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This book summarizes the results of experimental work on the development of technologies for the manufacture of sour service line pipe steels. It presents the latest theories on the mechanisms of cracking and factors affecting fracture resistance in H2S-containing media of low-alloy pipe steels. The authors propose methods for improving the quality of continuously cast slabs and show the effect of the chemical composition on the microstructure and properties of rolled plates for pipes. Considerable attention is paid to the metallurgical aspects of microstructure formation and its mechanical properties, as well as the enhancement and cracking resistance of sour service sheets under thermomechanical rolling with accelerated cooling. In brief, the book presents a cutting-edge overview of sour service sheet and pipe production.
This book explains how the specifics of Stiff Extrusion influence on the metallurgical properties of Extruded Briquettes. The practical experience of the utilization of Stiff Extrusion in metallurgy obtained so far suggests that this technology can substitute (partially or by 100%) environmentally unfriendly sintering. The authors start reviewing the existing briquetting technologies, providing the reader later on with the specifics of stiff extrusion briquetting technology. Other aspects treated are the applications of extruded briquettes on blast furnace and for the production of manganese ferro alloys. The authors suggest stuff extrusion briquetting technology for direct reduction iron production and list several alternative unconventional applications.
This book presents a comprehensive overview of non-ferrous metallurgy, especially its core principles and fundamental aspects, in a concise form. The book covers all basic concepts and definitions related to metal extraction, and provide succinct summaries of relevant metallurgical processes. It also covers the scientific and engineering aspects of nuclear processes and features special chapter on ultra-high-purity metals. The book employs a step-by-step approach, is written in an easy-to-understand style, and discusses significance of core concepts. As such, it not only offers a valuable guide for professionals and researchers working in the areas of metallurgy, mining, and chemical engineering, but can also be used as a core text in both graduate and professional coursework.
This book discusses the core principles and practical applications of a brand new machine category: liquid-metal soft machines and motors. After a brief introduction on the conventional soft robot and its allied materials, it presents the new conceptual liquid-metal machine, which revolutionizes existing rigid robots, both large and small. It outlines the typical features of the soft liquid-metal materials and describes the various transformation capabilities, mergence of separate metal droplets, self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid-metal objects under external or internal mechanism. Further, it introduces a series of unusual phenomena discovered while developing the shape changeable smart soft machine and interprets the related mechanisms regarding the effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the external fields to control the liquid-metal transformers. Moreover, the book illustrates typical strategies to construct a group of different advanced functional liquid-metal soft machines, since such machines or robots are hard to fabricate using rigid-metal or conventional materials. With highly significant fundamental and practical findings, this book is intended for researchers interested in establishing a general method for making future smart soft machine and accompanying robots.
This book introduces physical effects and fundamentals of piezoelectric sensors and actuators. It gives a comprehensive overview of piezoelectric materials such as quartz crystals and polycrystalline ceramic materials. Different modeling approaches and methods to precisely predict the behavior of piezoelectric devices are described. Furthermore, a simulation-based approach is detailed which enables the reliable characterization of sensor and actuator materials. One focus of the book lies on piezoelectric ultrasonic transducers. An optical approach is presented that allows the quantitative determination of the resulting sound fields. The book also deals with various applications of piezoelectric sensors and actuators. In particular, the studied application areas are * process measurement technology, * ultrasonic imaging, * piezoelectric positioning systems and * piezoelectric motors. The book addresses students, academic as well as industrial reseachers and development engineers who are concerned with piezoelectric sensors and actuators.
This book provides technological perspective and comprehensive overview on the research efforts related to II-VI group cadmium based semiconducting nanomaterials. It describes state-of-the-art information on different synthesis methods for preparation of these materials using a variety of experimental strategies. The effects of synthesis roots on structural, thermal, mechanical, lattice vibronic, electronic, optical and carrier transport characteristics of these nano-structures are systematically analyzed. A wide target readership comprising of students, researchers, scholars, scientists, technicians, academicians, industrialists can benefit from this book, as cadmium based semiconductors possess significant research and industrial interest thanks to their innovative properties.
This book provides a powerful source to develop new, rapid and highly efficient materials for the application in various fields of oil and gas. It focuses on the synthesis, characterization and applications of various Nanomaterials, presenting the state-of-the-art in developments and innovations in nanocomposites. This book provides the complete practical and theoretical information about the synthesis of nanoparticles with potential use in the field of oil and gas.
This book covers diverse types of ceramic membranes applied in separation processes. The authors present the preparation methods and well as the main application of ceramic membranes. Modules, microfiltration and ultrafiltration are topics described within the text. The final chapter focuses on water and wastewater treatment by membranes separation processes.
This book presents the concept of functionally graded materials as well as their use and different fabrication processes. The authors describe the use of additive manufacturing technology for the production of very complex parts directly from the three dimension computer aided design of the part by adding material layer after layer. A case study is also presented in the book on the experimental analysis of functionally graded material using laser metal deposition process.
