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The growth of urban real estate development has been a key recent facet of the globalization of Asian economies. This book compares and analyses how the aspirations of Asian states have been reflected in the course of (re-)writing the urban landscape, and considers the role of scalar politics. The contributors argue that mega-projects embody the dynamics of the multi-scalar strategic relations that determine the process and outcome of urbanization. Bringing together a range of urbanization experiences from South Korea, Taiwan, India, Turkey, Hong Kong SAR, Mainland China and Indonesia, the book explores the role of specific political and economic interests in shaping cities, and the role of local communities, nascent advocacy groups and popular struggles in contesting the state-led mega-projects.
The new EU Cohesion Policy is one of the largest integrated development policies in the Western world, and one of the largest of such programmes anywhere in the world. The reforms to the EU Cohesion Policy contain many different elements each of which interlink in order to provide a cohesive overall framework. Some of the key elements in the reforms, however, relate to the conditionalities employed and their effects on policy governance and the control mechanism, the smart specialization approach to policy prioritization and resource allocation, the underlying place-based logic of the policy, and the overall results orientation and evaluation emphasis of the policy. In each of the areas of the EU Cohesion Policy reforms, many different scholars from the fields of regional studies, regional science and economic geography have played important roles in shaping the new policy, and the chapters here highlight these increasing interactions between the policy and academic spheres of debate. The collection of essays in this book each deal with specific aspects of these critical elements of the Cohesion Policy reforms. In particular, they examine some of the strengths and weaknesses of these individual elements and allowing for a better understanding of the origins and backgrounds of many of the ideas underpinning these reforms. This book was previously published as a special issue of Regional Studies.
In cities around the world, digital technologies are utilized to manage city services and infrastructures, to govern urban life, to solve urban issues and to drive local and regional economies. While smart city advocates are keen to promote the benefits of smart urbanism - increased efficiency, sustainability, resilience, competitiveness, safety and security - critics point to the negative effects, such as the production of technocratic governance, the corporatization of urban services, technological lock-ins, privacy harms and vulnerability to cyberattack. This book, through a range of international case studies, suggests social, political and practical interventions that would enable more equitable and just smart cities, reaping the benefits of smart city initiatives while minimizing some of their perils. Included are case studies from Ireland, the United States of America, Colombia, the Netherlands, Singapore, India and the United Kingdom. These chapters discuss a range of issues including political economy, citizenship, standards, testbedding, urban regeneration, ethics, surveillance, privacy and cybersecurity. This book will be of interest to urban policymakers, as well as researchers in Regional Studies and Urban Planning.
Originally published in French as Le territoire europeen: des racines aux enjeux globaux, this book reflects the enormous changes that Europe has seen in the past half century. In a period of immense upheaval, the continent has experienced increased integration, largely through the development of the European Union, heightened urbanization and a changing rural landscape, while economic and commercial activities have impressed their stamp on the whole scene. In this book, Jacques Robert deploys the experience amassed throughout his 35 years' experience as adviser to European institutions in the field of territorial and regional development. The chapter on cities explains the emergence of the European urban hierarchy and the driving forces and inertia behind its evolution, while a following chapter looks at the changing role of rural areas. This material provides a historic overview of relevant policies and a discussion of future challenges. The third chapter discusses evolving paradigms of regional economic development and their impact on European regions. Next, there is a chapter on the historical roots and current processes within territorial integration. The book concludes with an examination of Europe's place in the world at large, focussing particularly on globalization effects, climate change and new energy paradigms, which will present real challenges for decades to come. The book is unique in its combination of in-depth analysis of the evolution of European territorial policies and paradigms, but also in its geographically comprehensive approach integrating the experience of both Western and Eastern Europe. It will be of interest to academics and professionals within territorial development and spatial planning.
The past thirty years have seen a proliferation of new forms of territorial governance that have come to co-exist with, and complement, formal territorial spaces of government. These governance experiments have resulted in the creation of soft spaces, new geographies with blurred boundaries that eschew existing political-territorial boundaries of elected tiers of government. The emergence of new, non-statutory or informal spaces can be found at multiple levels across Europe, in a variety of circumstances, and with diverse aims and rationales. This book moves beyond theory to examine the practice of soft spaces. It employs an empirical approach to better understand the various practices and rationalities of soft spaces and how they manifest themselves in different planning contexts. By looking at the effects of new forms of spatial governance and the role of spatial planning in North-western Europe, this book analyses discursive changes in planning policies in selected metropolitan areas and cross-border regions. The result is an exploration of how these processes influence the emergence of soft spaces, governance arrangements and the role of statutory planning in different contexts. This book provides a deeper understanding of space and place, territorial governance and network governance.
