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Immanuel Kant was one of the most significant philosophers of the modern age. Historical Dictionary of Kant and Kantianism, Second Edition contains a chronology, an introduction, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 500 cross-referenced entries on key terms of Kant's philosophy, Kant's major works and cover his most important predecessors and successors, concentrating especially on the relation of these thinkers to Kant himself. This book is an excellent resource for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about Immanuel Kant.
Hinduism is the world's third largest and most ancient religion. The scope of this book ranges from the ancient history of Hinduism to the contemporary issues that Hindus face today. It explores the Hindu history, society, philosophy, theology, and culture. In addition to Hinduism, this book also touches upon religious traditions with which Hindus have had extensive interaction, such as Jainism, Buddhism, Sikhism, Christianity, Islam, and Zoroastrianism. This second edition of Historical Dictionary of Hinduism contains a chronology, an introduction, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 1,000 cross-referenced entries on deities, historical figures, festivals, philosophical terms, ritual implements, and much more. This book is an excellent resource for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about Hinduism.
Martin Heidegger's thinking is a complex, and his terminology is as nuanced, as any thinker in the history of philosophy. As the historian of philosophy par excellence, he also exhibits both a greater appreciation and mastery of previous thinkers than any almost any other philosopher before or since. The Historical Dictionary of Heidegger's Philosophy, Third Edition addresses this dual challenge of reading, understanding, and interpreting Heidegger's vast writings. The book provides a comprehensive and detailed account of the key terms shaping Heidegger's philosophy, as well as outlining the development of his thought spanning the entirety of his career spanning almost sixty years. The Dictionary also includes a discussion of Heidegger's seminal writings, the spanning his entire Gesamtausgabe (Complete Edition) up through volume 99 (of the projected 102 volumes). This third edition of Historical Dictionary of Heidegger's Philosophy, Third Edition contains a chronology, an introduction, appendixes and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 800 cross-referenced entries that provides a clear and comprehensive exposition of the key developments in his life and his thought. This book is an excellent resource for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about Martin Heidegger.
Daoism is the oldest indigenous philosophic-spiritual tradition of China and one of the most ancient of the world's spiritual structures. The name Daoism comes from the term dao that is often used for a way or a road through the field or woods to one's village. It is also used of the way to do something, such as the way a master craftsman carves a candlestick, makes a bell, or even butchers an ox. But dao is also used as a nominative in the history of Daoism. It is used for the energizing process that permeates and animates all of reality and moves it along simply as the Dao. However, both text and practice in this tradition insist that dao itself cannot be described in words. Dao is not God in the sense of Western philosophy or religion. Daoism has no supreme being, even if there is an extensive grammar about numinal self-conscious entities and powers for which the Chinese use the word spirit (shen). For example, the highest numinal powers of Daoism are variously called Taishang Laojun (the deified Laozi), the Celestial Worthy of Primordial Beginning (Yuanshi tianzun), the Jade Emperor (Yuhuang Shangdi) or the Perfected Warrior (Zhenwu). But these are expressions of dao in specific shen, they are not identical with the Dao, except in the most unique case when Laozi, the putative founder of Daoism and author of its major work, Daodejing, is said to be one with the Dao. Historical Dictionary of Daoism contains a chronology, an introduction, appendixes and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 400 cross-referenced entries on related to the Chinese belief and practice worldview known as Daoism including dozens of Daoist terms, names, and practices. This book is an excellent resource for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about Daoism.
There are very serious environmental problems facing the planet. Biodiversity loss has reached unprecedented levels. Climate change is progressing so rapidly that within this century we are likely to see substantial sea level rise. There has been dramatic loss of tropical rainforests. Plastic pollution is killing wildlife and polluting our oceans. Various movements old and new are addressing these green issues. Civil society activism has taken on new strategies with the emergence of new technologies and global networks of green activists have formed. A new generation of green activists are emerging and boldly criticizing the status quo. At the same time, in some parts of the world, green movements that looked like they were beginning to gain a political foothold or were even doing quite well are in retreat. The reasons are complex. Some suffer from lack of funding and hostile political and legal environments. Others are being attacked by populist politicians who see green activism as a threat. The second edition of Historical Dictionary of the Green Movement contains a chronology, an introduction, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 300 cross-referenced on green movements, green politics, green trends, and major environmental agreements and events. This book is an excellent resource for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about the green movement.
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is a Christian church that was organized by six men in western New York in 1830 under the leadership of Joseph Smith, the church has grown to more than 16 million members today. A restoration of the primitive church organized by Jesus Christ in the first century C. E., the church's membership was originally all Americans. The church is now, however, a worldwide church with more members who live outside the United States than inside. The fourth edition of Historical Dictionary of the Latter-day Saints contains a chronology, an introduction, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 400 cross-referenced entries on the important people, ideas, doctrine, and events during the hundred-ninety year history of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. This book is an excellent resource for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
Democracy is easy to talk about but hard to define in other than broad generalizations; its history is a long, complex, and contested subject. What this volume seeks to do is to explore the general evolution of political and social thinking that would eventually coalesce into what we now know as democracy, for all its imperfections and shortcomings. The question of just why some societies evolved into a democratic trajectory and others did not continues to engage the interest of historians, political scientists, sociologists, and anthropologists. Much conjecture surrounds the rise of certain elements we now recognize if not as democratic, then proto-democratic, such as collective decision-making, constraints on the exercise of power and a degree of accountability of the ruler to the ruled. If democracy in the sense of rule by the people has two essential qualities - rule by the majority and the equal treatment of free citizens - then its origins, however feeble, are to be found in these early examples of government. Historical Dictionary of Democracy contains a chronology, an introduction, a glossary, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 600 cross-referenced entries. This book is an excellent resource for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about democracy.
Originating from a small group of Bible students who met under Charles Taze Russell's leadership and grew into an international Society, to which the second leader Joseph Franklin Rutherford and gave the name `Jehovah's Witnesses'. Two World Wars shaped Watch Tower attitudes to civil government, armed conflict, and medical innovations such as blood transfusion, as well as to mainstream churches. The twenty-first century has seen some important changes in the Watch Tower organization, and coverage is given to changes in organizational structure, its use of the World Wide Web, and its major relocation from Brooklyn to Warwick. This updated second edition of Historical Dictionary of Jehovah's Witnesses contains a chronology, an introduction, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 300 cross-referenced entries on key concepts, themes, and people relating to Jehovah's Witnesses. This book is an excellent resource for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about Jehovah's Witnesses.
The philosopher David Hume was born in Edinburgh, Scotland on April 26, 1711. Known for his re-thinking of causation, morality, and religion, Hume has left a lasting mark on history. James Madison, the father of the U.S. Constitution, drew heavily on Hume's writing, especially his Idea of Perfect Commonwealth, which combated the belief at the time that a large country could not sustain a republican form of government. Hume's writing also influenced Adam Smith's Wealth of Nations and the philosophy of Immanuel Kant. This edition attempts a broader picture of Hume's philosophy including more detail on the elements of his psychology, aesthetics, social and political philosophy as well as his legacy in contemporary topics of race, feminism, animal ethics, and environmental issues. This second edition of Historical Dictionary of Hume's Philosophy contains a chronology, an introduction, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 100 cross-referenced entries covering key terms, as well as brief discussions of Hume's major works and of some of his most important predecessors, contemporaries, and successors. This book is an excellent resource for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about David Hume.
The Unitarian Universalist religious movement is small in numbers, but has a long history as a radical, reforming movement within Protestantism, coupled with a larger, liberal social witness to the world. Both Unitarianism and Universalism began as Christian denominations, but rejected doctrinal constraints to embrace a human views of Jesus, an openness to continuing revelation, and a loving God who, they believed, wanted to be reconciled with all people. In the twentieth century Unitarian Universalism developed beyond Christianity and theism to embrace other religious perspectives, becoming more inclusive and multi-faith. Efforts to achieve justice and equality included civil rights for African-Americans, women and gays and lesbians, along with strident support for abortion rights, environmentalism and peace. Today the Unitarian Universalist movement is a world-wide faith that has expanded into several new countries in Africa, continued to develop in the Philippines and India, while maintaining historic footholds in Romania, Hungary, England, and especially the United States and Canada. This second edition of Historical Dictionary of Unitarian Universalism contains a chronology, an introduction, an appendix, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 400 cross-referenced entries on people, places, events and trends in the history of the Unitarian and Universalist faiths including American leaders and luminaries, important writers and social reformers. This book is an excellent resource for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about Unitarian Universalism.
This second edition concentrates on various philosophers and theologians from the medieval Arabian, Jewish, and Christian worlds. It principally centers on authors such as Abumashar, Saadiah Gaon and Alcuin from the eighth century and follows the intellectual developments of the three traditions up to the fifteenth-century Ibn Khaldun, Hasdai Crescas and Marsilio Ficino. The spiritual journeys presuppose earlier human sources, such as the philosophy of Plato, Aristotle, Plotinus, and Porphyry and various Stoic authors, the revealed teachings of the Jewish Law, the Koran and the Christian Bible. The Fathers of the Church, such as St. Augustine and Gregory the Great, provided examples of theology in their attempts to reconcile revealed truth and man's philosophical knowledge and deserve attention as pre-medieval contributors to medieval intellectual life. Avicenna and Averroes, Maimonides and Gersonides, St. Thomas Aquinas and St. Bonaventure, stand out in the three traditions as special medieval contributors who deserve more attention. This second edition of Historical Dictionary of Medieval Philosophy and Theology contains a chronology, an introduction, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 300 cross-referenced entries on important persons, events, and concepts that shaped medieval philosophy and theology. This book is an excellent resource for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about medieval philosophy and theology.
Medical ethics is the disciplined study of medical morality, with two goals: critically appraising current medical morality and identifying how it should be improved. Medical morality has three components. Physicians, patients, communities, and policy makers have beliefs about what is good and bad character, and right and wrong behavior, in patient care, biomedical research, medical education, and health policy. On the basis of these beliefs, physicians, patients, communities, and policy makers make judgments about how physicians ought to conduct themselves in patient care, research, education, and the formation and implementation of health policy. They then act on their judgments. This second edition of Historical Dictionary of Medical Ethics contains a chronology, an introduction, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 1,000 cross-referenced entries on ethical reasoning and its key components; medical ethics, professional medical ethics, and bioethics; and topics in clinical ethics, research ethics, and healthcare policy ethics. This book is an excellent resource for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about medical ethics.
