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A cutting-edge media history on a perennially fascinating topic, which attempts to answer the crucial question: Who is in charge, the servant or the master? Though classic servants like the butler or the governess have largely vanished, the Internet is filled with servers: web, ftp, mail, and others perform their daily drudgery, going about their business noiselessly and unnoticed. Why then are current-day digital drudges called servers? Markus Krajewski explores this question by going from the present back to the Baroque to study historical aspects of service through various perspectives, be it the servants' relationship to architecture or their function in literary or scientific contexts. At the intersection of media studies, cultural history, and literature, this work recounts the gradual transition of agency from human to nonhuman actors to show how the concept of the digital server stems from the classic role of the servant.
This is the first book ever to assess comprehensively the impact of EU international agreements on services of general interest. Services of general interest remain high on the political and legal agenda of the European Union. However, the debates about the impact of EU law on services of general interest usually focus on internal market law such as the free movement of services, competition law, state aid rules and the law of public procurement. The external and international dimensions of the European legal framework for services of general interest are often overlooked. This book addresses the impact of international trade and investment agreements on public services and the role these services play in EU external relations. It shows that the inherent tension between establishing and securing undistorted competition on markets and the logic of public services exists in international economic law in a similar way as in EU internal law. Given the contentiousness of international trade and investment agreements as well as the EU's external policies, the issues discussed in this volume are timely and relevant and contribute to the ongoing debate about the future of services of general interest in the EU with fresh ideas and perspectives. Markus Krajewski is Professor of Public and International Law at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany.
Markus Krajewski is emerging as a leading scholar in the field of media archaeology, which seeks to trace cultural history through the media networks that enable and structure it. In World Projects he opens a new portal into the history of globalization by examining several large-scale projects that, at the beginning of the twentieth century, shared a grand yet unachievable goal: bringing order to the world. Drawing from a broad array of archival materials, Krajewski reveals how expanding commercial relations, growing international scientific agreements, and an imperial monopolization of the political realm spawned ambitious global projects. World Projects contends that the late nineteenth-century networks of cables, routes, and shipping lines-of junctions, crossovers, and transfers-merged into a \u201cmultimedia system\u201d that was a prerequisite for conceiving a world project. As examples, he presents the work of three big-thinking \u201cplansmiths,\u201d each of whose work mediates between two discursive fields: the chemist and natural philosopher Wilhelm Ostwald, who spent years promoting a \u201cworld auxiliary language\u201d and a world currency; the self-taught \u201cengineer\u201d and self-anointed authority on science and technology Franz Maria Feldhaus, who labored to produce an all-encompassing \u201cworld history of technology\u201d; and Walther Rathenau, who put economics to the service of politics and quickly transformed the German economy. With a keen eye for the outlandish as well as the outsized, Krajewski shows how media, technological structures, and naked human ambition paved the way for global-scale ventures that together created the first \u201cworld wide web.\u201d
In dem Band wird der Wandel der rechtlichen Strukturen f r die Erbringung, Organisation und Finanzierung von ffentlichen Dienstleistungen erl utert. Durch die Verzahnung europarechtlicher berlegungen mit Untersuchungen des Verfassungs- und Verwaltungsrechts der Mitgliedstaaten wird aufgezeigt, dass europ ische und mitgliedsstaatliche Rechtsordnungen zusammenwirken. Dieser Gew hrleistungsverbund erlaubt es, ffentliche Dienstleistungen auch im 21. Jahrhundert als besondere ffentliche Aufgaben zu konstruieren und zu rechtfertigen.
INTRODUCTION Markus Krajewski, Ulla Neergaard, Johan van de Gronden I. The changing framework of public services in Europe In recent years, the body of European law affecting public services - services of general economic interest as they are called in the EC Treaty - has been subject to a significant transformation. Until the mid-1990s, services provided by public - thorities on the basis of monopolies or other forms of restrictions of market access were regarded as derogations from the disciplines of the internal market and c- petition law. The underlying assumption was that the open and competitive market order established by the EC Treaty was also an appropriate framework for the p- vision of services of general economic interest. The early liberalisation of telec- munication and postal services were also driven by the assumption that more competition will lead to better and cheaper services for the consumers. However, soon the European institutions, in particular the European Commission noticed that high quality public services were not only important to consumers, but that these services also formed a significant element of the European social model which could at times be in conflict with the strict application of the logics of free markets and unrestricted competition. Hence, greater emphasis was placed on the specific requirements of services of general economic interest as core values of the Member States and the Community.