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Originally published in 1978. This book is designed to enable students on main courses in economics to comprehend literature which employs econometric techniques as a method of analysis, to use econometric techniques themselves to test hypotheses about economic relationships and to understand some of the difficulties involved in interpreting results. While the book is mainly aimed at second-year undergraduates undertaking courses in applied economics, its scope is sufficiently wide to take in students at postgraduate level who have no background in econometrics - it integrates fully the mathematical and statistical techniques used in econometrics with micro- and macroeconomic case studies.
Originally published in 1970. Input-output analysis has been described as the lynch-pin of modern economic planning . Its purpose is to trace the consequences of any economic change through each sector of the economy; to measure, for example, the effects of an increase in fuel tax on the price of food, or of an expansion in car production on the country's import bill. This kind of knowledge is clearly essential for making economic predictions. This book presents the proceedings of the 1968 Manchester Conference including six outline papers, each followed by discussion, and several summaries of ongoing and proposed research which were added afterwards. The speakers and participants constituted a representative sample of persons from Industry and Commerce, as well as the Universities and the Civil Service.
Originally published in 1984. This book brings together a reasonably complete set of results regarding the use of Constraint Item estimation procedures under the assumption of accurate specification. The analysis covers the case of all explanatory variables being non-stochastic as well as the case of identified simultaneous equations, with error terms known and unknown. Particular emphasis is given to the derivation of criteria for choosing the Constraint Item. Part 1 looks at the best CI estimators and Part 2 examines equation by equation estimation, considering forecasting accuracy.
Originally published in 1979. This study focuses primarily on the development of a structural model for the U. S. Government securities market, ie. the specification and estimation of the demands for disaggregated maturity classes of U.S. Government securities by the individual investor groups participating in the market. A particularly important issue addressed involves the extent of the substitution relationship among different maturity classes of U.S. Government securities.
Originally published in 1970; with a second edition in 1989. Empirical Bayes methods use some of the apparatus of the pure Bayes approach, but an actual prior distribution is assumed to generate the data sequence. It can be estimated thus producing empirical Bayes estimates or decision rules. In this second edition, details are provided of the derivation and the performance of empirical Bayes rules for a variety of special models. Attention is given to the problem of assessing the goodness of an empirical Bayes estimator for a given set of prior data. Chapters also focus on alternatives to the empirical Bayes approach and actual applications of empirical Bayes methods.
Originally published in 1974. This book provides a rigorous and detailed introductory treatment of the theory of difference equations and their applications in the construction and analysis of dynamic economic models. It explains the theory of linear difference equations and various types of dynamic economic models are then analysed. Including plenty of examples of application throughout the text, it will be of use to those working in macroeconomics and econometrics.
Originally published in 1989. ECESIS consists of 51 regional econometric models (one for each state and the District of Columbia) and a multiregional demographic model. Its distinguishing feature is the linking of sophisticated demographic accounts with sophisticated structural econometric models. This book, looking at how strong the interactions are between population dynamics and economic activity, determines to what extent the simultaneous economic-demographic interregional model provides improved projection and simulation properties over regional economic and demographic models used independently of one another.
Originally published in 1987. This collection of original papers deals with various issues of specification in the context of the linear statistical model. The volume honours the early econometric work of Donald Cochrane, late Dean of Economics and Politics at Monash University in Australia. The chapters focus on problems associated with autocorrelation of the error term in the linear regression model and include appraisals of early work on this topic by Cochrane and Orcutt. The book includes an extensive survey of autocorrelation tests; some exact finite-sample tests; and some issues in preliminary test estimation. A wide range of other specification issues is discussed, including the implications of random regressors for Bayesian prediction; modelling with joint conditional probability functions; and results from duality theory. There is a major survey chapter dealing with specification tests for non-nested models, and some of the applications discussed by the contributors deal with the British National Accounts and with Australian financial and housing markets.
Originally published in 1984. This book addresses the economics of the changing mineral industry, which is highly affected by energy economics. The study estimates, in quantitative terms, the short- to mid-term consequences of rising energy prices alongside falling ore quality for the copper and aluminum industries. The effects of changing cost factors on substitution between metals is assessed as is the potential for relying on increased recycling. Copper and aluminum industry problems should be representative of those faced by the mineral processing sector as a whole. Two complex econometric models presented here produce forecasts for the industries and the book discusses and reviews other econometric commodity models.