The Salvation Army is an integral part of the Christian Church, although distinctive in government and practice. The Army's doctrine follows the mainstream of Christian belief and its articles of faith emphasize God's saving purposes. Its objects are `the advancement of the Christian religion... of education, the relief of poverty, and other charitable objects beneficial to society or the community of mankind as a whole.' The Salvation Army was founded in London in 1865 by William Booth its first 'General' and has continued growing ever since. In 2015 it celebrated it 150th anniversary and today it has a presence in 127 countries. This second edition of Historical Dictionary of The Salvation Army contains a chronology, an introduction, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 300 cross-referenced entries on i leaders, personalities, events, facts, movements, and beliefs of The Salvation Army. This book is an excellent resource for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about The Salvation Army..
After the rise of the Islamic State in the Middle East and the new geopolitical landscape in this region, it is essential for the modern reader to understand the history that has allowed for and influenced these types of Islamic groups to form. Historical Dictionary of Islamic Fundamentalism acts as a didactic resource that explains, from the Islamic perspective, the historical importance of the Islamic fundamentalist world. This dictionary provides a comprehensive and thorough analysis of various groups, events, movements, key figures, and dogmas that have influenced contemporary Islamic fundamentalism. A chronology spanning 600 years, graphs of complex Islamic group associations and alliances, and an Arabic-to-English glossary have all been included to facilitate a complete understanding of the nuances and generalities that have shaped this movement. This second edition of Historical Dictionary of Islamic Fundamentalism also contains an introduction, appendixes, an extensive bibliography, and more than 700 cross-referenced entries on ideologies, people, events, and movements of the 20th and 21st centuries.
The popular name for Chan Buddhism, in the West, is Zen Buddhism, as it was Japanese scholars who first introduced Chan Buddhism to the West with this translation. Indeed, chan is a shortened form of the Chinese word channa, rendered from the Sanskrit word dhyana, which denotes practices of the concentration of the mind through meditation or contemplation. Although rooted in the Indian tradition of yoga, which aims at the unification of the individual with the divine, meditative concentration became integrated into the Buddhist path to enlightenment as one of the three learnings (sanxue) of Buddhism. Early Buddhist (or the so-called Hinayana Buddhist) scriptures include the teachings on four stages of meditation, four divine abodes, four formless meditations, the tranquility (samatha) and insight (vipassana) meditations, and so on. Early Buddhist communities commonly practiced these meditations, along with the moral disciplines and the study of the scriptures and doctrines. Mahayana Buddhism, in India and East Asia, continued the practice of meditation as one of the six perfections (or virtues) of the bodhisattva path. In this general context, some eminent monks might have composed scriptures/treatises for the training of meditation or have become more famed with meditation. However, the school of Chan is more than just a group of meditation practitioners. As one of the Chinese Buddhist schools, it involves its own ideology, its own community, and its own genealogical history, serving to establish its own identity. The Historical Dictionary of Chan Buddhism contains a chronology, an introduction, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 400 cross-referenced entries on important personalities, schools, texts, vocabularies, doctrines, rituals, temples, events, and other practices. This book is an excellent resource for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about Chan Buddhism.
Shakerism teaches God's immanence through the common life shared in Christ's mystical body. Like many religious seekers throughout the ages, they honor the revelation of God but cannot be bound up in an unchanging set of dogmas or creeds. Freeing themselves from domination by the state religion, Mother Ann Lee and her first followers in mid-18th-century England labored to encounter the godhead directly. They were blessed by spiritual gifts that showed them a way to live the heavenly life on Earth. The result of their efforts was the fashioning of a celibate communal life called the Christlife, wherein a person, after confessing all sin, through the indwelling of the Holy Spirit, can travel the path of regeneration into ever- increasing holiness. Pacifism, equality of the sexes, and withdrawal from the world are some of the ways the faith was put into practice. This second edition of Historical Dictionary of the Shakers contains a chronology, an introduction, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 300 cross-referenced entries on Shaker communities, industries, individual families, and important people. This book is an excellent resource for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about the Shakers.
Utopian thinking embraces fictional descriptions of how to create a better (but not a perfect) alternative way of life as well as intentional communities (that is, groups of people leading lives in small communities for their own betterment and the betterment of others). The first edition almost exclusively dealt with the intentional-community side of utopianism; this second edition offers a much more inclusive definition of the key term utopia by offering a great many entries devoted to describing fictional or literary utopian works. It is also heavily illustrated with plates from utopian works, especially those from the heyday of utopianism in the late nineteenth century. This second edition of Historical Dictionary of Utopianism contains a chronology, an introduction, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 1000 cross-referenced entries on broad conceptual entries; narrower entries about specific works; and narrower entries about specific intentional communities or movements. This book is an excellent resource for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about Utopianism.
Muslims believe that the Koran is God's message in Arabic, revealed through the medium of the Prophet Muhammad for the guidance of the Arabs and subsequently for all humanity. There is both unity and variety in the Islamic world. Muslims are not a homogeneous people who can be explained solely by their normative texts: the Koran and the Sunnah. Muslims differ vastly in their interpretation of Islam: modernists want to reinterpret Islam to adapt to the requirements of modern times while traditionalists tend to look to the classical and medieval periods of Islam as their model of the Islamic state. This third edition of Historical Dictionary of Islam contains a chronology, an introduction, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 700 cross-referenced entries on major sects, schools of theology, and jurisprudence, as well as aspects of Islamic culture. This book is an excellent resource for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about Islam.
Native Americans in the United States, similar to other indigenous people, created political, economic, and social movements to meet and adjust to major changes that impacted their cultures. For centuries, Native Americans dealt with the onslaught of non-Indian land claims, the appropriation of their homelands, and the destruction of their ways of life. Through various movements, Native Americans accepted, rejected, or accommodated themselves to the nontraditional worldviews of the colonizers and their policies. The Historical Dictionary of Native American Movements is designed to provide a useful reference for students and scholars to consult on topics dealing with key movements, organizations, leadership strategies, and the major issues these groups confronted. This second edition of Historical Dictionary of Native American Movements contains a chronology, an introduction, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 200 cross-referenced entries on important personalities, language, religion, politics, and the environment.
Arthur Schopenhauer made the momentous decision to become a philosopher when he was approximately 22 years old. Prior to that decision, he had been studying medicine at the university in Goettingen. By that age, however, he had concluded that life was a troublesome affair. So he resolved to spend his life reflecting upon it. Schopenhauer was doggedly determined to persevere in what he considered his mission in life, to reflect on the ever-disquieting puzzle of existence, to ascertain the meaning of living in a world steeped in suffering and death. He was confident that eventually his work would be recognized, a confidence that enabled him to weather laboring in relative philosophical obscurity for some forty years. What initiated the dawn of Schopenhauer's fame was a review of his philosophy that appeared in a British journal in 1853, and ever since that time, Schopenhauer drew a readership, one broader than most Western philosophers. He is read not simply and solely by professional philosophers, but also by the wider learned world. Indeed, some have claimed that he is the most widely read Western philosopher. This second edition of Historical Dictionary of Schopenhauer's Philosophy contains a chronology, an introduction, an appendix, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 300 cross-referenced entries on all of Schopenhauer's books, significant philosophical ideas and concepts, as well as entries covering significant figures in his life and those influenced by this thinking.. This book is an excellent access point for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about Arthur Schopenhauer.
Socialism has been an influential force for social change for almost two centuries. Its philosophy and ideology have inspired millions while simultaneously arousing fear and revulsion in its enemies. Having emerged after the French Revolution in the effort to build upon and develop the egalitarian ideas of the Enlightenment, socialism has taken many forms. It has, furthermore, sometimes been manipulated and reformulated by opportunists who have built authoritarianism and totalitarian dictatorships in its name. Opponents seize on such examples to frighten away people who may otherwise have found socialism attractive. Socialism has survived such criticism and misrepresentation as its core principles have struck a chord with generations of people concerned with social justice. This third edition of Historical Dictionary of Socialism contains a chronology, an introduction, a glossary, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 500 cross-referenced entries on activists, politicians, political thinkers, political parties and organizations, and key topics, concepts, and aspects of socialist theory.. This book is an excellent access point for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about the Socialism.
A remarkable array of people have been called shamans, while the phenomena identified as shamanism continues to proliferate. This second edition of the Historical Dictionary of Shamanism contains with examples from antiquity up to today, and from Siberia (where the term shaman originated) to Amazonia, South Africa, Chicago and many other places. Many claims about shamans and shamanism are contentious and all are worthy of discussion. In the most widespread understandings, terms seem to refer particularly to people who alter states of consciousness or enter trances in order to seek knowledge and help from powerful other-than-human persons, perhaps spirits . But this says only a little about the artists, community leaders, spiritual healers or hucksters, travelers in alternative realities and so on to which the label shaman has been applied. This second edition contains a chronology, an introduction, and extensive bibliography. The dictionary contains over 500 cross-referenced dictionary entries on individuals, groups, practices and cultures that have been called shamanic . This book is an excellent access point for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about Shamanism.
The most broadly accepted explanation of Sufism i the etymological derivation of the term from the Arabic for wool, suf, associating practitioners with a preference for poor, rough clothing. This explanation clearly identifies Sufism with ascetical practice and the importance of manifesting spiritual poverty through material poverty. In fact, some of the earliest Western descriptions of individuals now widely associated with the larger phenomenon of Sufism identified them with the Arabic term faqir, mendicant, or its most common Persian equivalent, darwish. Sufism, as presented here embraces a host of features including the ritual, institutional, psychological, hermeneutical, artistic, literary, ethical, and epistemological. This second edition of Historical Dictionary of Sufism contains a chronology, an introduction, a glossary, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 1,000 cross-referenced entries on important personalities, major historical figures and movements, practices, economy, foreign relations, religion, and culture. This book is an excellent access point for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about Sufism.
Anglicanism arguably originated in 1534 when Parliament passed the Act of Supremacy, which transferred papal power over the Church of England to the king. Today, approximately 550 dioceses are located around the world, not only in England, but also everywhere that the British Empire's area of influence extended. With a membership estimated at around 80 million members the Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion in the world This second edition of Historical Dictionary of Anglicanism covers the history of Anglicanism through a chronology, an introductory essay, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 700 cross-referenced entries on important personalities, concepts and institutions, rituals and liturgy, events and national communities. This book is an excellent access point for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about Anglicanism.
Descartes is perhaps most closely associated with the title, the Father of Modern Philosophy. Generations of students have been introduced to the study of philosophy through a consideration of his Meditations on First Philosophy. His contributions to natural science is shown by the fact that his physics, as promulgated by the Cartesians, played a central role in the debates after his death over Isaac Newton's theory of gravitation. Descartes also made major contributions to the field of analytic geometry; we still speak today of Cartesian coordinates and the Cartesian product. This second edition of Historical Dictionary of Descartes and Cartesian Philosophy covers the history through a chronology, an introductory essay, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 300 cross-referenced entries on various concepts in Descartes' philosophy, science, and mathematics, as well as biographical entries about the intellectual setting for Descartes' philosophy and its reception, both with Cartesians and anti-Cartesians. This book is an excellent access point for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about Descartes.
