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This book discusses privatization of law enforcement in relation to suspected corporate crime and recommends guidelines for successful fraud examinations. There is a growing business for global auditing and local law firms to conduct internal investigations at client organizations when there is suspicion of white-collar misconduct and crime. This book reflects on the work by these private fraud examiners in terms of an evaluation of their investigation reports. The book brings an original theoretical and methodological approach to investigations of white-collar crime. It develops the theory of convenience as an explanation for motive, opportunity, and willingness to commit and conceal white-collar crime. This theory is then related to the case studies. Structured in such a way as to allow the reader to use the text as a nonsequential reference source or guide to a set of connected issues, the book illustrates the practice of privatization by cases and presents guidelines for successful fraud examination. As an investigation can lead to conviction and incarceration, this privatization of crime investigation feeds into the larger issue of privatization of policing. The work will be a valuable resource for students, academics, and practitioners working in the areas of Criminal Justice, Corporate Law, and Business.
This book discusses private policing conducted by fraud examiners and financial crime specialists when there is suspicion of white-collar crime. The theory of convenience applies to the suspected crime, while the maturity model applies to the conducted investigation. Private policing of economic crime by fraud examiners in internal investigations is a topic of increasing concern as there is a growing business for law firms and auditing firms to conduct inquiries and reviews when there is suspicion of misconduct, wrongdoing, and crime by white-collar offenders. The key features of this book are the application of a structural model for convenience theory and the application of a maturity model for fraud examinations. The structural model assesses convenience themes for motive, opportunity, and willingness in each case study, while the maturity model assesses the level of private policing maturity in fraud examinations. For the first time, two emerging frameworks to study white-collar offenses and private policing maturity are introduced and applied to a number of cases from Denmark, Iceland, Moldova, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland. This book will be essential to those studying law, business, and criminology, as well as practicing fraud examiners.
This book introduces a dynamic perspective to study white-collar crime. It argues that as personal motives change over time, so too do organizational opportunities, and willingness for deviant behavior. The work contends that the extent of white-collar crime is dependent on the extent of crime convenience perceived and preferred by potential offenders. It discusses how potential white-collar offenders expand organizational opportunities for financial crime over time. The dynamics are illustrated here by system dynamics models to capture cause and effect relationships. The book also presents a new structural model illustrating the elements of convenience theory along with a new dynamic model illustrating the evolution of white-collar crime. The practical aspects are illustrated with a number of case studies. The book will be of interest to researchers, academics and professionals working in the areas of Criminal Justice, Criminology, Criminal Law and Business Studies.
This brief extends studies on how corporations respond to scandals by examining the evolution of the accounts that corporate agents develop after a scandal becomes public. Guided by the theory of accounts and a recently developed perspective on crisis management, its examines how the accounts developed by thirteen corporations caught up in highly publicized scandals changed from the time of initial exposure to the issuance of an investigative report. This brief continues the discussion of the broader managerial and social implications of the analysis of accounts, and analyses their effect on our understanding of the ability of corporations to weather serious scandals. It includes four case studies; from Switzerland, Moldova, Denmark, and Norway respectively.
Understanding White-Collar Crime develops the concept of convenience as the main explanation for crime occurrence. Examining all three dimensions of crime-economic, organizational, and behavioral-the book argues that when white-collar crime becomes less convenient, crime rates will go down. By applying convenience theory to an empirical sample of convicted white-collar criminals, the text teaches criminal justice students and ethics and compliance practitioners to identify and understand how opportunity affects real-world criminal situations. Internal investigations of white-collar crime are discussed, and corporate social responsibility against white-collar crime is emphasized. Understanding White-Collar Crime: A Convenience Perspective examines not only the theories behind white-collar crime, but also explores methods used in criminal justice investigations into corporate fraud, and emphasizes the importance of corporate social responsibility in reducing crimes of this nature. Criminal justice students and practitioners should not miss this close look into the world of white-collar crime.
This volume presents the latest scholarly research on the practice of public corruption. The authors explore the causes and methods of fraud-related crime, as well as how it can be detected. The book also investigates the best strategies to prevent corruption, as well as convention punishments for those convicted. Intended for criminal justice students and practitioners, Public Corruption: Regional and National Perspectives on Procurement Fraud is a valuable resource for all stages of fraud investigation.
