schemes assess building energy efficiency and their inability to evaluate free running buildings which do not need an energy load for heating and cooling indoor environments. Finally, the book proposes a new index and method for HRS in which the efficiency of a house design can be evaluated with reference to its thermal performance in both free running and conditioned operation modes. The book deals with various approaches and methods for rating buildings on the basis of different indexes, with implications for both energy efficiency and thermal comfort. It also guides readers through a computer simulation program for developing a rating system that evaluates and ranks building energy efficiency.
Why has the clean, limitless energy promised by fusion always seemed just out of reach? Search for the Ultimate Energy Source: A History of the U.S. Fusion Energy Program, explains the fundamentals and concepts behind fusion power, and traces the development of fusion historically by decade-covering its history as dictated by US government policies, its major successes, and its prognosis for the future. The reader will gain an understanding of how the development of fusion has been shaped by changing government priorities as well as other hurdles currently facing realization of fusion power. Advance Praise for Search for the Ultimate Energy Source: Dr. Dean has been uniquely involved in world fusion research for decades and, in this book, describes the complicated realities like few others possibly could. -Robert L. Hirsch, a former director of the US fusion program, an Assistant Administrator of the US Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA); an executive at Exxon, Arco, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); and lead author of the book The Impending World Energy Mess (Apogee Prime Books, 2009). In this book, Dr. Dean provides the many reasons why fusion has progressed more slowly than many had hoped. Budget is usually cited as the culprit, but policy is equally to blame. Facilities have been closed down before their jobs were done-or in some cases, even started. It seems this situation has become endemic in fusion, and if one thinks about it, in other nationally important Science and Technology initiatives as well. -William R. Ellis, a former scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory, Associate Director of Research at the US Naval Research Laboratory, a vice president at Ebasco Services and at Raytheon, and chair of the US ITER Industry Council and the US ITER Industrial Consortium.
Organic solar cells have emerged as new promising photovoltaic devices due to their potential applications in large area, printable and flexible solar panels. Organic Solar Cells: Materials and Device Physics offers an updated review on the topics covering the synthesis, properties and applications of new materials for various critical roles in devices from electrodes, interface and carrier transport materials, to the active layer composed of donors and acceptors. Addressing the important device physics issues of carrier and exciton dynamics and interface stability and novel light trapping structures, the potential for hybrid organic solar cells to provide high efficiency solar cells is examined and discussed in detail. Specific chapters covers key areas including: Latest research and designs for highly effective polymer donors/acceptors and interface materials Synthesis and application of highly transparent and conductive graphene Exciton and charge dynamics for in-depth understanding of the mechanism underlying organic solar cells. New potentials and emerging functionalities of plasmonic effects in OSCs Interface Degradation Mechanisms in organic photovoltaics improving the entire device lifetime Device architecture and operation mechanism of organic/ inorganic hybrid solar cells for next generation of high performance photovoltaics This reference can be practically and theoretically applied by senior undergraduates, postgraduates, engineers, scientists, researchers, and project managers with some fundamental knowledge in organic and inorganic semiconductor materials or devices.
A major global issue that the world is facing today is the upcoming depletion of fossil fuels and the energy crisis. In 1998, the global annual energy consumption was 12. 7 TW; of which 80% was generated from fossil fuels. This also translates into huge annual emissions of CO that leads to massive environmental problems, 2 particularly the global warming, which could be disastrous. Future global annual energy needs are also estimated to rise dramatically. A major challenge confronting the world is to ?nd an additional 14-20 TW by 2050 when our energy reserves based on fossil fuels are vanishing. The massive demand for energy would require materials and/or processes that would help to provide new sources of clean ren- able energy or to develop processes that would harvest energy or to better utilize energy in an ef?cient manner. The present monograph, WOLEDs and Organic Photovoltaics - Recent Advances and Applications, focuses on a very important and timely subject of topical interest that deals with the more ef?cient use of energy through white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) for solid-state lighting and the development of clean sources of renewable energy through the harvesting of light energy for conversion into electrical energy in organic photovoltaics. While LED solid-state lighting and photovoltaics have been dominated by inorganic semiconductor materials and silicon-based solar cells, there have been growing interests in the development of WOLEDs and organic photovoltaics.