After years of official disrepute, industrial policy (IP) is back in vogue at regional, national and international levels driven by concerns over competitiveness, globalisation, de-industrialisation, unemployment and the comparatively slow growth of the EU economy especially in this post-recession phase. At the same time, IP has been seen as a catalyst for designing economic recovery strategies at regional, national and international levels, as well as being a concerted strategy to develop new 'clean-tech' industries to tackle environmental challenges. If anything, the recent global recession and credit crunch have highlighted the fragility of some states' and localities' economic development paths and the unbalanced nature of their economies, in terms of an over-reliance on sectors such as retail, financial services, and construction, to the detriment of manufacturing. This also suggests an accompanying need for greater economic diversity so as to avoid over-dependencies on certain sectors, and a better balance of ownerships forms. But what should be the shape of IP in the wake of the crisis and how can IP rebalance economies, help support sustainable development and catalyse new technologies and innovations whilst learning lessons from past experience and debate? This edited volume examines these questions through a wide range of diverse contributions from expert international authors. This book was originally published as a special issue of Policy Studies.
The regeneration of critical urban areas through the redesign of public space with the intense involvement of local communities seems to be the central focus of place-making according to some widespread practices in academic and professional circles. Recently, new expertise maintains that place-making could be an innovative and potentially autonomous field, competing with more traditional disciplines like urban planning, urban design, architecture and others. This book affirms that the question of 'making better places for people' should be understood in a broader sense, as a symptom of the non-contingent limitations of the urban and spatial disciplines. It maintains that research should not be oriented only towards new technical or merely formal solutions but rather towards the profound rethinking of disciplinary paradigms. In the fields of urban planning, urban design and policy-making, the challenge of place-making provides scholars and practitioners a great opportunity for a much-needed critical review. Only the substantial reappraisal of long-standing (technical, cultural, institutional and social) premises and perspectives can truly improve place-making practices. The pressing need for place-making implies trespassing undue disciplinary boundaries and experimenting a place-based approach that can innovate and integrate planning regulations, strategic spatial visioning and urban development projects. Moreover, the place-making challenge compels urban experts and policy-makers to critically reflect upon the physical and social contexts of their interventions. In this sense, facing place-making today is a way to renew the civic and social role of urban planning and urban design.
The social dynamics of innovation networks captures the important role of trust, social capital, institutions and norms and values in the creation of knowledge in innovation networks. In doing so, this book connects to a long-standing debate on the socio-spatial context of innovation in economic geography, which is usually referred to as the Territorial Models of Innovation (TIMs) literature. This present volume breaks with the TIM literature in several important ways. In the first place, this book emphasizes the role of individual agency because individuals and their networks are increasingly recognized as the principal agents of knowledge creation. Secondly, this volume looks at space as a continuous field of opportunity rather than as bounded territory with a set of endowments, such as knowledge base and social capital. Although individually these elements are not new to the TIM literature, it has thus far failed to grasp their critical implication for studying the social dynamics of innovation networks. The approach to the socio-spatial context of innovation in this volume is summarized as Knowledge Economy 2.0. It emphasizes that human creativity is now the main source of economic value and that human creativity and knowledge creation is not an organized process within organizations, but happens bottom up in formal and informal professional and social networks of individuals that cut across multiple organizations.
This book examines the vast and largely uncharted world of cultural/creative city-making in Asia. It explores the establishment of policy models and practices against the backdrop of a globalizing world, and considers the dynamic relationship between powerful actors and resources that impact Asian cities. Making Cultural Cities in Asia approaches this dynamic process through the lens of assemblage: how the policy models of cultural/creative cities have been extracted from the flow of ideas, and how re-invented versions have been assembled, territorialized, and exported. This approach reveals a spectrum between globally circulating ideals on the one hand, and the place-based contexts and contingencies on the other. At one end of the spectrum, this book features chapters on policy mobility, in particular the political construction of the web of communication and the restructuring or rescaling of the state. At the other end, chapters examine the increasingly fragmented social forces, their changing roles in the process, and their negotiations, alignments, and resistances. This book will be of interest to researchers and policy-makers concerned with cultural and urban studies, creative industries and Asian studies.