In Fraud Examiners in White-Collar Crime Investigations, Petter Gottschalk examines and evaluates the investigative processes used to combat white-collar crime. He also presents a general theory regarding the economic, organizational, and behavioral dimensions of its perpetrators. Pool Your Resources for a Successful Investigation Gottschalk emphasizes the importance of collaboration across multiple disciplines including accounting, law, and forensic science in solving each case of suspected white-collar crime. He describes each case as a puzzle or project consisting of several steps and several participating individuals or organizations. Since so many people participate in an investigation, Gottschalk advises that objectively acquired and communicated information is vital to successful results. Fraud Examiners in White-Collar Crime Investigations approaches case studies from the perspectives of police science and detective work rather than auditing and legal thinking. Gottschalk asserts that the private detective rather than the firm lawyer is the more potentially successful fraud examiner. His approach emphasizes the importance of using strategy and practice in yielding results toward solving a case and highlights the use of interviews. He looks at the role of people as significant resources of information to help solve white-collar criminal cases and explains how a well-conducted interview can have a significant impact on the progress of an investigation. Through the analyses theories Gottschalk presents, this book gives you a useful tool for understanding characteristics of white-collar crime and for devising strategies for conducting and evaluating investigations of suspected white-collar crimes.
This book outlines the theory of convenience for white-collar crime to explain what motivates and enables offenders, providing a unique focus on white-collar crime in the business context. The theory of convenience suggests that the extent to which elite members commit and conceal economic crime is dependent on their extent of orientation towards convenience in problematic and attractive situations. Chapters are organized along the main theoretical dimensions of economical motive, organizational opportunity, and personal willingness. In addition, this book: Addresses a business audience by focusing on themes familiar to corporations Documents attitudes towards white-collar crime among business students and future business leaders Analyzes how convenience orientation varies among individuals Analyzes autobiographies of convicted white-collar offenders Demonstrates the various ways in which white-collar crime occurs The Convenience of White-Collar Crime in Business contributes to an increased understanding of white-collar crime, offering valuable insight in business education that supplements the traditional roles of topics like auditing and compliance in education and practice. It is a useful resource for researchers and law enforcement, and those involved in the detection, prosecution, and conviction of white-collar offenders.
When criminal activity is as straightforward as a child's game of cops and robbers, the role of the police is obvious, but today's bad guys don't always wear black. In fact, the most difficult criminals to cope with are those who straddle the gray divide between licit and illicit activity. Many of these nefarious sorts operate on the fringe of society, often acting the part of businesspersons, meeting the demands of otherwise law-abiding clientele with illegally procured or delivered goods. Others, specially trained to occupy positions of responsibility, make the most of position and special knowledge to partake of ill-gotten gains. Then there are the organized crime families and syndicates who make use of common business models to turn dubious undertakings into profitable ventures. Policing Organized Crime: Intelligence Strategy Implementation addresses these very real types of modern criminals. It examines the methods and motives of those operating on the fringes of society, including more obvious outlaws as well as less obvious lawyers, businesspeople, and bankers, social outcasts as well as devoted family people. Written by Petter Gottschalk, an internationally respected police expert in organized crime, this book details the workings of entrepreneurial crime through the use of case studies from around the world. He presents strategies that will alter the thinking and investigative styles of those police charged with the responsibility of preventing and putting a stop to business crimes. Implementation of an effective intelligence strategy is a key element in his thinking. He demonstrates the shrewd skill set required to bring down those criminals who twist the rules of supply and demand with business models designed to maximize illegal gain. This important resource is a volume in the Advances in Police Theory and Practice Series, which features the work of international experts who provide researchers and those i
This book examines internal fraud investigations in public and private organizations. It provides a theoretical framework of white-collar crime and convenience theory, to examine a number of case studies, including some cases brought to light by the Panama Papers. Investigating white-collar crime is distinguished from other types of crime by: concealment of the crime rather than the criminal, victims who may be unaware of the crime and not directly visible to the criminal, and the resources available to suspects. It requires a unique strategy and a unique set of tools. This work provides insight into a number of internal investigation reports that are normally not publicly available. It will be of interest to researchers in criminology and criminal justice, particularly with an interest in white collar crime and corruption, as well as related fields such as business, management, economics, and public administration.