More than 1.3 billion people worldwide lack access to electricity. Although extension of the electricity grid remains the preferred mode of electrification, off-grid electrification can offer a solution to such cases. Rural Electrification through Decentralised Off-grid Systems in Developing Countries provides a review of rural electrification experiences with an emphasis on off-grid electrification and presents business-related aspects including participatory arrangements, financing, and regulatory governance. Organized in three parts, Rural Electrification through Decentralised Off-grid Systems in Developing Countries provides comprehensive coverage and state-of-the art reviews which appraise the reader of the latest trend in the thinking. The first part presents the background information on electricity access, discusses the developmental implications of lack of electricity infrastructure and provides a review of alternative off-grid technologies. The second part presents a review of experiences from various regions (South Asia, China, Africa, South East Asia and South America). Finally, the third part deals with business dimensions and covers participatory business models, funding challenges for electrification and regulatory and governance issues. Based on the research carried out under the EPSRC/ DfID funded research grant for off-grid electrification in South Asia, Rural Electrification through Decentralised Off-grid Systems in Developing Countries provides a multi-disciplinary perspective of the rural electrification challenge through off-grid systems. Providing a practical introduction for students, this is also a key reference for engineers and governing bodies working with off-grid electrification.
The latest scientific knowledge on climate change indicates that higher greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere through unchecked emissions will provoke severe climate change and ocean acidification. Both impacts can fundamentally alter environmental structures on which humanity relies and have serious consequences for the food chain among others. Climate change therefore poses major socio-economic, technical and environmental challenges which will have serious impacts on countries' pathways towards sustainable development. As a result, climate change and sustainable development have increasingly become interlinked. A changing climate makes achieving Millennium Development Goals more difficult and expensive, so there is every reason to achieve development goals with low greenhouse gas emissions. This leads to the following five challenges discussed by Challenges and Solutions for Climate Change: 1. To place climate negotiations in the wider context of sustainability, equity and social change so that development benefits can be maximised at the same time as decreasing greenhouse gas emissions. 2. To select technologies or measures for climate change mitigation and adaptation based on countries' sustainable development and climate goals. 3. To create low greenhouse gas emission and climate resilient strategies and action plans in order to accelerate innovation needed for achieving sustainable development and climate goals on the scale and timescale required within countries. 4. To rationalize the current directions in international climate policy making in order to provide coherent and efficient support to developing countries in devising and implementing strategies and action plans for low emission technology transfers to deliver climate and sustainable development goals. 5. To facilitate development of an international framework for financial resources in order to support technology development and transfer, improve enabling environments for innovation, address equity issues such as poor people's energy access, and make implementation of activities possible at the desired scale within the country. The solutions presented in Challenges and Solutions for Climate Change show how ambitious measures can be undertaken which are fully in line with domestic interests, both in developing and in developed countries, and how these measures can be supported through the international mechanisms.
Many people, professionals and non-professionals alike, recognize that it is of critical importance to solve global energy and environmental issues. For this purpose, it is essential to have a scientific understanding of what is meant by the energy issue is and the environmental issue. The concept of exergy is a scientific concept that exactly fits. The concept of 'energy' is a scientifically-well established concept, namely 'to be conserved'. Then the question is what is really consumed. Exergy: Theory and Applications in the Built Environment is dedicated to answer this fundamental question by discussing the theory of exergy and by demonstrating its use extensively to describe a variety of systems in particular for built-environmental conditioning. Our immediate environmental space works within the flow of energy and matter in an exergy-entropy process, and the built environment can be designed with these energy & environmental issues in mind. Exergy: Theory and Applications in the Built Environment introduces readers who are not familiar with thermodynamics to the concept of exergy with a variety of discussion on the built-environmental space such as heating, cooling, lighting, and others. Readers, including students, researchers, planners, architects and engineers, will obtain a better picture of a sustainable built-environment.