This book focuses on the use of nanotechnology in several fields of engineering. Among others, the reader will find valuable information as to how nanotechnology can aid in extending the life of component materials exposed to corrosive atmospheres, in thermal fluid energy conversion processes, anti-reflection coatings on photovoltaic cells to yield enhanced output from solar cells, in connection with friction and wear reduction in automobiles, and buoyancy suppression in free convective heat transfer. Moreover, this unique resource presents the latest research on nanoscale transport phenomena and concludes with a look at likely future trends.
This book comprises chapters on research work done around the globe in the area of artificial intelligence (AI) applications in sheet metal forming. The first chapter offers an introduction to various AI techniques and sheet metal forming, while subsequent chapters describe traditional procedures/methods used in various sheet metal forming processes, and focus on the automation of those processes by means of AI techniques, such as KBS, ANN, GA, CBR, etc. Feature recognition and the manufacturability assessment of sheet metal parts, process planning, strip-layout design, selecting the type and size of die components, die modeling, and predicting die life are some of the most important aspects of sheet metal work. Traditionally, these activities are highly experience-based, tedious and time consuming. In response, researchers in several countries have applied various AI techniques to automate these activities, which are covered in this book. This book will be useful for engineers working in sheet metal industries, and will serve to provide future direction to young researchers and students working in the area.
This book helps the reader to understand the specific properties of piezoelectric ceramic resonators. It provides their theoretical description by immitance and equivalent circuit method. The nummerical modelling described is accompanied by examples of properties measured experimentally. Piezoelectric ceramic transformers are also covered, followed by a series of solved and unsolved problems prepared specially for students.
This book focuses on the effect of plasma nitriding on the properties of steels. Parameters of different grades of steels are considered, such as structural and constructional steels, stainless steels and tools steels. The reader will find within the text an introduction to nitriding treatment, the basis of plasma and its roll in nitriding. The authors also address the advantages and disadvantages of plasma nitriding in comparison with other nitriding methods.
This book focuses on biomaterials of different forms used for medical implants. The authors introduce the characteristics and properties of biomaterials and then dedicate special chapters to metallic, ceramic, polymeric and composite biomaterials. Case studies on sterilization methods by biomaterials are also presented. Finally, the authors describe the degradation and effects of biomaterials in living tissue.
This book presents a complete and updated overview of Flame Spray process, from its History to the Apparatus necessary for the synthesis of nanostructures. It addresses not only the materials produced by this technique, but also their properties, such as crystallinity and crystallite size, specific surface area, particle size and morphology. Also, the principles of nanoparticle formation are described. It is a useful read to all those interested in low cost synthesis of nanostructured powders and coatings.
This book presents an overview of the characterization of electronic waste. In addition, processing techniques for the recovery of metals, polymers and ceramics are described. This book serves as a source of information and as an educational technical reference for practicing scientists and engineers, as well as for students.
This edited book contains extended research papers from AIMTDR 2014. This includes recent research work in the fields of friction stir welding, sheet forming, joining and forming, modeling and simulation, efficient prediction strategies, micro-manufacturing, sustainable and green manufacturing issues etc. This will prove useful to students, researchers and practitioners in the field of materials forming and manufacturing.
This book covers the latest progress in the field of transparent ceramics, emphasizing their processing as well as solid-state lasers. It consists of 10 chapters covering the synthesis, characterization and compaction, fundamentals of sintering, densification of transparent ceramics by different methods as well as transparent ceramic applications. This book can be used as a reference for senior undergraduate to postgraduate students, researchers, engineers and material scientists working in solid-state physics.
This book presents selected research papers of the AIMTDR 2014 conference on application of laser technology for various manufacturing processes such as cutting, forming, welding, sintering, cladding and micro-machining. State-of-the-art of these technologies in terms of numerical modeling, experimental studies and industrial case studies are presented. This book will enrich the knowledge of budding technocrats, graduate students of mechanical and manufacturing engineering, and researchers working in this area.
This book gives an introduction to the mechanical behavior and degradation of dental ceramics and guides the reader through their performance under effect of oral environments. It addresses the different kinds of dental ceramics, their properties, degradation and mechanical aspects with less emphasys on the physics and chemistry involved, which makes the reading interesting for beginners in the field. In each chapter, the reader will learn about the mechanical behavior of dental ceramics and each phenomenon involved in their application, besides finding some practical examples of their use in dental clinics, their manufacturing procedures and types of degradation. The clear language and the application-oriented perspective of the book makes it suitable for both professionals and students who want to learn about dental ceramics.
This book presents novel techniques to evaluate electrodialysis processes, to synthesize ionic membranes and to characterize their properties. It shows the potential use of membrane process to the treatment of effluents generated in many industrial sectors such as refineries, leather industries, mining and electroplating processes. The book is based on the results obtained by the author's research group during the past decade. It is useful for students, researchers and engineers interested in membrane technologies for water reuse.