The ancient Greeks were not only the founders of western philosophy, but the actual term philosophy is Greek in origin, most likely dating back to the late sixth century BC. Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Pythagoras, Euclid, and Thales are but a few of the better-known philosophers of ancient Greece. During the amazingly fertile period running from roughly the middle of the first millennium BC to the middle of the first millennium AD, the world saw the rise of science, numerous schools of thought, and-many believe-the birth of modern civilization. This second edition of Historical Dictionary of Ancient Greek Philosophy covers the history of Greek philosophy through a chronology, an introductory essay, a glossary, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 1500 cross-referenced entries on important philosophers, concepts, issues, and events. This book is an excellent access point for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about Greek philosophy.
This third edition of Historical Dictionary of Judaism covers the history of the Jewish religion, ranging from its biblical roots, through its formulation in the era of the Talmud, to the present day. This collection covers the development of Judaism in the medieval Christian and Islamic worlds, its varied responses to Enlightenment and modernity, the creation of new philosophies of Judaism in the wake of the Holocaust, and the establishment of the State of Israel, and contemporary issues such as feminism, secularism, and the ethics of war and medicine. This is done through a chronology, an introductory essay, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 800 cross-referenced entries on important personalities in Jewish religious history, including biblical personalities with an emphasis on how they are understood in Jewish, Christian, and Islamic tradition. This book is an excellent access point for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about Judaism.
Sikhism traces its beginnings to Guru Nanak, who was born in 1469 and died in 1538 or 1539. With the life of Guru Nanak the account of the Sikh faith begins, all Sikhs acknowledging him as their founder. Sikhism has long been a little-understood religion and until recently they resided almost exclusively in northwest India. Today the total number of Sikhs is approximately twenty million worldwide. About a million live outside India, constituting a significant minority in the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States. Many of them are highly visible, particularly the men, who wear beards and turbans, and they naturally attract attention in their new countries of domicile. This third edition of Historical Dictionary of Sikhism covers its history through a chronology, an introductory essay, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 1000 cross-referenced entries on key persons, organizations, the principles, precepts and practices of the religion as well as the history, culture and social arrangements. This book is an excellent access point for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about Sikhism.
Seventh-day Adventism was born as a radical millenarian sect in nineteenth-century America. It has since spread across the world, achieving far more success in Latin America, Africa, and Asia than in its native land. In what seems a paradox, Adventist expectation of Christ's imminent return has led the denomination to develop extensive educational, publishing, and health systems. Increasingly established within a variety of societies, Adventism over time has modified its views on many issues and accommodated itself to the delay of the Second Advent. In the process, it has become a multicultural religion that nonetheless reflects the dominant influence of its American origins. This second edition of Historical Dictionary of the Seventh-Day Adventists covers its history through a chronology, an introductory essay, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 600 cross-referenced entries on key people, cinema, politics and government, sports, and critics of Ellen White. This book is an excellent access point for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about Seventh-day Adventism.
The second edition of the Historical Dictionary of Marxism covers of the basics of Karl Marx's thought, the philosophical contributions of later Marxist theorists, and the extensive real-world political organizations and structures his work inspired-that is, the myriad political parties, organizations, countries, and leaders who subscribed to Marxism as a creed. This text includes a chronology, an introductory essay, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 500 cross-referenced entries on important personalities, both thinkers and doers; political parties and movements; and major communist or ex-communist countries. This book is an excellent access point for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about Marxism.
For almost four thousand years, men and women with power have exploited vulnerable populations for cheap or free labor. These slaves, serfs, helots, tenants, peons, bonded or forced laborers, etc., built pyramids and temples, dug canals and mined the earth for precious metals and gemstones. They built the palaces and mansions in which the powerful lived, grown the food they ate, spun the cloth that clothed them. This second edition of Historical Dictionary of Slavery and Abolition relates the long and brutal history of slavery and the struggle for abolition using several key features: *Chronology *Introductory essay *Appendixes *Extensive bibliography *Over 500 cross-referenced entries on forms of slavery, famous slaves and abolitionists, sources of slaves, and current conditions of modern slavery around the world This book is an excellent access point for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about slavery and abolition.
The fiftieth anniversary of many major milestones in what is commonly called the African-American Civil Rights Movement was celebrated in 2013. Fifty years removed from the Birmingham campaign, the assassination of Medgar Evers, and the March on Washington and it is clear that the sacrifices borne by those generations in that decade were not in vain. Monuments, museums, and exhibitions across the world honor the men and women of the Movement and testify to their immeasurable role in redefining the United States. The second edition of Historical Dictionary of the Civil Rights Movement is a guide to the history of the African-American struggle for equal rights in the United States. The history of this period is covered in a detailed chronology, an introductory essay, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 500 cross-referenced entries on important personalities, significant legal cases, local struggles, forgotten heroes, and prominent women in the Movement. This book is an excellent access point for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about the Civil Rights Movement.
Ludwig Wittgenstein was the most influential, and arguably the greatest, philosopher of the 20th century. This fact about his influence is not only a matter of how much he influenced people but also of how many people he influenced. His early work was taken up by some of the pioneers of analytical philosophy. His later work helped spawn another movement within analytic philosophy, that of ordinary language philosophy (sometimes called Oxford philosophy). He is also considered by some to be a key postmodern thinker, and an interest in his work is a distinguishing feature of many post-analytical philosophers who seek to bridge the gap between analytical and so-called continental philosophy. This second edition of Historical Dictionary of Wittgenstein's Philosophy covers the history of this philosophy through a chronology, an introductory essay, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 300 cross-referenced entries on every aspect of his work. This book is an excellent access point for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about Wittgenstein's philosophy.
Definitions of the welfare state often focus on how and why a state intervenes in the economy and welfare of the individual citizen. A welfare state does not, however, have to mean state intervention; it may merely reflect the state's restrictions and the demands of the labor market, families, and the rest of civil society. This book covers the history of the welfare state from Chancellor Otto von Bismarck's reforms in Germany starting in 1883 to the present day. This third edition of Historical Dictionary of the Welfare State covers the history through a chronology, an introductory essay, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 400 hundred cross-referenced entries that focus on the definitions and concepts that are the most relevant, long lasting, and important concepts. It provides insights from major areas in social science, including sociology, economics, political science, and social work. This book is an excellent access point for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about the welfare state.
If the sheer number of references to human rights in media headlines or government statements is of any guidance, human rights concerns now appear virtually at the center of the framework of the norms, principles, and obligations that shape relations within the international community both among and within states. That political journey began, perhaps arbitrarily, on 10 December, 1948, when the United Nations General Assembly (UN-GA) embraced and proclaimed the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), a ringing endorsement and advocacy of the notion that regardless of race, religion or nationality, all men and women, everywhere in the world are entitled to the human rights and fundamental freedoms simply because they are human. The Historical Dictionary of Human Rights covers the history of the Human Rights movement through a chronology, an introductory essay, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has more than 1000 cross-referenced entries on terminology, conventions, treaties, intergovernmental organizations in the United Nations family or regional bodies, and the constantly expanding universe of non-governmental organizations, as well as some of the pioneers and defenders. This book is an excellent access point for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about the Human Rights movement.
Few philosophers have been as popular, prolific, and controversial as Friedrich Nietzsche, who has left his imprint not only on philosophy but on all the arts. Whether it is his concept of the ubermensch or his nihilistic view of the world, Nietzsche's writings have aroused enormous interest, as well as anathema, in scholars for centuries. This third edition of Historical Dictionary of Nietzscheanism covers the history of this philosophy through a chronology, an introductory essay, appendixes, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 400 hundred cross-referenced entries on his major writings, his contemporaries, and his successors. This book is an excellent access point for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about Friedrich Nietzsche.
Methodism is growing, both in numbers and influence, according to the World Methodist Council there are 78 Methodist, Wesleyan, and related Uniting and United churches representing over 80 million people in more than 130 nations. There are clear reasons for its success. Among them are commitment to evangelize and nurture people with the message of God's presence, love, and direction. That includes an appreciation for, and practice of, the holistic nature of the Wesleyan tradition which involves faith nurtured in the biblical narrative, disciplined personal and communal spirituality and holy living, vibrant preaching, worship, and fellowship, and a faith which rejoices in personal and social reform. This third edition of Historical Dictionary of Methodism presents the history of Methodism through a detailed chronology, an introductory essay, an extensive bibliography, and over 500 cross-referenced dictionary entries on important institutions and events, doctrines and activities, and especially persons who have contributed to the church and also broader society in the three centuries since it was founded. This book is an ideal access point for students, researchers, or anyone interested in the history of the Methodist Church.
Not so long ago hardly anything was said of the Lesbian Liberation Movement and the Gay Liberation Movement, indeed, the terms gay and lesbian were not even used if some other expression could be found. Today, by contrast, hardly a day passes when something important does not occur, and is carried by the major media and disseminated on more personal levels through blogs and the social media. If anything, there is perhaps too much news and not enough information. Obviously, a book like this cannot keep up with the news, but it can do something equally important when it comes to information, by reminding us of the past and what has been going and just how fast events are moving. The Historical Dictionary of the Lesbian and Gay Liberation Movements covers the history of this movement through a cross-referenced dictionary with over 1000 entries on specific countries and regions, influential historical figures, laws that criminalized same-sex sexuality, various historical terms that have been used to refer to aspects of same-sex love, and contemporary events and legal decisions. Including a comprehensive chronology and bibliography, this book is an excellent access point for students, researchers, and anyone interested in learning more about the struggle for equality.
Witchcraft has proven an important, if difficult, historical subject to investigate and interpret over the last four decades or so. Modern historical research into witchcraft began as an attempt to tease out the worldview of ordinary people in 16th- and 17th-century England, but it quickly expanded to encompass the history of witchcraft in most cultures and societies that have existed with scholarly studies now extending back to the time of earliest law code that punished sorcery, the Babylonian Code of Hammurabi (1792-1750 B.C.E.), and forward to the last witchcraft cases in England, those of Helen Duncan and Jane Yorke, tried in 1944. There has also been a significant amount of interest in the development of the modern religion of witchcraft, or Wicca, as various forms of neo-paganism continue to attract adherents. The second edition of Historical Dictionary of Witchcraft covers the history of the Witchcraft from 1750 B.C.E. though the modern day. This is done through a chronology, an introductory essay, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 300 cross-referenced entries on witch hunts, witchcraft trials, and related practices around the world. This book is an excellent access point for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about the history of witchcraft.