Renewable energy sources such as wind power have attracted much attention because they are environmentally friendly, do not produce carbon dioxide and other emitants, and can enhance a nation's energy security. For example, recently more significant amounts of wind power are being integrated into conventional power grids. Therefore, it is necessary to address various important and challenging issues related to wind power systems, which are significantly different from the traditional generation systems. This book is a resource for engineers, practitioners, and decision-makers interested in studying or using the power of computational intelligence based algorithms in handling various important problems in wind power systems at the levels of power generation, transmission, and distribution. Researchers have been developing biologically-inspired algorithms in a wide variety of complex large-scale engineering domains. Distinguished from the traditional analytical methods, the new methods usually accomplish the task through their computationally efficient mechanisms. Computational intelligence methods such as evolutionary computation, neural networks, and fuzzy systems have attracted much attention in electric power systems. Meanwhile, modern electric power systems are becoming more and more complex in order to meet the growing electricity market. In particular, the grid complexity is continuously enhanced by the integration of intermittent wind power as well as the current restructuring efforts in electricity industry. Quite often, the traditional analytical methods become less efficient or even unable to handle this increased complexity. As a result, it is natural to apply computational intelligence as a powerful tool to deal with various important and pressing problems in the current wind power systems. This book presents the state-of-the-art development in the field of computational intelligence applied to wind power systems by reviewing the most up-to-date work and representative practical problems collecting contributions from leading experts in electrical engineering, system engineering, and other disciplines.
Algae Energy covers the production of algae culture and the usage of algal biomass conversion products. It also reviews modern biomass-based transportation fuels, including biodiesel, bio-oil, biomethane and biohydrogen. Each chapter opens with fundamental explanations suitable for those with a general interest in algae energy and goes on to provide in-depth scientific details for more expert readers. Algae energy is discussed within the wider context of green energy, with chapters covering topics such as: green energy facilities, algae technology, energy from algae and biodiesel from algae. Algae Energy addresses the needs of energy researchers, chemical engineers, fuel and environmental engineers, postgraduate and advanced undergraduate students, and others interested in a practical tool for pursuing their interest in bio-energy.
In the past decade, there has been a substantial increase of grid-feeding photovoltaic applications, thus raising the importance of solar electricity in the energy mix. This trend is expected to continue and may even increase. Apart from the high initial investment cost, the fluctuating nature of the solar resource raises particular insertion problems in electrical networks. Proper grid managing demands short- and long-time forecasting of solar power plant output. Weather modeling and forecasting of PV systems operation is focused on this issue. Models for predicting the state of the sky, nowcasting solar irradiance and forecasting solar irradiation are studied and exemplified. Statistical as well as artificial intelligence methods are described. The efficiency of photovoltaic converters is assessed for any weather conditions. Weather modeling and forecasting of PV systems operation is written for researchers, engineers, physicists and students interested in PV systems design and utilization.
Concrete is the most used man-made material in the world since its invention. The widespread use of this material has led to continuous developments such as ultra-high strength concrete and self-compacting concrete. Recycled Aggregate in Concrete: Use of Industrial, Construction and Demolition Waste focuses on the recent development which the use of various types of recycled waste materials as aggregate in the production of various types of concrete. By drawing together information and data from various fields and sources, Recycled Aggregate in Concrete: Use of Industrial, Construction and Demolition Waste provides full coverage of this subject. Divided into two parts, a compilation of varied literature data related to the use of various types of industrial waste as aggregates in concrete is followed by a discussion of the use of construction and demolition waste as aggregate in concrete. The properties of the aggregates and their effect on various concrete properties are presented, and the quantitative procedure to estimate the properties of concrete containing construction and demolition waste as aggregates is explained. Current codes and practices developed in various countries to use construction and demolition waste as aggregates in concrete and issues related to the sustainability of cement and concrete production are also discussed. The comprehensive information presented in Recycled Aggregate in Concrete: Use of Industrial, Construction and Demolition Waste will be helpful to graduate students, researchers and concrete technologists. The collected data will also be an essential reference for practicing engineers who face problems concerning the use of these materials in concrete production.
