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Donald Rapp - Author

About the Author

Books by Donald Rapp

Use of Extraterrestrial Resources for Human Space Missions to Moon or Mars

Use of Extraterrestrial Resources for Human Space Missions to Moon or Mars

Author: Donald Rapp Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 06/06/2019

This book presents a detailed, independent review of essentially all the technical aspects of in situ resource utilization (ISRU), offering the first in-depth discussion of the issues of crew size, ascent from Mars, and ISRU processes. It also provides data on lunar ISRU not previously available to the public. This new edition provides a short synopsis of the Mars mission, and discusses various topics, including solid oxide electrolysis, which promises to be an important part of the ISRU picture. In addition, it explores ancillary needs for Mars ISRU and how to obtain water on Mars. It is the go-to resource for professionals involved in planning space missions or working on ISRU processes, as well as students planning careers in space technology.

Ice Ages and Interglacials Measurements, Interpretation, and Models

Ice Ages and Interglacials Measurements, Interpretation, and Models

Author: Donald Rapp Format: Hardback Release Date: 29/04/2019

This book provides a detailed review of terminations of ice ages, including a very attractive theory based on dust deposits on ice sheets. While other books on ice ages are mostly short, popular, and non-technical, the only book that attempts to deal with the broad issues of what we know about past ice ages and why they occur is the book by Muller and MacDonald (M&M), published by Praxis. However, despite its many good features, this book suffers from an inordinate emphasis on spectral analysis, a lack of coverage of new data, and a very confusing sequence of chapters. As a result, the data and theory are so intimately entwined that it is difficult to separate one from the other. This volume provides an independent and comprehensive summary of the latest data, theories and analysis. This third edition of what has become the premier reference and sourcebook on ice ages addresses recent topics, and includes new references, new data, and a totally new, greatly expanded treatment of terminations of ice ages.

Use of Extraterrestrial Resources for Human Space Missions to Moon or Mars

Use of Extraterrestrial Resources for Human Space Missions to Moon or Mars

Author: Donald Rapp Format: Hardback Release Date: 31/01/2018

This book presents a detailed, independent review of essentially all the technical aspects of in situ resource utilization (ISRU), offering the first in-depth discussion of the issues of crew size, ascent from Mars, and ISRU processes. It also provides data on lunar ISRU not previously available to the public. This new edition provides a short synopsis of the Mars mission, and discusses various topics, including solid oxide electrolysis, which promises to be an important part of the ISRU picture. In addition, it explores ancillary needs for Mars ISRU and how to obtain water on Mars. It is the go-to resource for professionals involved in planning space missions or working on ISRU processes, as well as students planning careers in space technology.

Assessing Climate Change Temperatures, Solar Radiation and Heat Balance

Assessing Climate Change Temperatures, Solar Radiation and Heat Balance

Author: Donald Rapp Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 01/11/2016

This updated and revised new edition of Assessing Climate Change deals with the full gamut of essential questions in relation to global warming and climate change, uniquely providing a balanced and impartial discussion of this controversial subject. It shows that most of what is known about the Sun, historical climates and projections for the future lacks foundation and leaves great room for doubt. Assessing Climate Change (3rd Edition) examines the credibility of the global climate models which accuse greenhouse gases of causing the temperature rise of the 20th century, and provides a better understanding of the uncertainties regarding what might lie ahead in the future. Carefully considering the evidence brought forward by both alarmists and skeptics, this book: * has been brought completely up to date to end 2013; * examines the measurements of near surface temperatures on Earth and how much we can rely on them; * includes hundreds of graphs showing the data; * compares the current global warming trend with past climate fluctuations; * provides a systematic review of climate change in nearly all of its aspects; * expands the discussion of potential impacts of global warming (from whatever cause); * includes nearly 1000 references specific to the climate literature.