The Historical Dictionary of Islamic Fundamentalism provides a comprehensive and detailed examination into Islam as a religion, Islam as a government, and Islam as a way of life. It is a thorough analysis of various groups, events, movements, key figures, and dogmas that have influenced contemporary Islamic Fundamentalism. In this book, Dr. Guidere provides an in-depth look at Islamic Fundamentalism through a detailed chronology, an introductory essay, an Arabic-to-English glossary, and an extensive bibliography. The main portion of the book consists of the dictionary section, which has over 500 cross-referenced entries on groups, events, movements, key figures, dogmas, ideologies, and movements of the 20th and 21st centuries. This book is an excellent access point for high school students, college students, and anyone interested in a better understanding of the world of Islam.
Organized labor is about the collective efforts of employees to improve their economic, social, and political position. It can be studied from many different points of view-historical, economic, sociological, or legal-but it is fundamentally about the struggle for human rights and social justice. As a rule, organized labor has tried to make the world a fairer place. Even though it has only ever covered a minority of employees in most countries, its effects on their political, economic, and social systems have been generally positive. History shows that when organized labor is repressed, the whole society suffers and is made less just. The Historical Dictionary of Organized Labor looks at the history of organized labor to see where it came from and where it has been. This is done through a chronology, an introductory essay, appendixes, a glossary of terms, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 400 cross-referenced entries on most countries, international as well as national labor organizations, major labor unions, leaders, and other aspects of organized labor such as changes in the composition of its membership. This book is an excellent access point for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about organized labor.
There are several eras in the history of Christianity radical forms of the tradition are obvious: the early church of the first five centuries, the medieval era, the age of reform, the early modern era, and the contemporary era. Radical Christian activity and experience may reflect either a primary or a derived level of spirituality. New converts may join a sect or movement with radical characteristics; or they may become dissatisfied with their initial Christian experiences and desire a different or deeper Christian spirituality, usually closely parallel to that seen in the New Testament. The Historical Dictionary of Radical Christianity covers the history of this movement and includes an introductory essay and a bibliography. The dictionary section has over 400 cross-referenced entries. The dictionary entries selected reflect the leading groups, movements, and sects from each major era of Christian history. Especially in the contemporary period, the great proliferation of radical thinkers and groups has necessitated a selection process with those selected exhibiting sustained group activity, possessing an identifiable following, and demonstrating a significant cultural impact. This book is an excellent access point for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about Radical Christianity.
With about one billion members, the Catholic Church is one of the world's largest religious bodies, and its history is crucially linked to global events. In the Historical Dictionary of Catholicism, author William J. Collinge provides the reader with a comprehensive introduction to the theology, doctrines, and worship of the religion. He covers the entire Catholic tradition from the time of Jesus to the present, including the periods before the present division of Christianity into Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Protestant. Collinge has also included entries on heretical, schismatic, and dissident movements within Catholicism, and he covers the relation of Catholicism to other Christian traditions, to the major non-Christian religions, and to Western cultural and philosophical traditions. The second edition of the Historical Dictionary of Catholicism has been updated to reflect recent developments in the Catholic Church, most notably the death of Pope John Paul II and his succession by Pope Benedict XVI. An updated introduction precedes the main body of the dictionary, which contains more than 500 alphabetical, cross-referenced entries covering persons, organizations, places, events, titles, and concepts. The entries are followed by several appendixes on popes, ecumenical councils, the documents of Vatican Council II, major papal encyclicals, and Catholic prayers, and a comprehensive bibliography provides the researcher with further readings. The second edition of the Historical Dictionary of Catholicism is an ideal access point for students, researchers, or anyone interested in the history of the Catholic Church.
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) is one of the most important early modern thinkers. Though Hobbes is best known for Leviathan (1651) and the theory of absolute sovereignty, his works discuss virtually all the major problems of philosophy as well as science and mathematics, and contain the translations of classical texts like Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War, a verse church history, and various essays. Hobbes spent most of his adult life in the service of the influential Cavendish family. The Historical Dictionary of Hobbes's Philosophy offers a comprehensive guide to the many facets of Hobbes's work. Through its chronology, introductory essay, bibliography, and hundreds of cross-referenced dictionary entries on concepts, people, works, and technical terms, Hobbes's impact on philosophy and related fields is made accessible to the reader in this must-have reference. Intended as a reference to learn about particular aspects of Hobbes, it also serves as a quick guide to check information and find the relevant secondary literature on Hobbes. It is an excellent access point for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about Thomas Hobbes.
The modern reputation of Friends in the United States and Europe is grounded in the relief work they have conducted in the presence and aftermath of war. Friends (also known as Quakers) have coordinated the feeding and evacuation of children from war zones around the world. They have helped displaced persons without regard to politics. They have engaged in the relief of suffering in places as far-flung as Ireland, France, Germany, Ethiopia, Egypt, China, and India. Their work was acknowledged with the award of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1947 to the American Friends Service Committee (AFSC) and the Friends Service Council of Great Britain. More often, however, Quakers live, worship, and work quietly, without seeking public attention for themselves. Now, the Friends are a truly worldwide body and are recognized by their Christ-centered message of integrity and simplicity, as well as their nonviolent stance and affirmation of the belief that all people-women as well as men-may be called to the ministry. The expanded second edition of the Historical Dictionary of the Friends (Quakers) relates the history of the Friends through a chronology, an introductory essay, an extensive bibliography, and over 700 cross-referenced dictionary entries on concepts, significant figures, places, activities, and periods. This book is an excellent access point for scholars and students, who will find the overviews and sources for further research provided by this book to be enormously helpful.
New religious movements-commonly known as cults-are defined as organizations that have arisen within the last 200 years. Most treatments of these movements have typically resorted to sensationalism rather than objectivity, and New religious movements tend to receive negative media publicity. Despite their unfavorable portrayal in popular culture, however, new religious movements are a global phenomenon and much remains to be studied about these movements. In this newly updated second edition of the Historical Dictionary of New Religious Movements, George D. Chryssides traces the rise and development of new religious movements throughout the world. An updated introduction summarizes the phenomenon of new religious movements and lays out the changes to the dictionary since the 2001 edition, while the main body of the dictionary consists of close to 600 cross-referenced entries on key figures, ideas, themes, and places related to various new religious movements. An index organizes the information in the dictionary, and a comprehensive bibliography leads the researcher to further sources. This book is an excellent access point for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about new religious movements.
Calvinism is named after 16th century Reformer, John Calvin whose overall theology is contained in his Institutes of the Christian Religion (1559). Calvin's theology and ecclesiology provided the foundation upon which the Reformed Churches of Europe were built. It was a comprehensive and carefully expounded alternative to the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church and was designed to expose their weaknesses and present a view of the Christian Faith that was a reformed version of the old faith. The Historical Dictionary of Calvinism relates the history of its founder John Calvin, the Reformed Church, and the impact that Calvinism has had in the modern world along with an account of modern and contemporary developments within the religious, political, and social culture it has created. This is done through a chronology, an introductory essay, an extensive bibliography, and over 300 cross-referenced dictionary entries on concepts, significant figures, places, activities, and periods. This book is an excellent access point for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about Calvinism.
The Reformation of the 16th century was a complex and multifaceted political, social, cultural, and religious process. Most historians agree, however, that in the framework of this process it was the religious and theological efforts to reform and renew the late medieval church-decadent and irrelevant in many ways-that were the initiating forces that set a broad historical movement in motion. Among these reforming religious and theological forces, the Lutheran reform movement was the most important and influential one. It was the historical impact of the theological genius of the Wittenberg professor Martin Luther (1483-1546) that profoundly changed and shaped the face of Europe and beyond. Today, Lutheranism has become a worldwide communion of churches that stretches from Germany to Siberia, Papua New Guinea, Madagascar, and Surinam. The second edition of the Historical Dictionary of Lutheranism presents information on major theological issues, historical developments of Lutheranism worldwide, Lutheran ecumenical and missionary involvement and activities, worship and liturgy, spirituality, social ethics, inter-religious and Jewish relations, Lutheranism and the arts, theology, and important representatives of Lutheranism. This is done through a detailed chronology, an introductory essay, an appendix of Lutheran Churches, a bibliography, and hundreds of cross-referenced dictionary entries. This book is an excellent access point for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about Lutheranism.
Hinduism is the world's third largest religion and still growing. It is the oldest major religion with a tradition reaching back millennia and having many notable peaks and periods of glory. It has influenced and been affected by other world religions, including Islam and Buddhism, as well as Christianity. Despite repeated attempts to contain it, it has maintained an exceptional vigor and boasts a rich spiritual culture with celebrated thinkers and teachers and an extensive literature. The Historical Dictionary of Hinduism relates the history of Hinduism through a chronology, an introductory essay, photos, an extensive bibliography, and over 1,000 cross referenced dictionary entries on Hindu terminology, names of major historical figures and movements, gods and goddesses, prominent temples, terms for items used in Hindu practice, major texts, philosophical concepts, and more. This book is an excellent access point for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about Hinduism.
One of Japan's major religions, Shinto has no doctrines and there are no sacred texts from which religious authority can be derived. It does not have an identifiable historical founder, and it has survived the vicissitudes of history through rituals and symbols rather than through continuity of doctrine. Shinto is primarily a religion of nature, centered on the cultivation of rice, the basis of a culture with which the western world is not familiar in terms of either its annual cycle or the kind of lifestyle it generates. The roots of the Shinto tradition probably precede this and reflect an awareness of the natural order. The oldest shrines came to be located in places that inspired awe and wonder in their observers, such as the great Fall of Nachi in Kumano, or in mountains that conveyed a sense of power. The expanded second edition of the Historical Dictionary of Shinto relates the history of Shinto through a chronology, an introductory essay, an extensive bibliography, and over 800 cross-referenced dictionary entries on Shinto concepts, significant figures, places, activities, and periods. Scholars and students will find the overviews and sources for further research provided by this book to be enormously helpful.
Metaphysics is what Aristotle described as the First Philosophy or first science, a comprehensive inquiry into the ultimate nature of reality. As such, metaphysics consists of a systematic study of the more general categories of being and of the more general ways of relating entities. The Historical Dictionary of Metaphysics focuses on metaphysics in Western philosophy, the metaphysical tradition that developed under the influence of Greek philosophy, and especially Plato and Aristotle. It offers a comprehensive guide to the many facets of metaphysics through a chronology, an introductory essay, a bibliography, and over 300 cross-referenced dictionary entries on concepts, people, works, and technical terms. This volume is an invaluable resource for student and scholar alike.
Jesus of Nazareth is arguably the most famous and influential human being who has ever lived on earth. In the Historical Dictionary of Jesus, author Daniel J. Harrington delves into the ancient literary sources about Jesus, modern methods of approaching these sources, the major events in Jesus' life, persons and places associated with him, the form and content of his teachings, what can be said about his death and the claim that he was raised from the dead, and the contributions of major modern scholars to the quest of the historical Jesus. The book consists of three parts: an introduction to the major topics pertaining to Jesus as a historical figure; a cross-referenced dictionary containing 400 entries on a range of topics, including things Jesus did and said, ancient sources of historical data, and modern scholarship and interpretation; and a bibliography listing some of the most important books related to Jesus and the world in which he lived. This concise and objective reference work provides a clear and accurate introduction to the study of Jesus as a historical figure.