While most books approach power electronics and renewable energy as two separate subjects, Power Electronics for Renewable and Distributed Energy Systems takes an integrative approach; discussing power electronic converters topologies, controls and integration that are specific to the renewable and distributed energy system applications. An overview of power electronic technologies is followed by the introduction of various renewable and distributed energy resources that includes photovoltaics, wind, small hydroelectric, fuel cells, microturbines and variable speed generation. Energy storage systems such as battery and fast response storage systems are discussed along with application-specific examples. After setting forth the fundamentals, the chapters focus on more complex topics such as modular power electronics, microgrids and smart grids for integrating renewable and distributed energy. Emerging topics such as advanced electric vehicles and distributed control paradigm for power system control are discussed in the last two chapters. With contributions from subject matter experts, the diagrams and detailed examples provided in each chapter make Power Electronics for Renewable and Distributed Energy Systems a sourcebook for electrical engineers and consultants working to deploy various renewable and distributed energy systems and can serve as a comprehensive guide for the upper-level undergraduates and graduate students across the globe.
Energy for a Warming World challenges the commonplace notion that the amount of power which mankind can potentially harness from renewable resources is more than large enough to assuage future demand levels. By examining the renewable issue from an electrical engineering perspective, and exercising due regard for the limited capability of current and future electrical generation and transmission systems, this book attempts to provide more realistic statistics for the levels of power which could be extracted from sustainable resources in the critical time frame of 30 to 40 years. The engineering logic leads inexorably to the importance of taking a global outlook on the switch to renewable power supply and transmission - an outlook which has some surprising and uncomfortable ramifications for mankind. Energy for a Warming World provides a new perspective on renewable resources for academics and researchers in environmental or electrical power engineering, as well as to students in related areas.
Gas hydrates represent one of the world's largest untapped reservoirs of energy and, according to some estimates, have the potential to meet global energy needs for the next thousand years. Methane Gas Hydrate examines this potential by focusing on methane gas hydrate, which is increasingly considered a significant source of energy. Methane Gas Hydrate gives a general overview of natural gas, before delving into the subject of gas hydrates in more detail and methane gas hydrate in particular. As well as discussing methods of gas production, it also discusses the safety and environmental concerns associated with the presence of natural gas hydrates, ranging from their possible impact on the safety of conventional drilling operations to their influence on Earth's climate. Methane Gas Hydrate is a useful reference on an increasingly popular energy source. It contains valuable information for chemical engineers and researchers, as well as for postgraduate students.
Emissions of CO2 have come to be regarded as the main factor in climate change in recent years, and how to control them has become a pressing issue. The problem cannot simply be labeled a technological one, however, because it is deeply involved with social and economic issues. Since 2008, the Global Center of Excellence (COE) program titled Energy Science in the Age of Global Warming-Toward a CO2 Zero-Emission Energy System has been held at Kyoto University, Japan. The program aims to establish an international education and research platform to foster educators, researchers, and policy makers who can develop technologies and propose policies toward a zero-emission society by the year 2100. Setting out a zero-emission technology roadmap, Global COE promotes socioeconomic studies of energy, the study of new technologies for renewable energies, and research in advanced nuclear energy. A compilation of the lectures and presentations from the first symposium of Global COE held at Kyoto University, this book is intended to provide the impetus for the establishment of low carbon energy science to bring about harmony between mankind and the environment.