Human Missions to Mars Enabling Technologies for Exploring the Red Planet

Human Missions to Mars Enabling Technologies for Exploring the Red Planet

Author: Donald Rapp Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 23/08/2016

A mission to send humans to explore the surface of Mars has been the ultimate goal of planetary exploration since the 1950s, when von Braun conjectured a flotilla of 10 interplanetary vessels carrying a crew of at least 70 humans. Since then, more than 1,000 studies were carried out on human missions to Mars, but after 60 years of study, we remain in the early planning stages. The second edition of this book now includes an annotated history of Mars mission studies, with quantitative data wherever possible. Retained from the first edition, Donald Rapp looks at human missions to Mars from an engineering perspective. He divides the mission into a number of stages: Earth's surface to low-Earth orbit (LEO); departing from LEO toward Mars; Mars orbit insertion and entry, descent and landing; ascent from Mars; trans-Earth injection from Mars orbit and Earth return. For each segment, he analyzes requirements for candidate technologies. In this connection, he discusses the status and potential of a wide range of elements critical to a human Mars mission, including life support consumables, radiation effects and shielding, microgravity effects, abort options and mission safety, possible habitats on the Martian surface and aero-assisted orbit entry decent and landing. For any human mission to the Red Planet the possible utilization of any resources indigenous to Mars would be of great value and such possibilities, the use of indigenous resources is discussed at length. He also discusses the relationship of lunar exploratio n to Mars exploration. Detailed appendices describe the availability of solar energy on the Moon and Mars, and the potential for utilizing indigenous water on Mars. The second edition provides extensive updating and additions to the first edition, including many new figures and tables, and more than 70 new references, as of 2015.

Human Missions to Mars Enabling Technologies for Exploring the Red Planet

Human Missions to Mars Enabling Technologies for Exploring the Red Planet

Author: Donald Rapp Format: Hardback Release Date: 05/11/2015

A mission to send humans to explore the surface of Mars has been the ultimate goal of planetary exploration since the 1950s, when von Braun conjectured a flotilla of 10 interplanetary vessels carrying a crew of at least 70 humans. Since then, more than 1,000 studies were carried out on human missions to Mars, but after 60 years of study, we remain in the early planning stages. The second edition of this book now includes an annotated history of Mars mission studies, with quantitative data wherever possible. Retained from the first edition, Donald Rapp looks at human missions to Mars from an engineering perspective. He divides the mission into a number of stages: Earth's surface to low-Earth orbit (LEO); departing from LEO toward Mars; Mars orbit insertion and entry, descent and landing; ascent from Mars; trans-Earth injection from Mars orbit and Earth return. For each segment, he analyzes requirements for candidate technologies. In this connection, he discusses the status and potential of a wide range of elements critical to a human Mars mission, including life support consumables, radiation effects and shielding, microgravity effects, abort options and mission safety, possible habitats on the Martian surface and aero-assisted orbit entry decent and landing. For any human mission to the Red Planet the possible utilization of any resources indigenous to Mars would be of great value and such possibilities, the use of indigenous resources is discussed at length. He also discusses the relationship of lunar exploratio n to Mars exploration. Detailed appendices describe the availability of solar energy on the Moon and Mars, and the potential for utilizing indigenous water on Mars. The second edition provides extensive updating and additions to the first edition, including many new figures and tables, and more than 70 new references, as of 2015.

Use of Extraterrestrial Resources for Human Space Missions to Moon or Mars

Use of Extraterrestrial Resources for Human Space Missions to Moon or Mars

Author: Donald Rapp Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 13/12/2014

This book carries out approximate estimates of the costs of implementing ISRU on the Moon and Mars. It is found that no ISRU process on the Moon has much merit. ISRU on Mars can save a great deal of mass, but there is a significant cost in prospecting for resources and validating ISRU concepts. Mars ISRU might have merit, but not enough data are available to be certain. In addition, this book provides a detailed review of various ISRU technologies. This includes three approaches for Mars ISRU based on processing only the atmosphere: solid oxide electrolysis, reverse water gas shift reaction (RWGS), and absorbing water vapor directly from the atmosphere. It is not clear that any of these technologies are viable although the RWGS seems to have the best chance. An approach for combining hydrogen with the atmospheric resource is chemically very viable, but hydrogen is needed on Mars. This can be approached by bringing hydrogen from Earth or obtaining water from near-surface water deposits in the soil. Bringing hydrogen from Earth is problematic, so mining the regolith to obtain water seems to be the only way to go. This will require a sizable campaign to locate and validate useable water resources. Technologies for lunar ISRU are also reviewed, even though none of them provide significant benefits to near-term lunar missions. These include oxygen from lunar regolith, solar wind volatiles from regolith, and extraction of polar ice from permanently shaded craters.