The Protestant Reformation of the 16th century has traditionally been viewed as marking the onset of modernity in Europe. It finally broke up the federal Christendom of the middle ages, under the leadership of the papacy and substituted for it a continent of autonomous and national states, independent of Rome. The Historical Dictionary of the Reformation and Counter-Reformation provides a comprehensive account of two chains of events-the Protestant Reformation and the Catholic Counter-Reformation-that have left an enduring imprint on Europe, America, and the world at large. This is done through a chronology, an introductory essay, a bibliography, and over 300 cross-referenced dictionary entries on persons, places, countries, institutions, doctrines, ideas, and events.
As its name implies, the Reformed tradition grew out of the 16th century Protestant Reformation. The Reformed churches consider themselves to be the Catholic Church reformed. The movement originated in the reform efforts of Huldrych Zwingli (1484-1531) of Zurich and John Calvin (1509-1564) of Geneva. Although the Reformed movement was dependent upon many Protestant leaders, it was Calvin's tireless work as a writer, preacher, teacher, and social and ecclesiastical reformer that provided a substantial body of literature and an ethos from which the Reformed tradition grew. Today, the Reformed churches are a multicultural, multiethnic, and multinational phenomenon. The second edition of the Historical Dictionary of the Reformed Churches contains information on the major personalities, events, facts, movements, and beliefs of the Reformed churches. This is done through a list of acronyms and abbreviations, a chronology, an introductory essay, appendixes, a bibliography, and over 800 cross-referenced dictionary entries on leaders, personalities, events, facts, movements, and beliefs of the Reformed churches.
It is much harder to define a religious movement than it is to define a religion or denomination. That applies especially when that movement almost defies definition as the Holiness Movement does. The Holiness Movement is a Methodist religious renewal movement that has over 12 million adherents worldwide. Perhaps the most familiar public manifestation of the holiness movement has been its urban holiness missions, and the Salvation Army-noted for its service ministries among poor and people suffering the dislocations that accompany war and disaster-is the most notable example. In the second edition of the Historical Dictionary of the Holiness Movement, important new developments in the Holiness Movement-such as the widely discussed Holiness Manifesto -are thoroughly discussed, and the content has also been expanded to include information on figures from Asia and Africa to reflect the continued growth of the Holiness Movement. With a chronology, an introductory essay, a bibliography, and over 400 cross-referenced dictionary entries, this reference has information that cannot be found elsewhere.
In the early 21st century, Buddhism has become ubiquitous in America and other western nations, moving beyond the original bodhi tree in India to become a major global religion. During its journey westward, it has changed, adapted to new cultures, and offered spiritual help to many people looking for answers to the problems of life. It is being studied in institutions of higher education, being practice by many people, and having its literature translated and published. The Historical Dictionary of Buddhism covers and clarifies Buddhist concepts, significant figures, movements, schools, places, activities, and periods. This is done through a chronology, an introductory essay, a bibliography, and over 700 cross-referenced dictionary entries.
The history of sexuality is central to social history, the history of ideas, the realization or repression of human rights, and other areas of focus. This is also true about those who have had, or do have, what could be called minority sexualities. Same-sex attraction has generally been a minority sexuality; it has been the object of tremendous repression and vociferous complaint but also one of praise by talented poets and philosophers. The Historical Dictionary of Homosexuality provides a comprehensive survey of same-sex relations from ancient China and Greece to the contemporary world. It covers the gay rights movement from its origins in 19th century Europe to the nascent global network today. Philosophic treatments, such as natural law and queer theory, along with legal issues and court decisions are included. Global in its coverage of the variety of same-sex relations, their legal treatment, and social norms concerning same-sex attraction, this reference includes a chronology, an introductory essay, a bibliography, and cross-referenced dictionary entries on specific countries and regions, influential historical figures, laws that criminalized same-sex sexuality, various historical terms that have been used to refer to aspects of same-sex love, and contemporary events and legal decisions.
With 110 million members worldwide, Baptists are surpassed only by Roman Catholic and Orthodox groups as the largest segment of Christians. The term Baptist has its origins with the Anabaptists, the denomination historically linked to the English Separatist movement of the 16th century. Although Baptist churches are located throughout the world, the largest group of Baptists lives in the Southern United States, and the Baptist faith has historically exerted a powerful influence in that region of the country. The second edition of the Historical Dictionary of the Baptists expands upon the first edition with an updated chronology, an introductory essay, a bibliography, and hundreds of cross-referenced dictionary entries on important events, doctrines, and the church founders, leaders, and other prominent figures who have made notable contributions. This volume commemorates the 400th anniversary of the founding of the Baptist movement in 1609.
Academic philosopher, logician, public intellectual, educator, political activist, and freethinker, Bertrand Russell was and remains a colossus. No other single philosopher in the last 200 years can be said to have created so much and influenced so many. His Principia Mathematica, written with A. N. Whitehead, ranks as one of the greatest books on logic since Aristotle. His philosophical work on language, meaning, logic, mind, and metaphysics formed the basis of 20th-century philosophy. Russell was active in numerous political movements of liberation and peace, and his popular writings, including the best-selling History of Western Philosophy, won the Nobel prize in literature in 1950. Historical Dictionary of Bertrand Russell's Philosophy offers a comprehensive, current guide to the many facets of Russell's work. Through its chronology, introductory essay, bibliography, and hundreds of cross-referenced dictionary entries on concepts, people, works, and technical terms, Russell's impact on philosophy and related fields is made accessible to the reader in this must-have reference.
The Historical Dictionary of Ethics covers a very broad range of ethical topics, including ethical theories, historical periods, historical figures, applied ethics, ethical issues, ethical concepts, non-Western approaches, and related disciplines. Harry J. Gensler and Earl W. Spurgin tackle such issues as abortion, capital punishment, stemcell research, and terrorism while also explaining key theories like utilitarianism, natural law, social contract, and virtue ethics. This reference provides a complete overview of ethics through a detailed chronology, an introductory essay, a bibliography, and over 200 cross-referenced dictionary entries, including bioethics, business ethics, Aristotle, Hobbes, autonomy, confidentiality, Confucius, and psychology.
George Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel evoked passionate discipleship, as well as equally passionate opposition. He was praised by the likes of Karl Marx and John Dewey but scorned by Karl Popper and Bertrand Russell. He has been charged with being a proponent of an authoritarian state by some, and he has been accused of instigating the dissolution of the state by others. Notoriously difficult to understand, Hegel's keen insights continue his legacy today. The second edition of the Historical Dictionary of Hegelian Philosophy covers all aspects of Hegel's thought. It discusses his students and colleagues, as well as key figures who either adopted (and adapted) his thought or attempted to explicate it for later generations. This is done through a chronology, an introductory essay, a glossary of German terms, a bibliography, and over 500 cross-referenced dictionary entries.
Native Americans in the United States, similar to other indigenous people, created political, economic, and social movements to meet and adjust to major changes that impacted their cultures. For centuries, Native Americans dealt with the onslaught of non-Indian land claims, the appropriation of their homelands, and the destruction of their ways of life. Through various movements, Native Americans accepted, rejected, or accommodated themselves to the non-traditional worldviews of the colonizers and their policies. The Historical Dictionary of Native American Movements-through a chronology, an introductory essay, appendixes, a bibliography, and hundreds of cross-referenced dictionary entries on important persons, places, events, and institutions and significant political, economic, social, and cultural aspects-is a useful reference on topics dealing with key movements, organizations, leadership strategies, and the major issues Native Americans have confronted.
During the 1st century, Saint Mark brought Christianity to Egypt and in so doing, formed the basis for the Coptic Orthodox Church. Today, Copts, members of the Coptic Church, compromise the largest Christian Community in the Middle East. The Coptic Church is more than 19 centuries old and has produced thousands of texts and biblical and theological studies. During the last half of the 20th century, however, economic and political discrimination has forced between 400,000 and one million Copts to emigrate from Egypt, with the majority settling in North America and Australia. The Historical Dictionary of the Coptic Church details the history of one of the oldest Christian churches. This is done through a chronology, an introductory essay, a bibliography, and more than 400 cross-referenced dictionary entries on important people, organizations, and structures; the theology and practices of the church; its literature and liturgy; and monasteries and churches.
The Jewish attachment to Zion is many centuries old. While the modern Zionist movement was organized a little more than a century ago, the roots of the Zionist idea reach back close to 4,000 years ago, to the day that the biblical patriarch Abraham left his home in Ur of the Chaldees to settle in the Promised Land, where the Jewish state subsequently arose. From that day to the establishing of the state of Israel in 1948, the Jewish people have been in a constant struggle to either regain or maintain their homeland. Although 60 years have now passed since the establishment of Israel, many of the political and religious factions that made up the Zionist movement in the pre-state era remain active. The second edition of the Historical Dictionary of Zionism-through its chronology, maps, introductory essay, bibliography, and over two hundred cross-referenced dictionary entries on crucial persons, organizations, and events-is a valuable contribution to the appreciation for both the diversity and consensus that characterize the Zionist experience.
Existentialism is the philosophy of human existence, which flourished first in Germany in the 1920s and 1930s and then in France in the decade following the end of World War II. The operative meaning of existentialism here is thus broader than it was circa 1945 when the term first gained currency in France as a label for the philosophy of Jean-Paul Sartre. However, it is considerably less broad than the view proposed by commentators in the 1950s and 1960s who, in an attempt to overcome Sartre's hegemony, discovered the seeds of existentialism far and wide: in Shakespeare, Saint Augustine, and the Old Testament prophets. In this dictionary, existentialism is understood as a decidedly 20th-century phenomenon, though with roots in the 19th century. Effort has been made to understand the philosophy of existentialism, as all philosophies should be understood, as part of an ongoing intellectual tradition: an evolving history of problems, concepts, and arguments. The Historical Dictionary of Existentialism explains the central claims of existentialist philosophy and the contexts in which it developed into one of the most influential intellectual trends of the 20th century. This is done through a chronology, an introductory essay, a bibliography, and more than 300 cross-referenced dictionary entries offering clear, accessible accounts of the life and thought of major existentialists like Jean-Paul Sartre, Martin Heidegger, Martin Buber, Karl Jaspers, Gabriel Marcel, Simone de Beauvoir, Albert Camus, and Maurice Merleau-Ponty, as well as thinkers influential to its development such as Wilhelm Dilthey, Henri Bergson, Edmund Husserl, and Max Scheler. Historical Dictionary of Existentialism affords readers an integrated, critical, and historically-sensitive understanding of this important philosophical movement.