Industrial biorefineries have been identified as the most promising routes to the creation of a bio-based economy. Partial biorefineries already exist in some energy crop, forest-based, and lignocellulosic product facilities. Biorefineries: For Biomass Upgrading Facilities examines the variety of different technologies which integrated bio-based industries use to produce chemicals; biofuels; food and feed ingredients; biomaterials; and power from biomass raw materials. Conversion technologies are also covered, since biomass can be converted into useful biofuels and biochemicals via biomass upgrading and biorefinery technologies. Biorefineries: For Biomass Upgrading Facilities will prove a practical resource for chemical engineers, and fuel and environmental engineers. It will also be invaluable in academic fields, providing useful information for both researchers and students.
A growing proportion of the world's population is dependent on Seawater Desalination as a source of fresh water for both potable and civil use. One of the main drawbacks of conventional desalination technologies is the substantial energy requirement, which is facing cost increases in the global energy market. Seawater Desalination presents an overview of conventional and non-conventional technologies, with a particular focus on the coupling of renewable energies with desalination processes. The first section of this book presents, in a technical but reader-friendly way, an overview of currently-used desalination processes, from thermal to membrane processes, highlighting the relevant technical features, advantages and disadvantages, and development potential. It also gives a rapid insight into the economic aspects of fresh water production from seawater. The second section of the book presents novel processes which use Renewable Energies for fresh water production. From the first solar still evaporators, which artificially reproduced the natural cycle of water, technology has progressed to develop complex systems to harness energy from the sun, wind, tides, waves, etc. and then to use this energy to power conventional or novel desalination processes. Most of these processes are still at a preliminary stage of development, but some are already being cited as examples in remote areas, where they are proving to be valuable in solving the problems of water scarcity. A rapid growth in these technologies is foreseen in the coming years. This book provides a unique foundation, within the context of present and future sustainability, for professionals, technicians, managers, and private and public institutions operating in the area of fresh water supply.
Authors have tried to strike a balance between a short book chapter and a very detailed book for subject experts. There were three prime reasons behind doing so: first, the field is quite interdisciplinary and requires simplified presentation for a person from non-parent discipline. Second reason for this short-version of a full book is that both the authors have seen students and technically oriented people, searching for this type of book on wind energy. Third reason and motivation was considering engineers who are starting their career in wind industry. This book is targeted to present a good starting background to such professionals.
Bridging the gap between concepts derived from Second Law of Thermodynamics and their application to Engineering practice, the property exergy and the exergy balance can be a tool for analyzing and improving the performance of energy conversion processes. With the exergy analysis it is possible to evaluate the performance of energy conversion processes not only on a thermodynamics basis but also by including production costs and environmental aspects and impacts of the studied processes. This comprehensive approach of the use of energy has, as one of the most important feature, the identification of sustainable ways of energy resources utilization. Based on the fundamentals of the exergy concept, its calculation, graphical representations and exergy balances evaluation, Exergy: Production Cost And Renewability describes the application of detailed exergy and thermoeconomic analysis to power plants and polygeneration systems, petroleum production and refining plants (including hydrogen production), chemical plants, biofuel production routes, combined production of ethanol and electricity, aircraft systems design, environmental impact mitigation processes and human body behavior. The presented case studies aim at providing students, researchers and engineers with guidelines to the utilization of the exergy and thermoeconomic analysis to model, simulate and optimize real processes and industrial plants.