Bubbles, Booms, and Busts The Rise and Fall of Financial Assets

Bubbles, Booms, and Busts The Rise and Fall of Financial Assets

Author: Donald Rapp Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 15/11/2014

This book deals at some length with the question: Since there are many more poor than rich, why don't the poor just tax the rich heavily and reduce the inequality? In the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, the topic of inequality was discussed widely. Ending or reducing inequality was a prime motivating factor in the emergence of communism and socialism. The book discusses why later in the 20th century, inequality has faded out as an issue. Extensive tables and graphs of data are presented showing the extent of inequality in America, as well as globally. It is shown that a combination of low taxes on capital gains contributed to a series of real estate and stock bubbles that provided great wealth to the top tiers, while real income for average workers stagnated. Improved commercial efficiency due to computers, electronics, the Internet and fast transport allowed production and distribution with fewer workers, just as the advent of electrification, mechanization, production lines, vehicles and trains in the 1920s and 1930s produced the same stagnating effect.

Assessing Climate Change Temperatures, Solar Radiation and Heat Balance

Assessing Climate Change Temperatures, Solar Radiation and Heat Balance

Author: Donald Rapp Format: Hardback Release Date: 16/07/2014

This updated and revised new edition of Assessing Climate Change deals with the full gamut of essential questions in relation to global warming and climate change, uniquely providing a balanced and impartial discussion of this controversial subject. It shows that most of what is known about the Sun, historical climates and projections for the future lacks foundation and leaves great room for doubt. Assessing Climate Change (3rd Edition) examines the credibility of the global climate models which accuse greenhouse gases of causing the temperature rise of the 20th century, and provides a better understanding of the uncertainties regarding what might lie ahead in the future. Carefully considering the evidence brought forward by both alarmists and skeptics, this book: * has been brought completely up to date to end 2013; * examines the measurements of near surface temperatures on Earth and how much we can rely on them; * includes hundreds of graphs showing the data; * compares the current global warming trend with past climate fluctuations; * provides a systematic review of climate change in nearly all of its aspects; * expands the discussion of potential impacts of global warming (from whatever cause); * includes nearly 1000 references specific to the climate literature.

Ice Ages and Interglacials Measurements, Interpretation, and Models

Ice Ages and Interglacials Measurements, Interpretation, and Models

Author: Donald Rapp Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 14/04/2014

The second edition of this book has been completely updated. It studies the history and gives an analysis of extreme climate change on Earth. In order to provide a long-term perspective, the first chapter briefly reviews some of the wild gyrations that occurred in the Earth's climate hundreds of millions of years ago: snowball Earth and hothouse Earth. Coming closer to modern times, the effects of continental drift, particularly the closing of the Isthmus of Panama are believed to have contributed to the advent of ice ages in the past three million years. This first chapter sets the stage for a discussion of ices ages in the geological recent past (i.e. within the last three million years, with an emphasis on the last few hundred thousand years).