Edmund Husserl (1859-1938) is widely regarded as the founding figure of the philosophical movement of phenomenology. Husserl's philosophical program was both embraced and rejected by many, but in either case, his ideas set the stage for and exercised an enormous influence on the development of much of the philosophy that followed. In particular, his thought provides the backdrop and impetus for movements such as existentialism, hermeneutics, and deconstruction. Also, because of his career-long concerns with logic and mathematics, there are many points of contact between Husserl's phenomenology and so-called analytical philosophy, further cementing study of Husserl's thought across the philosophical spectrum. The Historical Dictionary of Husserl's Philosophy provides the means to approach the texts of Husserl, as well as those of his major commentators. This is done through a chronology, an introductory essay, an extensive bibliography, and hundreds of cross-referenced dictionary entries on key terms and neologisms, as well as brief discussions of Husserl's major works and of some of his most important predecessors, contemporaries, and successors.
Members of the Church of England until the mid-16th century, the Puritans thought the Church had become too political and needed to be purified. While many Puritans believed the Church was capable of reform, a large number decided that separating from the Church was their only remaining course of action. Thus the mass migration of Puritans (known as Pilgrims), to America took place. Although Puritanism died in England around 1689 and in America in 1758, Puritan beliefs, such as self-reliance, frugality, industry, and energy remain standards of the American ideal. The Historical Dictionary of Puritans tells the story of Puritanism from its origins until its eventual demise. This is done through a chronology, an introduction, a bibliography, and several hundred cross-referenced dictionary entries on important people, places, and events.
The Middle Ages is often viewed as a period of low intellectual achievement. The name itself refers to the time between the high philosophical and literary accomplishments of the Greco-Roman world and the technological advances that were achieved and philosophical and theological alternatives that were formulated in the modern world that followed. However, having produced such great philosophers as Anselm, Peter Abelard, John Duns Scotus, William of Ockham, Peter Lombard, and the towering Thomas Aquinas, it hardly seems fair to label the medieval period as such. Examining the influence of ancient Greek philosophy as well as of the Arabian and Hebrew scholars who transmitted it, the Historical Dictionary of Medieval Philosophy and Theology presents the philosophy of the Christian West from the 9th to the early 17th century. This is accomplished through a chronology, an introduction, appendixes, a bibliography, and hundreds of cross-referenced dictionary entries on the philosophers, concepts, issues, institutions, and events, making this an important reference for the study of the progression of human thought.
There cannot be a God because if there were one, I could not believe that I was not He. -Friedrich Nietzsche Few philosophers have been as popular, prolific, and controversial as Friedrich Nietzsche, who has left his imprint not only on philosophy but on all the arts. Whether it is his concept of the ubermensch or his nihilistic view of the world, Nietzsche's writings have aroused enormous interest, as well as anathema, in scholars for centuries. The second edition of the Historical Dictionary of Nietzscheanism helps bring the many ideas and concepts developed by the 19th Century philosopher together in one single volume reference. This is accomplished through the use of a chronology, a glossary, a bibliography, and hundreds of cross-referenced dictionary entries on his major writings, his contemporaries, and his successors.
Marxism, one of the few philosophies that turned into an effective movement, not so long ago was the official ideology in one form or another of much of humanity. It was promulgated, initially by the Soviet Union, then imposed on much of Central and Eastern Europe, later emerged in the People's Republic of China, and gradually spread to other parts of Asia and even bits of Africa and Latin America. Although declining in its initial popularity, it still remains strong in several countries and is supported by numerous communist and other parties and countless individuals around the world. The Historical Dictionary of Marxism covers the history of Marxism and all its thinkers and schools of thought in a comprehensive manner. This is done, through a chronology, a list of acronyms and abbreviations, an introductory essay, a bibliography, and hundreds of cross-reference dictionary entries on basic terms and concepts, significant thinkers and doers, and also the parties and countries that followed it.
Growing out of the teachings of the Bab, who introduced the idea of the coming of a great prophet (the one promised in the scriptures of all the world's major religions), the Baha'i Faith was founded by Baha'u'llah, when in 1866 he publicly declared that he was the One the Bab prophesized. The 2nd edition of the Historical Dictionary of the Baha'i Faith presents a general historical overview of both Babi and Baha'i religions, as well as a theological overview of the Baha'i Faith, from their inception in the mid 19th century to the middle of 2005. It presents biographical details of the Founders and Central Figures along with numerous leaders and pioneers, most of the basic principles and precepts, as well as aspects of its organization and administration. Through the use of photographs, a list of acronyms, a chronology, an introductory essay, a bibliography, hundreds of cross-referenced dictionary entries on nearly every aspect of the religion, and appendixes listing the genealogy of the Founders, statistical information, and lists of apostles, disciples, Hands of the Cause, Knights of Baha'u'llah as well as of more than 930 believers who have contributed to its growth and development, this book is a fundamental tool for finding information on all things related to the Baha'i Faith.
Aesthetics is not a factual discipline; there are no aesthetic facts. The word itself is derived from the Greek word for feeling and the discipline arises because of the need to find a place for the passions within epistemology-the branch of philosophy that investigates our beliefs. Aesthetics is more than just the study of beauty; it is a study of that which appeals to our senses, most often in connection with the classification, analysis, appreciation, and understanding of art. The Historical Dictionary of Aesthetics covers its history from Classical Greece to the present, including entries on non-western aesthetics. The book contains a chronology, a list of acronyms and abbreviations, an introductory essay, a bibliography, and hundreds of cross-referenced dictionary entries on the main concepts, terminology, important persons (philosophers, critics, and artists), and the rules and criteria we apply in making judgments on art. By providing concise information on aesthetics, this dictionary is not only accessible to students, but it provides details and facts to specialists in the field.
With more than 1,500,000 members and adherents in 109 countries, there is hardly anyone nowadays who is not familiar with the Salvation Army. And while many have been directly affected by its activities in health, relief, and community service, it is rare that one knows much about this unique Christian movement, which was founded in London in 1865 by William Booth-its first General -and has continued growing ever since. Whether merely curious, impressed by its work, or among its members, the Historical Dictionary of the Salvation Army provides a wealth of information for those who want to know more. This excellent source on all varieties of aspects related to the Salvation Army-its history, organization, structure, beliefs, and activities around the world-sums them all up in a broad introduction. It then presents the information in greater detail in hundreds of cross-referenced dictionary entries, while nearly a century-and-a-half of history is traced in the chronology, and further reading is indicated by two extensive bibliographies. This volume, written by more than 150 contributors-all specialists on different aspects and countries-under the direction of Major John G. Merritt, concludes with nine appendixes, including the first-ever published list of the more than 425 men and women who have attained the rank of Commissioner.
Epistemology is the branch of philosophy that investigates our beliefs, evidence, and claims of knowledge. It is one of the core areas of philosophy, and is relevant to an astonishingly broad range of issues and situations. Epistemological issues arise whenever we recognize that there is a fact of the matter, but we do not know what it is, when we wonder about the future (or the past or distant places), when we seek answers in the sciences, and even in our entertainment (e.g., murder mysteries and comedies of misunderstanding). The Historical Dictionary of Epistemology provides an overview of this field of study and of the theories, concepts, and personalities through the use of a list of acronyms, a chronology, an introductory essay, a bibliography, and more than 500 cross-referenced dictionary entries, covering notable concepts, theories, arguments, publications, issues, and philosophers. Students and others who wish to acquaint themselves with epistemology will be greatly aided by this reference.
During the long period when the world was divided between East and West and the Cold War threatened to turn hot with devastating consequences, the Non-Aligned Movement was one of the few institutions that consistently sought other outcomes not in its own interest, but that of all humanity. Consisting of over 100 states that are free of any formal alliances with any major power bloc, the Non-Aligned Movement provides aid to those countries striving to gain independence, eliminate poverty, and develop their economy. Just what the Non-Aligned Movement and Third World sought-and at times achieved-is set forth in this unique reference work, with its over 200 cross-referenced dictionary entries on important persons, organizations, and conferences, as well as the key issues and concepts. Entries are supported by an extensive chronology, a list of acronyms, an introduction to the movement, and a bibliography for further research.
Judaism, the religion of the Jewish people, is one of the first recorded monotheistic religions, and as such is one of the oldest religious traditions still practiced today. While its influences can be seen in the religions of both Christianity and Islam, many of its beliefs, traditions, and practices are unknown. The second edition of the Historical Dictionary of Judaism doesn't just present religious beliefs in a traditional sense, but investigates the complex intermingling of religion, devotion, lifestyle and culture, as it is found in diverse Jewish populations around the world and as it has evolved over the course of recent human history. Judaism, like many other cultural institutions, has rarely remained static-instead, continually investigating and questioning itself, metamorphosing in relation to the world. By means of a list of acronyms and abbreviations, a chronology, an introductory essay, a bibliography, and numerous cross-referenced dictionary entries on important persons, writings, institutions, concepts, Hebrew words, philosophy, theology, and religious law, author Norman Solomon provides an important reference source for the study of Judaism.
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716) was one of the first Modern philosophers, and as such, one of the most significant. His contributions were often pathbreaking and his imprint still remains on fields such as logic, mathematics, science, international law, and ethics. While publishing relatively little during his life, he was in regular correspondence with important philosophers and even political leaders. The Historical Dictionary of Leibniz's Philosophy sheds light not only on his philosophical thought but also the impact it had on the thinking of his contemporaries. They, and he, are described in numerous cross-referenced dictionary entries. Also included are other entries that present his writings, explain his concepts, and trace his action in specific fields. The introduction sums much of this up and-along with the bibliography-provides a strong foundation for further study.
This one-volume encyclopedia of logic introduces the central concepts of the field in a series of brief, non-technical, cross-referenced dictionary entries. The 352 alphabetically arranged entries give a clear, basic introduction to a very broad range of logical topics. Entries can be found on deductive systems, such as propositional logic, modal logic, deontic logic, temporal logic, set theory, many-valued logic, mereology, and paraconsistent logic. Similarly, there are entries on topics relating to those previously mentioned such as negation, conditionals, truth tables, and proofs. Historical periods and figures are also covered, including ancient logic, medieval logic, Buddhist logic, Aristotle, Ockham, Boole, Frege, Russell, Goedel, and Quine. There are even entries relating logic to other areas and topics, like biology, computers, ethics, gender, God, psychology, metaphysics, abstract entities, algorithms, the ad hominem fallacy, inductive logic, informal logic, the liar paradox, metalogic, philosophy of logic, and software for learning logic. In addition to the dictionary, there is a substantial chronology listing the main events in the history of logic, an introduction that sketches the central ideas of logic and how it has evolved into what it is today, and an extensive bibliography of related readings. This book is not only useful for specialists but also understandable to students and other beginners in the field.