The production and consumption of energy carriers in complex buildings take place within the network of interconnected energy processes. For this reason, a change carried out in one energy process influences other energy processes. Therefore, all balance equations of energy carriers should be investigated as a whole, and energy management of complex buildings creates a large energy system with internal relationships between energy installations and the equipment, as well as external relationships with the environment. Energy Systems of Complex Buildings presents the system approach to the energy-ecological analysis of energy management in complex buildings. Mathematical models of balancing the direct energy consumption, as well as cumulative energy consumption and cumulative emission of noxious substances are based on input-output analysis. Algorithms devoted to system analysis in the exploitation of energy management of complex buildings are included. In the case of ecological analysis, a new approach is presented basing on the idea of thermoecological costs. In this way, two groups of noxious influence (depletion of non-renewable energy resources and emissions of noxious substances) are taken into account. The LCA energy-ecological analysis of complex buildings has also been presented. Students, building designers, energy auditors, and researchers will learn the methodology of evaluating the energy and ecological effects by applying new technologies and devices in buildings, which influence future investigations concerning the energy and ecological analysis of complex buildings.
Underground thermal energy storage (UTES) provide us with a flexible tool to combat global warming through conserving energy while utilizing natural renewable energy resources. Primarily, they act as a buffer to balance fluctuations in supply and demand of low temperature thermal energy. Underground Thermal Energy Storage provides an comprehensive introduction to the extensively-used energy storage method. Underground Thermal Energy Storage gives a general overview of UTES from basic concepts and classifications to operation regimes. As well as discussing general procedures for design and construction, thermo-hydro geological modeling of UTES systems is explained. Finally, current real life data and statistics are include to summarize major global developments in UTES over the past decades. The concise style and thorough coverage makes Underground Thermal Energy Storage a solid introduction for students, engineers and geologists alike.
Biohydrogen: For Future Engine Fuel Demands covers the production, purification, storage, pipeline transport, usage, and safety of biohydrogen. Hydrogen promises to be the most significant fuel source of the future, due to its global availability and the fact that water is its only by-product. Biofuels such as bioethanol, biodiesel, bio-oil, and biohydrogen are produced using technologies for thermochemically and biologically converting biomass. Hydrogen fuel production technologies can make use of either non-renewable sources, or renewable sources such as wind, solar, and biorenewable resources. Biohydrogen: For Future Engine Fuel Demands reviews all of the modern biomass-based transportation fuels, including bioethanol, biodiesel, biogas, biohydrogen, and fuel cells. The book also discusses issues of biohydrogen economy, policy and environmental impact. Biohydrogen looks set to be the fuel of choice in the future, replacing both fossil fuels and biorenewable liquid fuels.
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) operate at high temperatures allowing more fuel flexibility and also useful heat output and so increase total efficiency, but does give some interesting engineering challenges. Solid Oxide Fuels Cells: Facts and Figures provides clear and accurate data for a selection of SOFC topics from the specific details of Ni cermet anodes, chemical expansion in materials, and the measuring and modelling of mechanical stresses, to the broader scope of the history and present design of cells, to SOFC systems and the future of SOFC. Celebrating Ulf Bossel's work on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, and especially his running of the European Fuel Cell Forum, Solid Oxide Fuels Cells: Facts and Figures covers important topics on the way including intermediate temperature fuel cells, metal supported fuel cells and both new materials and engineering solutions to some of the challenges of getting SOFC to market. The chapters are based on the special plenary talks given by some of the most respected and talented people in the field at the 2010 European SOFC Forum in Luzern and the title for this book comes from the report produced by Ulf for the IEA Final Report on SOFC Data, Facts and Figures , Swiss Federal Office of Energy, Berne, 1992. The comprehensive nature of Solid Oxide Fuels Cells: Facts and Figures makes it a key resource of SOFC topics for students, lecturers, researchers and industry practitioners alike.