Originally published in 1984. Since the logic underlying economic theory can only be grasped fully by a thorough understanding of the mathematics, this book will be invaluable to economists wishing to understand vast areas of important research. It provides a basic introduction to the fundamental mathematical ideas of topology and calculus, and uses these to present modern singularity theory and recent results on the generic existence of isolated price equilibria in exchange economies.
Originally published in 1960 and 1966. This is an elementary introduction to the sources of economic statistics and their uses in answering economic questions. No mathematical knowledge is assumed, and no mathematical symbols are used. The book shows - by asking and answering a number of typical questions of applied economics - what the most useful statistics are, where they are found, and how they are to be interpreted and presented. The reader is introduced to the major British, European and American official sources, to the social accounts, to index numbers and averaging, and to elementary aids to inspection such as moving averages and scatter diagrams.
Originally published in 1985. Mathematical methods and models to facilitate the understanding of the processes of economic dynamics and prediction were refined considerably over the period before this book was written. The field had grown; and many of the techniques involved became extremely complicated. Areas of particular interest include optimal control, non-linear models, game-theoretic approaches, demand analysis and time-series forecasting. This book presents a critical appraisal of developments and identifies potentially productive new directions for research. It synthesises work from mathematics, statistics and economics and includes a thorough analysis of the relationship between system understanding and predictability.
Originally published in 1991. The dilemma of solid and hazardous waste disposal in an environmentally safe manner has become a global problem. This book presents a modern approach to economic and operations research modelling in urban and regional waste management with an international perspective. Location and space economics are discussed along with transportation, technology, health hazards, capacity levels, political realities and the linkage with general global economic systems. The algorithms and models developed are then applied to two major cities in the world by way of case study example of the use of these systems.
Originally published in 1979. An Input/output database is an information system carrying current data on the intermediate consumption of any product or service by all the specified major firms that consume it. This book begins with a survey of how the interrelationships of an economic system can be represented in a two-dimensional model which traces the output of each economic sector to all other sectors. It talks about how the use of such databases to identify major buyers and sellers can illuminate problems of economic policy at the national, regional, and corporate level and aid in analyzing factors affecting the control of inflation, energy use, transportation, and environmental pollution. The book discusses how advances in database technology, have brought to the fore such issues as the right to individual privacy, corporate secrecy, the public's right of access to stored data, and the use of such information for national planning in a free-enterprise society.
Originally published in 1976 and with second edition published in 1984. This book established itself as the first genuinely introductory text on econometric methods, assuming no formal background on the part of the reader. The second edition maintains this distinctive feature. Fundamental concepts are carefully explained and, where possible, techniques are developed by verbal reasoning rather than formal proof. It provides all the material for a basic course. and is also ideal for a student working alone. Very little knowledge of maths and statistics is assumed, and the logic of statistical method is carefully stated. There are numerous exercises, designed to help the student assess individual progress. Methods are described with computer solutions in mind and the author shows how a variety of different calculations can be performed with relatively simple programs. This new edition also includes much new material - statistical tables are now included and their use carefully explained.
Originally published in 1929. This balanced combination of fieldwork, statistical measurement, and realistic applications shows a synthesis of economics and political science in a conception of an organic relationship between the two sciences that involves functional analysis, institutional interpretation, and a more workmanlike approach to questions of organization such as division of labour and the control of industry. The treatise applies the test of fact through statistical analysis to economic and political theories for the quantitative and institutional approach in solving social and industrial problems. It constructs a framework of concepts, combining both economic and political theory, to systematically produce an original statement in general terms of the principles and methods for statistical fieldwork. The separation into Parts allows selective reading for the methods of statistical measurement; the principles and fallacies of applying these measures to economic and political fields; and the resultant construction of a statistical economics and politics. Basic statistical concepts are described for application, with each method of statistical measurement illustrated with instances relevant to the economic and political theory discussed and a statistical glossary is included.
Originally published in 1981. Discrete-choice modelling is an area of econometrics where significant advances have been made at the research level. This book presents an overview of these advances, explaining the theory underlying the model, and explores its various applications. It shows how operational choice models can be used, and how they are particularly useful for a better understanding of consumer demand theory. It discusses particular problems connected with the model and its use, and reports on the authors' own empirical research. This is a comprehensive survey of research developments in discrete choice modelling and its applications.