Having only emerged in the past few decades, Feminist Philosophy is rapidly developing its own thrust in areas of particular importance to feminism-and women more generally-while also reevaluating and reshaping most other fields of philosophy, from ethics to logic and Marxism to environmentalism. It draws not only on feminist philosophers but criticizes, approves, or appropriates the work of the leading philosophers of all times. The introduction to this reference work provides a useful overview of the subject area and the chronology runs the gamut from Ancient Greek philosophers to contemporary feminist ones. The cross-referenced dictionary entries cover both the central figures and ideas from the historical tradition of philosophy, as well as ideas and theories from contemporary feminist philosophy, such as epistemology (the philosophy of science) and topics that have been introduced by the feminist movement itself, like abortion and sexuality. In addition to including entries on Aristotle, Plato, Descartes, Kant, Wollstonecraft, Beauvoir, and Daly, relevant aspects of other fields of philosophy, the major concepts, and prevailing interpretations and conjectures are also covered. A comprehensive bibliography allows for further reading.
Through cross-referenced A to Z entries, this book focuses on the historical development of the welfare state, while simultaneously providing in depth explanation of core terms and elements of the welfare states, their structure, their present situation and their historical developments. Supplementing the dictionary entries are a chronology, an introduction, and a bibliography.
The third edition of this fascinating book deals with both levels of the competition-the competitive side and the administrative side. The dictionary includes hundreds of cross-referenced entries on the major sports, more outstanding athletes, participating countries and numerous bodies in the organization as well as successive generations of officials-starting with the founder, Pierre de Coubertin. Two chronologies trace the history of the Olympic movement back to the Ancient Olympiad first celebrated in Greece in 776 B.C. as well as all of the modern Games up to Athens in 2004. The appendixes then provide elusive facts on the Games, the officials, the torchbearers, and the top Olympic medal winners.
Contrary to popular opinion, there is more to Sikhism than the distinctive dress. First of all, there is the emergence of Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism, and the long line of his successors. There are the precepts, many related to liberation through the divine name or nam. There is a particularly turbulent history in which the Sikhs have fought to affirm their beliefs and resist external domination that continues to this day. There is also, more recently, the dispersion from the Punjab throughout the rest of India and on to Europe and the Americas. With this emigration Sikhism has become considerably less exotic, but hardly better known to outsiders. This expanded and updated second edition of the dictionary is an excellent place to learn more about the religion. It provides a chronology of events, a brief introduction that gives a general overview of the religion, and a dictionary with several hundred entries, which present the gurus and other leaders, trace the rather complex history, expound some of the precepts and concepts, describe many of the rites and rituals, and explain the meaning of numerous related expressions. All this, along with a copious bibliography, provides readers with an informative and accessible guide toward understanding Sikhism.
Few philosophers stand out as boldly as Immanuel Kant. While he did not write as much as others, his principle works, Critique of Pure Reason, Critique of Practical Reason, and Critique of Judgment, are known worldwide. During his time, schools of Kantianism quickly sprang up and were later joined by schools of Neokantianism. Admittedly, not all of Kant's concepts have aged well, but many are still taught among the basics of philosophy today and therefore must be known by every student. Holzhey and Mudroch provide a comprehensive dictionary that will aid not only students, but also teachers and the general public, since it contains hundreds of entries describing Kant's life and works, and explaining his concepts as well as the contributions of his followers (and also some opponents). Furthermore, much of the writings of the Neokantians, as well as the literature dealing with this movement, are not available in English, thus, this book provides an introduction to this phenomenon to the English-language reader. Given the inevitable problems of language, the glossary is particularly helpful, while the bibliography makes the massive amounts of literature more accessible.
Profiles a large Christian denomination that is only two centuries old, but has a rapidly growing member base, including a large presence in the Third World. Reviews the notable historical events in a chronology; explains the development of the Seventh-day Adventist as a world religion in the introductory essay; describes the persons, places, events, doctrines, publications, institutions, organizations, and societies that played a significant role in shaping the religion; and provides an extensive bibliography of works on Seventh-day Adventism and books expressing Adventist views on theological and other issues.
In 2003, Methodists celebrated the 300th anniversary of the birth of their founder, John Wesley. Today, there are more than 300 Methodist denominations in 140 nations. Covering the activities of this group that plays an important role in the ecumenical movement through its many social and charitable activities in world affairs, this book offers more than 400 entries that describe important events, doctrines, and the church founders, leaders, and other prominent figures who have made notable contributions. It also includes: a list of commonly used acronyms, chronology of historical events, introductory essay on the history of Methodism, 15-page black-and-white photo spread, bibliography, listing of important libraries and depositories of Methodist materials. The impressive list of contributors includes more than 60 specialists who are academics, administrators, pastors, and theologians.
Historical Dictionary of Wittgenstein's Philosophy covers the life and work of Ludwig Wittgenstein as well as the people who have worked on Wittgenstein's ideas after his death. An introductory essay, list of acronyms and abbreviations, chronology, hundreds of dictionary entries, and extensive bibliography make this an engaging reference source for students and scholars alike.
Jain is the term used for a person who has faith in the teachings of the Jinas ( Spiritual Victors ). Jinas are human beings who have overcome all passions (kasayas) and have attained enlightenment or omniscience (kevala-jnana), who teach the truths they realized to others, and who attain liberation (moksa) from the cycle of rebirth (samsara). At the core of these teachings is nonviolence (ahimsa), which has remained the guiding principle of Jain ethics and practices to this day. In comparison with other religious traditions of South Asia, Jains are few in number, comprising less than one percent of India's population. The Jain lay and mendicant communities, however, have maintained an unbroken presence in India for more than 2,500 years and have influenced its culture throughout this time. Historical Dictionary of Jainism covers the history of Jainism that spans a period of more than 2,500 years. The history, values, concepts and scriptures, eminent mendicant and lay leaders and scholars, places, institutions, and social and cultural factors are covered in over 450 dictionary entries. This comprehensive reference work also includes an introductory essay, explanation of the Jain scriptures, chronology, appendices, bibliography, and an 8-page black-and-white photo spread. This book provides an excellent introduction and overview to Jainism for scholars, students, and general readers.
This Second Edition is an essential resource for librarians, scholars, and students. This succinct handbook includes more than 1,000 entries covering the persons, organizations, campaigns and court cases, goals and achievements, and current and future directions of the feminist movement, 75 percent of which are new and revised from the first edition. This second edition also features a more internationally focused introduction that provides an overview of the history and development of feminism as a movement and as a philosophy. Rounding out this new edition are an expanded chronology, and an updated bibliography that brings attention to many feminist online resources and periodicals, and emphasizes global and third-wave feminism, both new developments in the field since the publication of the first edition. Paying tribute to the struggles of the women, and men, who have worked to change and to improve the living conditions for women in the world, this book promises a comprehensive historical overview for readers of all interest levels.
Contrary to popular belief, organized labor is not dying although its membership has declined in most Western economies. The world membership of organized labor has increased 40 percent since 1980, mainly in Eastern Europe, Africa, and Asia boosting the global union membership from 140 to 166 million between 1995 and 2001. With 16 million union members, the United States has the second largest number of union members of any country in the world after the Russian Federation. This new edition captures the dynamism of this fascinating, complex subject and makes it accessible to any interested researcher. Containing 400 entries that cover organized labor in countries around the world, an up-to-date chronology, and an extensive bibliography arranged by subject, this dictionary provides an excellent source for these historical study of organized labor. Notable revised and new material include: Statistical appendix, Guide to relevant Internet sites, Glossary of terms, Summary list of past and present international labor leaders, Lists of global union federations and the affiliated organizations of major national labor federations, Analytical lists of the membership of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions. An essential reference for students and scholars, this work will also be of interest to labor economists, lawyers, sociologists, human rights activists, and historians.
Small though it may be, Unitarian Universalism has had a big impact not only on its members, but also on the world around it. Rejecting the constraints of other Christian denominations, it sought tolerance for itself and, surprisingly, freely granted tolerance to others. Evolving in its principles and practices over a relatively short lifetime, it shows every sign of developing further, reaching beyond Christianity to embrace what is good in other, more diverse, religions. Unitarian Universalism has also regularly been at the forefront in fighting for social causes, including abolition, temperance, women's suffrage, pacifism, educational reform, environmentalism, and others. Unitarian Universalism has also spread with time. First developed in present-day Romania and Hungary, its center shifted early to England, but its most successful story is the way it grew and flourished in the United States. This Dictionary covers numerous subjects, both historical and contemporary. There are entries on the places where the church was present, many more on significant leaders, and an impressive number on causes and issues. It thereby provides a comprehensive understanding of the multiple facets of the Unitarian Universalist faith. All the important people, events and ideas in this religion are included, not forgetting trends and issues up to the present day, so that many living people are included, as well as important, late-20th-century battles, including racism and new principles and purposes.
The decline of institutionalized religion in the increasingly secularized West has been offset by the contemporary spiritual development understood in the form of emerging New Age movements. This Dictionary presents the potpourri of spiritual and psycho-physical therapeutic practices associated with this affirmation of the individual's spiritual freedom, the expectation of a future golden age, the emphasis on self-development and the holistic pluralism that sets the dominant pulse for innovative spirituality in the twenty-first century. This reference furnishes profiles and explanations of New Age spokespeople and leaders, of a range of human potential and self-help practices, of countercultural spiritual developments, and of different groups and organizations that identify as New Age to let the reader decide for herself/himself whatever might be the sincerity, validity, hopes and possible usefulness to be found within the New Age effervescence. The dictionary consists of over 240 individual entries along with an introduction that describes the historical foundations of the New Age orientation and its relation with contemporary Western paganism. It also presents the sociological dimension of New Age expression as well as the kinds of criticism with which the New Age identity must contend. There is both a New Age Chronology and an extensive index that allows the reader access to many different themes and personalities that appear within the various entries that might otherwise be difficult to locate in a dictionary format. Designed to be of helpful use for students and serious academics alike as well as for practitioners of New Age spirituality.