Modeling of photovoltaic sources and their emulation by means of power electronic converters are challenging issues. The former is tied to the knowledge of the electrical behavior of the PV generator; the latter consists in its realization by a suitable power amplifier. This extensive introduction to the modeling of PV generators and their emulation by means of power electronic converters will aid in understanding and improving design and set up of new PV plants. The main benefit of reading Photovoltaic Sources is the ability to face the emulation of photovoltaic generators obtained by the design of a suitable equipment in which voltage and current are the same as in a real source. This is achieved according to the following steps: the source electrical behavior modeling, the power converter design, including its control, for the laboratory emulator. This approach allows the reader to cope with the creation of an indoor virtual photovoltaic plant, in which the environmental conditions can be imposed by the user, for testing real operation including maximum power point tracking, partial shading, control for the grid or load interfacing, etc. Photovoltaic Sources is intended to meet the demands of postgraduate level students, and should prove useful to professional engineers and researchers dealing with the problems associated with modeling and emulation of photovoltaic sources.
Among renewable sources wind power systems have developed to prominent s- pliers of electrical energy. Since the 1980s they have seen an exponential increase, both in unit power ratings and overall capacity. While most of the systems are found on dry land, preferably in coastal regions, off-shore wind parks are expected to add signi?cantly to wind energy conversion in the future. The theory of modern wind turbines has not been established before the 20th century. Currently wind turbines with three blades and horizontal shaft prevail. The drivenelectricgeneratorsareoftheasynchronousorsynchronoustype,withorwi- out interposed gearbox. Modern systems are designed for variable speed operation which make power electronic devices play an important part in wind energy conv- sion. Manufacturing has reached the state of a high-tech industry. Countries prominent for the amount of installed wind turbine systems feeding into the grid are in Europe Denmark, Germany and Spain. Outside Europe it is the United States of America and India who stand out with large rates of increase. The market and the degree of contribution to the energy consumption in a country has been strongly in?uenced by National support schemes, such as guaranteed feed-in tariffs or tax credits. Due to the personal background of the author, the view is mainly directed on Europe, and many examples are taken from the German scene. However, the sit- tion in other continents, especially North America and Asia is also considered.
The authors of this timely reference provide an updated and global view on ocean wave energy conversion - and they do so for wave energy developers as well as for students and professors. The book is orientated to the practical solutions that this new industry has found so far and the problems that any device needs to face. It describes the actual principles applied to machines that convert wave power to electricity and examines state-of-the-art modern systems.
Aline Leon In the last years, public attention was increasingly shifted by the media and world governmentsto the conceptsof saving energy,reducingpollution,protectingthe - vironment, and developing long-term energy supply solutions. In parallel, research funding relating to alternative fuels and energy carriers is increasing on both - tional and international levels. Why has future energy supply become such a matter of concern? The reasons are the problems created by the world's current energy supply s- tem which is mainly based on fossil fuels. In fact, the energystored in hydrocarb- based solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels was, is, and will be widely consumed for internal combustion engine-based transportation, for electricity and heat generation in residential and industrial sectors, and for the production of fertilizers in agric- ture, as it is convenient, abundant, and cheap. However, such a widespread use of fossil fuels by a constantly growing world population (from 2. 3 billion in 1939 to 6. 5 billion in 2006) gives rise to the two problems of oil supply and environmental degradation. The problemrelated to oil supply is caused by the fact that fossil fuels are not - newable primary energy sources: This means that since the rst barrel of petroleum has been pumped out from the ground, we have been exhausting a heritage given by nature.
Biofuel is a renewable energy source produced from natural materials. The benefits of biofuels over traditional petroleum fuels include greater energy security, reduced environmental impact, foreign exchange savings, and socioeconomic issues related to the rural sector. The most common biofuels are produced from classic food crops that require high-quality agricultural land for growth. However, bioethanol can be produced from plentiful, domestic, cellulosic biomass resources such as herbaceous and woody plants, agricultural and forestry residues, and a large portion of municipal and industrial solid waste streams. There is also a growing interest in the use of vegetable oils for making biodiesel. Biofuels: Securing the Planet's Future Energy Needs discusses the production of transportation fuels from biomass (such as wood, straw and even household waste) by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The book is an important text for students and researchers in energy engineering, as well as professional fuel engineers.