Across Europe there is a rapidly changing context for undertaking regional development. In the 20th century, development of the former planned economies (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Slovakia), was defined by these countries differences, rather than their common ideological roots. These disparities altered over time and were marked by changing social structures. However, the ranking of regions has remained the same as core areas have strengthened their positions while the structural obstacles to the modernisation of peripheral areas have remained due to a lack of coherent regional policy. This book examines the specific regional development paths of Central and Eastern European countries and evaluates the effects of the determining factors of this process. Through analysis of the system of objectives, instruments and institutions used in different eras, and case studies of Hungary, East Germany and Germany, development models are established and compared with Western European patterns. The book summarises the experiences of Central and Eastern European regional cooperation and examines the basic nature of the cohesion problems of the Carpathian Basin trans-national macro region. It confirms by comparative historical analyses that the transformation was indeed unique. This book will make a welcome addition to the literature for students and academics interested in the broader picture of Central and Eastern European politics, future integration within the European Union and the history of regional development processes.
Since the DCMS Creative Industries Mapping Document highlighted the key role played by creative activities in the UK economy and society, the creative industries agenda has expanded across Europe and internationally. They have the support of local authorities, regional development agencies, research councils, arts and cultural agencies and other sector organisations. Within this framework, higher education institutions have also engaged in the creative agenda, but have struggled to define their role in this growing sphere of activities. Higher Education and the Creative Economy critically engages with the complex interconnections between higher education, geography, cultural policy and the creative economy. This book is organised into four sections which articulate the range of dynamics that can emerge between higher education and the creative economy: partnership and collaboration across Higher Education institutions and the creative and cultural industries; the development of creative human capital; connections between arts schools and local art scenes; and links with broader policy directions and work. Chapter 9 of this book is freely available as a downloadable Open Access PDF under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 3.0 license. https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/tandfbis/rt-files/docs/Open+Access+Chapters/9781138918733_oachapter9.pdf
In recent years, European societies and territories have witnessed the spatial impacts of a severe financial and socio-economic crisis. This book builds on the current debate concerning how cities and urban regions and their citizens deal with the consequences of the recent financial and socio-economic crisis. Cities in Crisis examines the political and administrative implications of austerity measures applied in southern European cities. These include cuts in local public spending and the processes of privatization of local public assets, as well as issues related to the re-scaling, recentralization or decentralization of competencies. Attention is paid to the rise of new 'austerity regimes', the question of their legitimacy and their spatial manifestations, and in particular to the social consequences of austerity. The contributions to this book lay the foundation for recommendations on how to improve and consolidate qualified governance arrangements in order to better address rapid economic and social changes. Such recommendations are applicable to cities and urban regions both within and outside of Europe. It identifies possible approaches, tools and partnerships to tackle the effects of the crisis and to prepare European cities for future challenges.
The world has changed profoundly since the publication of the influential book Technopoles of the World. As policy-makers and practitioners attempt to harness science, technology and innovation to create dynamic and vibrant cities many wonder how relevant Manuel Castells and Peter Hall's messages are today. Twenty years later, this book returns to their concepts and practices to update their message for the 21st century. Making 21st Century Knowledge Complexes: Technopoles of the World Revisited argues that the contemporary technopole concept encompasses three new dimensions. Firstly, building synergy between partners is vital for the success of complexes. Secondly, the correct governance arrangements are critical to balance competing interests inevitable in any science city project. Thirdly, new evaluation mechanisms are indispensable in allowing policy-makers to steer their long-term benefits. Through twelve case study chapters and a detailed comparative analysis, this book provides academics, policy-makers and practitioners with critical insights in understanding, managing and promoting today's high-technology urban complexes.
'The region' has been used to understand and propose solutions to phenomena and problems outside the dominant spatial scale of the twentieth century - the nation state. Its influence can be seen in multiple social science disciplines and in public policy across the globe. But how was this knowledge organised and how were its concepts transmuted into public policy? This book charts the development of the academic field of Regional Studies and the application of its concepts in public policy through its learned society, the Regional Studies Association. In their modern form, learned societies often play a complementary role to universities, offering networks that operate in the spaces between and beyond universities, connecting specialised academics and knowledge and making it possible for them to have impact outside the academy. In contrast to the geographically tangible and popularly understood role of the university, contemporary learned societies are nebulous networks that transcend barriers and whose contribution is difficult to discern. However, the production and dissemination of knowledge would be stunted were it not for the learned society connecting scholars through a network of publications and events. This book traces the intellectual history of regional studies and regional science from the 1960s into the 2000s and the impact of the regional concept in public policy through the changing priorities of government in the UK and Europe. By approaching the history through the Regional Studies Association, it interrogates the role and function of the 'learned society' model of organisation in contemporary academia and importance as a knowledge exchange vehicle for public policy influence.