A great deal has been written about the history of witchcraft, but much of what has been written is unreliable, exaggerated, or inaccurate. This problem is especially acute in regard to modern witchcraft, or Wicca, and its supposed connections to historical witchcraft in medieval and early modern Europe. This Dictionary provides a reliable reference source for both academics and general readers interested in the actual historical development of witchcraft in the western world. The focus of the dictionary is on Western Europe during the late-medieval and early modern periods, when the specific idea of diabolical witchcraft developed and when the so-called great witch-hunts occurred. Entries are also provided that deal with magic and witchcraft in the earlier Christian period and classical antiquity, as well as with the lingering belief in witchcraft in the modern world, and with the development of the modern, neo-pagan religion of witchcraft, also known as Wicca. For comparative purposes, some entries have been provided that deal with aspects and systems of magic found in other parts of the world that seem to bear some relation to the idea of witchcraft as it developed in Christian Europe. The regions dealt with are mainly Africa, along with such New-World practices as Voodoo and Santeria. Entries in the dictionary cover important people in the history of witchcraft, from the medieval inquisitors and early modern magistrates who developed the stereotype of the historical witch to the modern individuals who have developed the religion of Wicca. Also included are legal terms and concepts important to the prosecution of the supposed crime of witchcraft, and religious and theological concepts pertaining to the demonic elements that came to be associated with witchcraft, as well as more popular beliefs and aspects of common folklore and mythology that became attached to the developing idea of witchcraft. Geographic entries are also included, discussing the scope of witch-hunting in various regions of
The Lesbian Liberation Movement (LLM) is both a movement that encompasses liberating a sexual practice from stigmatization, and a political movement challenging the dual oppression of women by the patriarchy's assumption of male supremacy and heterosexuality. Over the years, much has been written on homosexuality, and the Gay Liberation Movement (GLM), yet much of the focus has been on male homosexuals, especially male homosexual activity and the politics that that activity raises. The Historical Dictionary of the Lesbian Liberation Movement: Still the Rage is a comprehensive overview and resource guide for one of the most invisible social political movements: the Lesbian Liberation Movement. This book helps to make the still-active movement visible-the history, successes, setbacks, controversies, and issues. This book is a good secondary resource for those studying this social political movement, containing a chronology, contextual overview, dictionary entries that cover persons, laws, terminology, issues, and countries, and an extensive bibliography of primary resources and current work. A reference work, this book should be in all libraries and used by researchers studying the Lesbian Liberation Movement.
Both traditions recognize and draw theological and historical lessons from some of the same narrative sources, but this is the first comparative resource to provide interdisciplinary coverage of the history and textual sources associated with prophets and prophecy. This thorough treatment of a difficult and increasingly controversial subject area will encourage and cultivate knowledge and understanding. Entries are drawn from five main fields: 1. Ancient Near Eastern Studies 2. Bible and Biblical Studies 3. Judaism and Jewish Studies 4. The Quran and Quranic Studies 5. Islam and Islamic Studies Noegel and Wheeler treat each entry as a compilation of relevant data culled from these different traditions in order to take the reader beyond the expected parameters of research. Originally envisioned as an initial resource for students of comparative religion, the extensive chronology, bibliography, list of acronyms, and the overall accessibility of the passages make the Dictionary suitable for a much wider audience.
Slavery's origins lie far back in the mists of prehistoric times and have spanned the globe, two facts that most history texts fail to address. This comprehensive volume provides a historical overview of slavery through the ages, from prehistoric times to the modern day, while detailing the different forms, the various sources, and the circumstances existing in different countries and regions. As a broad reference source, it provides a complete look at slavery by discussing the causes and cures, as well as the plight of those who fought for and against it.
This comprehensive yet convenient guide to the key terms and names of this tradition will assist researchers, students, and the general reader to gain deeper insight into its nature and workings. Picken identifies the principal historical and mythological names that are central to the Shinto tradition and also demonstrates the relationship of Shinto to Japanese culture as a whole, including the relationship of Shinto to Buddhism, sex, death, ethics, Noh drama, and Folk Religion.
This historical dictionary examines the development of Lutheranism from its inception in the 16th century to its place as one of the largest and most influential Protestant denominations in the modern world. This book explores Lutheranism's middle position between Roman Catholicism/ Eastern Orthodoxy and the Reformed Presbyterian and other Protestant Churches. It is well-suited to the religious scholar and those with a historical interest in church development.
Watkin provides a contextual introduction to Kierkegaard's 19th century world of Copenhagen, a chronology of events and key figures in his life, as well as definitions of the key systems of his thought_theology, existentialism, literature, and psychology. The extensive bibliographical section covers secondary literature and electronic materials of help to researchers. The appendix includes detailed information on his writings, along with a list of his pseudonyms. This book is useful not only as a guide for experienced scholars, but also as an introduction to new students of Kierkegaard's Philosophy.
Provides a one-volume, balanced alternative to the overwhelming amounts of literature on the events of the time and the theological and political debates that spawned the events of the Reformation. With a chronology and a bibliography.
This reference work provides a needed ready reference to the essential information on and analytical discussion of basic ideas, notions, concepts, doctrines, ideologies, leaders, intellectuals, thinkers, ideologues, groups, and movements of Islamic fundamentalism or Islamism in the Arab world, Iran and Turkey. In one volume, Moussalli provides information about not only the origins and actions of Islamic fundamentalists, but the ideas and principles on which they are based. An invaluable source for both the broad pictures of Islamic fundamentalism and the specific details.
Cooperatives are found everywhere, doing all kinds of things. They are critical elements in the economies of a large number of countries around the world, large and small. Their affairs are carried out by elected leadership that runs the gamut from the illiterate to the scholarly. Their membership is made up of people of all socio-economic backgrounds. It is those members who, through their support and their needs, determine the successes and failures of cooperatives. But cooperatives as a popular movement will also be judged in other ways. A judgment will be made on the totality of their impact: local, national, and international. People will ask about how they helped ameliorate the economic and social problems of the dispossessed. But they will also inquire about their influence on economic systems, whether these were made more humane, egalitarian, and inclusive in their benefits because of cooperative principles and practices. Their impact on the international order will be judged collectively by how they contributed more than resolutions to peace, to justice, and to human inclusiveness. This volume provides snapshot views of the cooperative movement in all its diversity. The only single source one can consult to find so much information on the different kinds of cooperatives, significant figures, including philosophers, pioneers, officials, and leaders, and the situation in a large number of countries. With a list of acronyms, an extensive chronology, appendixes, and a comprehensive bibliography.
Despite its relative youth, the gay liberation movement is one of the most vigorous and quickly growing of the contemporary social movements. The efforts of a handful of individuals put in motion a movement which now involves millions of people, and spans the globe. The agenda of the movement, like its membership, has grown tremendously, with new causes, organizations, and strategies for reaching goals constantly being adopted. The Historical Dictionary of the Gay Liberation Movement traces the evolution from the early homosexual rights movement through a century of history and into the contemporary gay and lesbian rights movement. It defines the key organizations and presents their leaders, the essential issues and the strategies those issues suggest, and the situation in numerous countries. Entries for numerous countries provide a global perspective. Most of the information is provided through extensive entries in the dictionary which are supplemented and put into context by the introduction and chronology. A comprehensive bibliography aids the researcher in further study. This volume focuses on the impact of gay and bisexual men (and their allies) on the gay liberation movement. A subsequent volume will trace the role of lesbians in the movement.
This reference book on Taoism, one of the major spiritual traditions of China, includes in its coverage both Taoist philosophy and Taoist religion. An introduction provides overall insight into Taoist development through the ages, while the dictionary itself is comprised of 275 entries that define Taoist concepts, scriptures, deities, practices, and personalities. Includes an extensive bibliography.
Environmental problems once affected only the places that created the pollution. Today, environmental problems have become shared problems of the world, and include the loss of biodiversity, the global warming threat, stratospheric ozone depletion, and acid rain. Environmentalism has its roots in the belief that humans have the power to reverse the trend of depleting ecological life support systems and maintain remaining resources. The Historical Dictionary of North American Environmentalism is neither a dictionary of environmental science, nor environmental issues, but rather an attempt to capture the people, places, and events which have contributed to the development of environmentalism around the world, attempting to place each term used in the context of a developing movement. Although the focus of this volume is the history of North American environmentalism, entries that are not purely North American in scope have been included because they somehow helped to shape environmentalism on this continent. The bibliography is separated into twelve subsections which categorize annotations by subjects such as novels, nature writing, environmental ethics, sustainability, and environmental science. Thirteen black and white photos, a chronology, and introduction provide valuable detail to the researcher. A necessary purchase for libraries supporting environmental studies programs.
With a history of over three and a half millennia, and over 800 million adherents, Hinduism is one of the world's largest and most diverse religious traditions. The Historical Dictionary of Hinduism presents the Hindu religious tradition's major events, individuals, texts, sects, and concepts in the context of its historical development through various periods. In addition, sacred Hindu pilgrimage sites, the rituals performed as religious practices, the manifestations of Hindu religious sensibilities in biography, art, the caste system of social organization, mythology, and the theories of salvation developed through the history of Hinduism are also presented. A pronunciation guide to Sanskrit and Tamil, and a chronology of the history of Hinduism are included. Those who study Hinduism will find the bibliography, organized under ten topical headings and including primary and secondary sources, particularly useful for their research.
Provides comprehensive coverage of Catholicism, with emphasis on theology, doctrine, and liturgy. It covers the entire Catholic tradition from the time of Christ, and includes the periods before the division of Christianity into Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Protestant, but the main emphasis is on the development of Latin-rite ceremony in the United States. The introduction and an eight page chronological chart offer an overview of the history. The Dictionary contains five hundred brief articles complemented by about four hundred cross-references and index references. The volume discusses not only normative Catholicism but also heretical, schismatic, and dissident movements. On controversial issues, such as sexual morality, the dictionary endeavors to give a fair and sympathetic exposition of conflicting points of view. Appendixes list information on popes, councils, church documents, and prayers. The book concludes with a seventy-page bibliography, subdivided by subject.
The Historical Dictionary of the Civil Rights Movement is an essential reference work for students and scholars of American history and the civil rights movement. It provides over three hundred concise descriptions of the important people, organizations, events, and the multitude of executive orders, legislative acts, and judicial decisions that played crucial roles in the historic transformation of American society after World War II. Luker includes a historical overview that offers an interpretation of the movement. He also examines the role of women in this movement and the role of four generations of black and white leaders in the cause of racial justice. Includes a chronology of the milestones of the movement and a comprehensive bibliography of primary and secondary sources.
This historical dictionary covers the major trends in the 20th century ecumenical movement until today. It deals with developments in the realms of church unity, mission and evangelism, laity, women in church and society, and many other ecumenical subjects. It also covers many programs and activities of the World Council of Churches since its inception in 1948. The longer articles survey important theological themes while short articles provide quick reference on a precise question. The bibliography is not exhaustive-some 50,000 titles have been published since the beginning of this century-but very helpful for major bibliographical information. The dictionary is particularly strong in American subjects and includes a great number of ecuminical personalities which cannot be found in other reference works. This publication is not only an indispensible tool of research for university and seminary libraries but also for individual persons belonging to whatever Christian church who are interested in knowing more about reflections, relations, and activities in the several regions of the ecumenical world. A helpful description of the most important ecumenical assemblies and conferences is provided. To take stock of the past, to interpret the present, and to look forward into the third millenium of Christian existence are exciting and challenging enterprises.