Biofuels for Road Transport: A Seed to Wheel Perspective provides a review of the history, the current status and perspectives for biofuels used in road transport, across the full 'seed-to-wheel' life cycle of these fuels. Successive chapters cover the history of biofuels; the first- and second-generation liquid fuels and biofuels for powering electric vehicles; fossil fuel replacement, land requirement, greenhouse gas balances and environmental burdens of ethanol, esters derived from fatty acids ('biodiesel'), Fischer-Tropsch diesel and HTU diesel; competing technologies (fossil fuels, increases in energy-efficiency and photovoltaic power) and how they compare to biofuels; and the perspectives for biofuels. Cost, availability, technological development, competition with biomass for food and for soil organic carbon and environmental perspectives are also discussed.
Stability Augmentation of a Grid-connected Wind Farm introduces a comprehensive approach to stabilizing the power output from wind farms, covering both fixed and variable speed wind turbine generator systems. The book presents the different tools suitable for application in wind farms, together with modeling and control strategies. The book reports on output power and terminal voltage fluctuation minimization, using the integration of energy storage systems with power electronic converters. Transient stability enhancement of the power systems is also discussed. Stability Augmentation of a Grid-connected Wind Farm provides advanced tools with detailed modeling and controller design, including extensive simulation results.
Global Warming: Engineering Solutions goes beyond the discussion of what global warming is, and offers complete concrete solutions that can be used to help prevent global warming. Innovative engineering solutions are needed to reduce the effects of global warming. Discussed here are proposed engineering solutions for reducing global warming resulting from carbon dioxide pollution, poor energy and environment policies and emission pollution. Solutions discussed include but are not limited to: energy conversion technologies and their advantages, energy management and conservation, energy saving and energy security, renewable and sustainable energy technologies, emission reduction, sustainable development; pollution control and measures, policy development, global energy stability and sustainability.
In recent years, the concept of energy has been revised and a new model based on the principle of sustainability has become more and more pervasive. The appraisal of energy technologies and projects is complex and uncertain as the related decision making has to encompass environmental, technical, economic and social factors and information sources. The scientific procedure of assessment has a vital role as it can supply the right tools to evaluate the actual situation and make realistic forecasts of the effects and outcomes of any actions undertaken. Assessment and Simulation Tools for Sustainable Energy Systems offers reviews of the main assessment and simulation methods used for effective energy assessment. Divided across three sections, Assessment and Simulation Tools for Sustainable Energy Systems develops the reader's ability to select suitable tools to support decision making and implementation of sustainable energy projects. The first is dedicated to the analysis of theoretical foundations and applications of multi-criteria decision making. This is followed by chapters concentrating on the theory and practice of fuzzy inference, neural nets and algorithms genetics. Finally, simulation methods such as Monte Carlo analysis, mathematical programming and others are detailed. This comprehensive illustration of these tools and their application makes Assessment and Simulation Tools for Sustainable Energy Systems a key guide for researchers, scientists, managers, politicians and industry professionals developing the field of sustainable energy systems. It may also prompt further advancements in soft computing and simulation issues for students and researchers.
Offshore wind energy is one of the most promising and fastest growing alternative energy sources in the world. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling provides a methodological framework to assess installation and decommissioning costs, and using examples from the European experience, provides a broad review of existing processes and systems used in the offshore wind industry. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling provides a step-by-step guide to modeling costs over four sections. These sections cover: *Background and introductory material, *Installation processes and vessel requirements, *Installation cost estimation, and *Decommissioning methods and cost estimation. This self-contained and detailed treatment of the key principles in offshore wind development is supported throughout by visual aids and data tables. Offshore Wind Energy Cost Modeling is a key resource for anyone interested in the offshore wind industry, particularly those interested in the technical and economic aspects of installation and decommissioning. The book provides a reliable point of reference for industry practitioners and policy makers developing generalizable installation or decommissioning cost estimates.