Use of Extraterrestrial Resources for Human Space Missions to Moon or Mars

Use of Extraterrestrial Resources for Human Space Missions to Moon or Mars

Author: Donald Rapp Format: Hardback Release Date: 20/11/2012

This book carries out approximate estimates of the costs of implementing ISRU on the Moon and Mars. It is found that no ISRU process on the Moon has much merit. ISRU on Mars can save a great deal of mass, but there is a significant cost in prospecting for resources and validating ISRU concepts. Mars ISRU might have merit, but not enough data are available to be certain. In addition, this book provides a detailed review of various ISRU technologies. This includes three approaches for Mars ISRU based on processing only the atmosphere: solid oxide electrolysis, reverse water gas shift reaction (RWGS), and absorbing water vapor directly from the atmosphere. It is not clear that any of these technologies are viable although the RWGS seems to have the best chance. An approach for combining hydrogen with the atmospheric resource is chemically very viable, but hydrogen is needed on Mars. This can be approached by bringing hydrogen from Earth or obtaining water from near-surface water deposits in the soil. Bringing hydrogen from Earth is problematic, so mining the regolith to obtain water seems to be the only way to go. This will require a sizable campaign to locate and validate useable water resources. Technologies for lunar ISRU are also reviewed, even though none of them provide significant benefits to near-term lunar missions. These include oxygen from lunar regolith, solar wind volatiles from regolith, and extraction of polar ice from permanently shaded craters.

Ice Ages and Interglacials Measurements, Interpretation, and Models

Ice Ages and Interglacials Measurements, Interpretation, and Models

Author: Donald Rapp Format: Hardback Release Date: 04/07/2012

The second edition of this book has been completely updated. It studies the history and gives an analysis of extreme climate change on Earth. In order to provide a long-term perspective, the first chapter briefly reviews some of the wild gyrations that occurred in the Earth's climate hundreds of millions of years ago: snowball Earth and hothouse Earth. Coming closer to modern times, the effects of continental drift, particularly the closing of the Isthmus of Panama are believed to have contributed to the advent of ice ages in the past three million years. This first chapter sets the stage for a discussion of ices ages in the geological recent past (i.e. within the last three million years, with an emphasis on the last few hundred thousand years).

Ice Ages and Interglacials Measurements, Interpretation and Models

Ice Ages and Interglacials Measurements, Interpretation and Models

Author: Donald Rapp Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 22/11/2010

This book studies the history and gives an analysis of extreme climate change on Earth. In order to provide a long-term perspective, the first chapter briefly reviews some of the wild gyrations that occurred in the Earth's climate hundreds of millions of years ago: snowball Earth and hothouse Earth. Coming closer to modern times, the effects of continental drift, particularly the closing of the Isthmus of Panama are believed to have contributed to the advent of ice ages in the past three million years. This first chapter sets the stage for a discussion of ice ages in the geological recent past (i.e. within the last three million years, with an emphasis on the last few hundred thousand years). The second chapter discusses geological evidence for ice ages - how geologists surmised their existence prior to actual subsurface data that proved the theory. The following two chapters look at ice cores (primarily from Greenland and Antarctica). Chapter 3 discusses how ice core data is processed and Chapter 4 summarizes data obtained from ice cores. Chapter 5 discusses the processing of data obtained from ocean sediments, and summarizes the results, while the following chapter discusses data from other sources, such as Devil's Cave. Chapter 7 summarizes the experimental results from Chapters 4, 5, and 6. It provides the foundation for comparison with theories in later chapters. In a perfect world, this data would be totally separate and disconnected from theory. Unfortunately, as the author shows, dating of much of the data was accomplished by tuning to the astronomical theory, which introduces circular reasoning. Chapter 8 provides a brief overview of the various theories that have been devised to explain the patterns of alternating ice ages and interglacials that have occurred over the past three million years. This serves as an introduction to the following three chapters which presents the astronomical theory in its various manifestations, compare the astronomical theory with data, and then compare other theories with data. Finally, Chapter 12 summarizes what we think we know about ice ages and, more importantly, what we don't know.

Human Missions to Mars Enabling Technologies for Exploring the Red Planet

Human Missions to Mars Enabling Technologies for Exploring the Red Planet

Author: Donald Rapp Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 19/11/2010

This book presents a highly readable yet realistic view of the possibilities for human missions to Mars. It provides for the first time a 'level-headed' assessment of plans for human exploration of Mars to counteract the tendency of space agencies to take an over-optimistic approach to such interplanetary missions. The author presents a detailed analysis of why, in his opinion, the current NASA approach will fail to send humans to Mars before 2080.