This book concludes a trilogy that began with Intelligent Cities: Innovation, Knowledge Systems and digital spaces (Routledge 2002) and Intelligent Cities and Globalisation of Innovation Networks (Routledge 2008). Together these books examine intelligent cities as environments of innovation and collaborative problem-solving. In this final book, the focus is on planning, strategy and governance of intelligent cities. Divided into three parts, each section elaborates upon complementary aspects of intelligent city strategy and planning. Part I is about the drivers and architectures of the spatial intelligence of cities, while Part II turns to planning processes and discusses top-down and bottom-up planning for intelligent cities. Cities such as Amsterdam, Manchester, Stockholm and Helsinki are examples of cities that have used bottom-up planning through the gradual implementation of successive initiatives for regeneration. On the other hand, Living PlanIT, Neapolis in Cyprus, and Saudi Arabia intelligent cities have started with the top-down approach, setting up urban operating systems and common central platforms. Part III focuses on intelligent city strategies; how cities should manage the drivers of spatial intelligence, create smart environments, mobilise communities, and offer new solutions to address city problems. Main findings of the book are related to a series of models which capture fundamental aspects of intelligent cities making and operation. These models consider structure, function, planning, strategies toward intelligent environments and a model of governance based on mobilisation of communities, knowledge architectures, and innovation cycles.
The 21st century has been dominated by an almost compulsive race to find new pathways for city development. As cities seek to regenerate via the knowledge-based economy, now more than ever dynamic leadership is required order to navigate new and complex challenges while building community. This book is about generative leadership in knowledge city development. Leadership and the City is rooted in a conviction that the leadership in a city is crucial in order for it to adjust strategically to major transformations and thus secure a good future for its inhabitants. The book opens a fresh view of leadership by focusing on generative leaders and their modes of leading, instead of spatial categorisations, governance structures and/or policy contents and processes. It investigates generative leadership by elaborating the modes of leadership, power and strategies in influence networks. The key points are highlighted with several empirical cases. These include Akron and Rochester (USA), Munich (Germany), Leeds (UK), Barcelona (Spain) as well as Helsinki, Tampere and Seinajoki (Finland). This book will be of interest to researchers and practitioners concerned with Leadership, Urban Studies and Strategic Management.
There is a long history of governments, businesses, science and citizens producing and utilizing data in order to monitor, regulate, profit from and make sense of the urban world. Recently, we have entered the age of big data, and now many aspects of everyday urban life are being captured as data and city management is mediated through data-driven technologies. Data and the City is the first edited collection to provide an interdisciplinary analysis of how this new era of urban big data is reshaping how we come to know and govern cities, and the implications of such a transformation. This book looks at the creation of real-time cities and data-driven urbanism and considers the relationships at play. By taking a philosophical, political, practical and technical approach to urban data, the authors analyse the ways in which data is produced and framed within socio-technical systems. They then examine the constellation of existing and emerging urban data technologies. The volume concludes by considering the social and political ramifications of data-driven urbanism, questioning whom it serves and for what ends. This book, the companion volume to 2016's Code and the City, offers the first critical reflection on the relationship between data, data practices and the city, and how we come to know and understand cities through data. It will be crucial reading for those who wish to understand and conceptualize urban big data, data-driven urbanism and the development of smart cities.
The Scottish economy is at the heart of contemporary constitutional and public policy debates. This substantial new edited collection, the first comprehensive and authoritative analysis for more than 60 years, is a timely update on the classic volume of the same name edited by Sir Alec Cairncross in 1954. It is data rich, and offers links to updatable data and leading indicators of the Scottish economy including measures of public finances, distributional evidence and growth. Readers will find a series of easy to follow chapters covering the Scottish economy from every angle - oil and gas, health, education, finance, rural Scotland, inequality, climate change, gender and work, housing, infrastructure and cities. Each sector-based chapter explores the main issues, draws out key empirical facts and considers policy challenges that lie ahead. This book includes: an historical account of the development of the Scottish economy; the trajectory of economic policy in Scotland; reviews of the current fiscal position and the wider economic landscape; and also an intriguing insight into the emerging distinctive approach to Scottish public policy. This book brings together evidence and high quality research by experts on the Scottish economy in a politically neutral, accessible and non-technical way. The volume will assist readers in navigating their way through the many political debates about constitutional and economic futures that are underway in modern Scotland and the UK. A website also exists to accompany The Scottish Economy - www.scottisheconomy.scot. In today's inter-connected world, it makes sense to have a book on the Scottish economy supplemented by online access to important data, information and evidence as a means of keeping material current.