This book aims to bridge the gap between general CEO research, which is traditionally focused on positive aspects of leadership, and lesser understood research into CEO misconduct and crime. Gottschalk introduces convenience theory as an integrated explanation for CEO involvement in white-collar crime. The chief executive officer is a unique position within an organization in terms of power and influence, role and behavior, compensation and benefits, and conflict and competition. The convenience perspective suggests that motivation (personal and organizational goals), opportunity (offense and concealment in an organizational context), as well as behavior (lack of control and neutralization of guilt) make financial crime a convenient option to avoid threats and to exploit opportunities. A thorough and methodical study, this book will be of special interest to scholars of corporate social responsibility and criminological theory.
This book introduces 'convenience' as the key concept to explain financial crime by white-collar criminals. Based on a number of fraud examination- reports from the United States and Norway, the book documents empirical evidence of convenience among white-collar criminals. It advances our understanding of white-collar crime by drawing attention to private investigation reports by fraud examiners and financial crime specialists, who are in the growing business of fraud investigations. Reports of investigations have never before been researched in terms of white-collar criminals nor crime convenience. Reports of investigations by auditing and law firms represent a valuable empirical basis - in addition to court documents and other sources of information about financial crime. A methodical and well-researched study, this book will be of particular interest to scholars of criminological theory and law - in addition to ethics courses in business schools.
Investigating white-collar crime is like any other investigation concerned with past events. However, a number of characteristics require a contingent approach to these investigations. This book describes the process of conducting private internal investigations by fraud examiners and presents a number of reports from the United States, Sweden and Norway. It evaluates a number of internal investigation reports to reflect on the practice of fraud examinations. Empirical studies provide a basis to reflect theoretically on practice improvements for fraud examiners. Rather than presenting normative recommendations based on ideal or stereotype situations so often found in existing books, this book develops guidelines based on empirical study of current practice. Internal investigations should uncover the truth about misconduct or crime without damaging the reputation of innocent employees. Typical elements of an inquiry include collection and examination of written and recorded evidence, interviews with suspects and witnesses, data in computer systems, and network forensics. Internal inquiries may take many forms, depending upon the nature of the conduct at issue and the scope of the investigation. There should be recognition at the outset of any investigation that certain materials prepared during the course of the investigation may eventually be subject to disclosure to law enforcement authorities or other third parties. The entire investigation should be conducted with an eye towards preparing a final report. As evidenced in this book, private fraud examiners take on complicated roles in private internal investigations and often fail in their struggle to reconstruct the past in objective ways characterized by integrity and accountability.
Internal Investigations of Economic Crime by Petter Gottschalk
This book is concerned with private investigations into suspicions of financial crime committed by white-collar criminals. Financial crime is illegal possession of others property, it is crime directed towards values of others for personal or organisational advantage, which is carried out by non-physical means and by manipulating and hiding criminal activities within regular business activities. It is with purpose, it is a break of trust, and it causes loss. White-collar criminals are persons who carry out financial crime in the context of their profession. It is individuals who enjoy respect and trust, they have a high social status in society, they occupy important positions in organisations, and they abuse trust and position as offenders. Their financial crime is hidden among legal financial transactions. This book is about financial crime specialists and fraud examiners who conduct private inquiries into suspicion of white-collar crime. A private investigation is conducted by a variety of private sector financial crime specialists who can be detectives, forensic accountants, psychologists, or lawyers, all of whom may be supported by investigative analysts. This book applies a perspective where research, study, investigation, inquiry and analysis are important to find the truth and its causes in a case. Therefore, this book is more influenced by police science and detective work, rather than laws and legal thinking. It is the private detective rather than the firm lawyer who is a potentially successful fraud examiner when it comes to abuse of power and suspicion of financial crime by the elite in society. But most of all is successful investigation characterised by a multifaceted and multidisciplinary work, including accountants, auditors, lawyers, organisational experts, forensic scientists and detectives. Their knowledge exchange and collaboration is needed to solve each financial crime case, which is like a puzzle. If one piece is missing, the puzzle will never be complete.