Cities around the world have seen: an increase in population and capital investments in land and building; a shift in central city populations as the poor are forced out; and a radical restructuring of urban space. The Unequal City tells the story of urban change and acts as a comprehensive guide to the Urban Now. A number of trends are examined, including: the role of liquid capital; the resurgence of population; the construction of megaprojects and hosting of global megaevents; the role of the new rich; and the emergence of a new middle class. This book explores the reasons behind the displacement of the poor to the suburbs and beyond. Drawing upon case studies from around the world, readers are exposed to an examination of the urban projects that involve the reuse of older industrial spaces, the greening of the cities, and the securitization of the public spaces. This book draws on political economy, cultural and political analysis, and urban geography approaches in order to consider the multifaceted nature of the process and its global unfolding. It will be essential reading to those interested in urban studies, economic geography, urban economics, urban sociology, urban planning and globalization.
Economic geographers increasingly consider the significance of history in shaping the contemporary socio-economic landscape and believe that experiences and competencies, acquired over time by individuals and entities in particular localities, to a large degree determine present configurations as well as future regional trajectories. Attempts to trace, understand, and investigate the pathways from past to present have given rise to the thriving and exciting sub-field of Evolutionary Economic Geography (EEG). EEG highlights the important factors that initiate, inhibit, or consolidate the contextual settings and relationships in which regions and their respective agents, which comprise and shape economic activity and social reproduction, change over time. It has at its core the production and destruction of novelty in space, and the links between innovation and regional economic fortunes. The creation of knowledge, its movement and recombination within different regional ensembles of economic agents and institutions plays a critical role in the evolution of the space-economy. EEG provides a framework to disentangle the complexity of technological change and regional economic development based on a variety of theoretical and methodological approaches. In only a short time, EEG has established itself as a promising and rapidly evolving research framework with its focus on the driving forces of regional development across various scales and its attempt to translate findings into public policy. This book advances the theoretical foundations of EEG, and demonstrates how EEG utilises and operationalises conceptual frameworks, both established and new. Contributions also point to future research avenues and extensions of EEG, attempting to build stronger ties between theory, empirical evidence, and relevance to policy. This book was originally published as a special issue of Regional Studies.
Enterprise and entrepreneurship is of strong interest to policy-makers because new and small firms can be a key contributor to job and wealth creation. However this contribution varies spatially, with some areas in a country having new firm formation rates that are up to three or four times higher than others. The vast majority of these new firms begin in the geographical area in which the founder lives, works or was born emphasising that entrepreneurship is a local event. The book documents a diversity of research approaches to examining the regional determinants of entrepreneurship in countries as contrasting as India and Sweden. The Editors call is for scholars to better understand the long run factors that influence enterprise at the local and regional level. For policy makers the Editors challenge is for them to be much clearer about the targets for their policies. Is it new firms, new jobs, productivity and does it matter where these targets are delivered? This book was published as a special issue of Regional Studies.
A key concern in the debate and empirical research on the geography of regions is the evolution of the conceptualizations and practical uses of the idea of 'region'. This idea prioritises both the intellectual and the practical development of regional studies. This book drives the discussion further. It stresses the complex forms of agency/advocacy involved in the production and reproduction of regional spaces and space of regionalism as well as the importance of geohistory and context. The book moves beyond the territorial/relational divide that has characterized debates on regions and regional borders since the 1990s. The contributors answer key questions from different conceptual and concrete-contextual angles and to motivate readers to reflect on the perpetual significance of regional concepts and how they are mobilized by various actors to maintain or transform the contested spatialities of societal power relations. This book was based on a special issue of Regional Studies.
In recent years, the United Kingdom has become a more and more divided society with inequality between the regions as marked as it has ever been. In a landmark analysis of the current state of Britain's regional development, Philip McCann utilises current statistics, examines historical trends and makes pertinent international comparisons to assess the state of the nation. The UK Regional-National Economic Problem brings attention to the highly centralised, top down governance structure that the UK deploys, and demonstrates that it is less than ideally placed to rectify these inequalities. The 'North-South' divide in the UK has never been greater and the rising inequalities are evident in almost all aspects of the economy including productivity, incomes, employment status and wealth. Whilst the traditional economic dominance of London and its hinterland has continued along with relative resilience in the South West of England and Scotland, in contrast the Midlands, the North of England, Northern Ireland and Wales lag behind by most measures of prosperity. This inequality is greatly limiting national economic performance and the fact that Britain has a below average standard of living by European and OECD terms has been ignored. The UK's economic and governance inequality is unlikely to be fundamentally rebalanced by the current governance and connectivity trends, although this definitive study suggests that some areas of improvement are possible if they are well implemented. This pivotal analysis is essential reading for postgraduate students in economics and urban studies as well as researchers and policy makers in local and central government.
Software has become essential to the functioning of cities. It is deeply embedded into the systems and infrastructure of the built environment and is entrenched in the management and governance of urban societies. Software-enabled technologies and services enhance the ways in which we understand and plan cities. It even has an effect on how we manage urban services and utilities. Code and the City explores the extent and depth of the ways in which software mediates how people work, consume, communication, travel and play. The reach of these systems is set to become even more pervasive through efforts to create smart cities: cities that employ ICTs to underpin and drive their economy and governance. Yet, despite the roll-out of software-enabled systems across all aspects of city life, the relationship between code and the city has barely been explored from a critical social science perspective. This collection of essays seeks to fill that gap, and offers an interdisciplinary examination of the relationship between software and contemporary urbanism. This book will be of interest to those researching or studying smart cities and urban infrastructure.
In this new volume, 28 Scandinavian researchers and others who are active in arts and culture seek to answer the questions: What has been the effect of regional and local investment in arts and culture? And what positive and negative experiences have there been? This book describes and analyzes the extent to which cultural investments at local and regional levels have stimulated development and led to essential processes of change for the community in general. Of special interest is how different places manage to turn the tide . What do their development processes involve? Which ways and means do they use to go forward in order to change their paths and start anew? These are just a few of the important questions addressed in this book. One of the most important findings is that while you can never transfer the successful renewal of one place to another like a blueprint, certain common patterns in the cultural processes are discernible. The contributors to this book show the breadth of theoretical tools that can be used to increase awareness of the significance of culture for regional development. Throughout the book readers will find a multitude of theoretical concepts, from entrepreneurship theory, organizational institutionalism and cultural economy, to cultural planning and art management. This book will appeal to scholars and practitioners of urban and regional studies, and cultural and creative economics.
This book examines a rapidly emerging new topic in urban settlement patterns: the role of shrinking cities. Much coverage is given to declining fertility rates, ageing populations and economic restructuring as the factors behind shrinking cities, but there is also reference to resource depletion, the demise of single-company towns and the micro-location of environmental hazards. The contributions show that shrinkage can occur at any scale - from neighbourhood to macro-region - and they consider whether shrinkage of metropolitan areas as a whole may be a future trend. Also addressed in this volume is the question of whether urban shrinkage policies are necessary or effective. The book comprises four parts: world or regional issues (with reference to the European Union and Latin America); national case studies (the United States, India, China, Korea, Taiwan, Germany, Romania and Estonia); city case studies (Detroit, Buffalo, Cleveland, Naples, Belfast and Halle); and broad issues such as the environmental consequences of shrinking cities. This book will be of interest to scholars and practitioners working in the fields of urban studies, economic geography and public policy.
Economic restructuring has been a notable feature of so-called mature industrial economies such as the UK and Australia in the last two decades, with deregulation, privatisation, technological change and globalisation combining to reshape such economies. Some industries have grown, while others have declined. Moreover, while overall employment in the UK and Australia has grown, many newly-created positions require skills not found in the industries shedding labour, or are in casualised and low paid occupations. Many lesser-skilled workers leaving declining industries are therefore at risk of long-term unemployment or leaving the workforce entirely. Both mental and physical health can be affected after redundancy. It is therefore crucial that the measures put in place in many domains of social policy (such as formal health policy, employment assistance, community development, housing assistance and so on) to adequately address the difficulties confronting this group. This volume takes a closer look at the impact of manufacturing - notably automotive - plant closures in the UK (Birmingham) and Australia (Adelaide) in recent years and policy responses to those closures. It attempts to tease out differences in policy response and effectiveness, and attempts to identify areas where policy could be made to work better in terms of adjusting to large scale manufacturing change and resulting job losses. In so doing, it begins, for the first time we believe, to take a comparative approach to understanding the impact of plant closures and policy responses. This book was published as a special issue of Policy Studies.
The whole landscape of research in urban studies was revolutionized by the publication of Richard Florida's The Rise of the Creative Class in 2002, and his subsequent book entitled The Flight of the Creative Class has helped to maintain a decade-long explosion of interest in the field. While these two books examine the creative class in the context of the United States, research has emerged which investigates the creative class worldwide. This book brings together detailed studies of the creative class in cities across the globe, examining the impact of the creative class on growth and development. The countries covered include the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Germany, Australia, China, Japan and Canada, in addition to the United States. Taken together, the contributions deepen our understanding of the creative class and the various factors that affect regional development, highlighting the similarities and differences between the creative class and economic development across countries. This book will be of great interest to scholars of economic geography, regional economics, urban sociology and cultural policy, as well as policy makers involved in urban development.
Regional studies are at a vibrant conjuncture. 'Regions' continue to provide a conceptual and analytical focus for often overlapping concerns with economic, social, political, cultural and ecological change. In the context of increased interest in inter- and multi-disciplinary approaches, 'regions' remain an arena in which synthesis across disciplines - economics, geography, planning, politics and sociology - can take place. Yet recent work has raised fundamental questions about how we think about and research 'regions' and regional change, 'development', governance and regulation. First, emergent conceptual ideas have introduced new thinking about space, place and scale that interprets 'regions' as 'unbounded', relational spaces. This work has disturbed notions of 'regions' as bounded territories and questioned hierarchical systems of scale through more complex, multi-scalar approaches. Second, research methodology has grown in sophistication and sensitivity but remains somewhat polarised between the binaries of positivist, often quantitative, and more theoretically diverse, typically qualitative, approaches. Last, regional governance, policy and politics are wrestling with the conceptual, methodological and political complexities of new modes and geographies of governance and emergent multi-agent and multi-level institutional architectures. This book brings together important voices in regional studies to contribute to and reflect upon these current issues and debates. While we are at an early stage in beginning to think through what such conceptual, theoretical, methodological, governance, policy and political innovations and developments mean for regional studies, the magnitude and resonance of such issues underpin the vitality of research on the region. This book was published as a special issue of Regional Studies.
The volume highlights ongoing changes in the political economy of small cities in relation to the field of culture and leisure. Culture and leisure are focal points both to local entrepreneurship and to planning by city governments, which means that these developments are subject to market dynamics as well as to political discourse and action. Public-private partnerships as well as conflicts of interests characterise the field, and a major issue related to the strategic development of culture and leisure is the balance between market and welfare. This field is gaining importance in most cities today in planning, production and consumption, but to the extent that these changes have drawn academic attention it has focused on large, metropolitan areas and on creative clusters and flagship high culture projects. Smaller cities and their often substantively different cultural strategies have been largely ignored, thus leading to a huge gap in our knowledge on contemporary urban change. By bringing together a number of case studies as well as theoretical reflections on the cultural political economy of small cities, this volume contributes to an emerging small cities research agenda and to the development of policy-relevant expertise that is sensitive to place-specific cultural dynamics. In taking this approach, the volume hopes to contribute to emerging research on culture and leisure economies by developing a differentiated spatial dimension to it, without which sustainable urban strategies cannot be developed. This book integrates perspectives of economic development with questions of governance and equity in relation to the fields of culture and leisure planning and development. This book should be of interest to students and researchers of Urban Studies and Planning, Regional Studies and Economics, as well as Sociology and Geography.
This book analyzes devolution as it affects the English Regions, working from the perspective of uneven development, and drawing on the rich tradition of regional geography. Currently, London is the power centre ruling over the other English regions. The first part of the book looks at how this regional structure has arisen, and the theories that can be used to analyze it. The contributors discuss the nature of regional problems and governance, the institutions involved in regional governance and regional approaches to economic development. The second part of the book devotes a chapter to each English region, examining each region's unique characteristics, and the opportunities created for it by devolution. By looking carefully at the regions, this part of the book sheds light on the question of whether Regional governance benefits the regions, or simply rescales governance to introduce another layer of bureaucracy.
This unique book focuses on regional creativity, analysing the different factors that can affect creativity and innovation process within regions in the knowledge economy. Approaching creativity from technological, organizational and regional viewpoints, it attempts to break down the influence of oppositional approaches and take account of multi-level interactions in economy and policy. The variety of papers presented looks at: how regions can be creative and competitive how research and development is outsourced and the scientific knowledge and technology transferred what types of technology based cultural activities can operate the relevant financing and development of knowledge entrepreneurship. Whilst many of these aspects are driven by market forces Creative Regions demonstrates that the regional and national public sectors have a significant role to play and is essential reading on how to generate a competitive advantage for regions in the knowledge economy in the global market.
Breaking new ground in its innovative blend of quantitative and qualitative methods, the book essentially argues that another sort of growth is indeed possible. While offering specific insights for regional leaders and analysts of metropolitan areas, the authors also draw a broader - and quite timely - set of conclusions about how to scale up these efforts to address a U.S. economy still seeking to recover from economic crisis and ameliorate distributional divisions.
There is now a wide spread interest in regions as a key focus in the organization and governance of economic growth and wealth creation. This important book considers the factors that influence and shape the competitive performance of regions. This is not just an issue of academic interest and debate, but also of increasing policy deliberation and action. However, as the readings in this book make clear, the very idea of regional competitiveness is itself complex and contentious. Many academics and policy makers have used the concept without fully considering what is meant by the term and how it can be measured. Policy formulation has tended to rush ahead of understanding and analysis, and the purpose of this book is to close this important gap in understanding. This book was previously published as a special issue of Regional Studies.
Intelligent Cities and Globalisation of Innovation Networks combines concepts and theories from the fields of urban development and planning, innovation management, and virtual / intelligent environments. It explains the rise of intelligent cities with respect to the globalisation of systems of innovation; opens up a new way for making intelligent environments via the connection of human skills, institutional mechanisms, and digital spaces operating within a community; and describes a series of platforms and tools for the making of intelligent cities.
The only comprehensive text available for advanced study and professional reference, this book brings much needed clarity to both the theoretical and practical aspects of EU intervention. Integrating both theoretical and practical research in a clear and accessible structure, covering economic, social and territorial issues European Cohesion Policy provides a systematic view of the various stages of the whole policy cycle, looking in detail at: the evolution of the problems the design of the policy system the implementation in practice the evaluation of effects . An authoritative analysis of the problems and debates involved, European Cohesion Policy is essential reading for students, policy makers, development workers and researchers working in all aspects of European policy.
Focusing on recent regional policy and important planning debates across the English regions, this book analyzes the issues, disputes and tensions that have arisen in regional planning in the new millennium. With a range of local case studies to ground the argument in local as well as regional planning, the authors here build on a range of theoretical insights including state theory and governance, political ecology, governmentality and collaborative planning. Drawing particularly on a discourse approach, the empirical sections examine a range of major controversies from the past five years of regional planning, including: the socio-political resistance to new housing on Greenfield sites alternative approaches to promoting sustainable urban development and policies for urban renaissance policies on redirecting or constraining economic expansion in high-pressure growth areas the social and political bases of new planning technologies for protecting the environment, including sustainability appraisals.
Sustainable Cities simultaneously tackles two issues of immediate public concern which also find themselves high on the policy agenda: sustainable environmental development and urban development. The themes of the book - the bringing together of the insights of environmental science, the social sciences and management; the combination of problem analysis with practical application; and a critique of urban environmental problems concentrating on air and water pollution - are illustrated throughout with in-depth material and case studies taken from around the world and are approached from a variety of perspectives: economic, ecological and managerial. Each chapter has a concluding section pointing to key concepts, key reading and a range of discussion points.
In recent years, the local dimensions of the labour market have attracted increasing attention from academic analysts and public policy-makers alike. There is growing realization that there is no such thing as the national labour market, instead a mosaic of local and regional markets that differ in nature, performance and regulation. Geographies of Labour Market Inequality is concerned with these multiple geographies of employment, unemployment, work and incomes, and their implications for public policy.
Regional Innovation Strategies offers the first comprehensive analysis of the new wave of innovation-oriented regional policies. It draws conclusions from the European Regional Technology Plans and Regional Innovation Strategies, both in old industrialised areas and in regions where development is slow, and compares this with US and Canadian experiences. Anticipating the enlargement of the EU, Regional Innovation Strategies also assesses the growing interest in the subject within policy, academic and practitioner circles in Central and Eastern European countries. This book aims to provide information on the new regional innovation polices and gives the first assessment of this promising pool of regional experiences.
Examining the current trends in regional economic development in Europe, Restructuring Industry and Territory explores ways in which the restructuring of industry and territorial development relate to each other, their emergent interdependency and role in economic development. The book argues that the structural and cultural features of regions play an important part in helping or hindering concerted policies for regional development. Using case studies from different industries in a variety of regions, the contributors show that the pressures for restructuring, such as internationalisation or even 'globalisation', have been mediated by formerly nationally rooted industries in Europe becoming increasingly integrated, due to the ongoing processes of technological and organisational innovation, and political regulation.
With the emergence of a truly global marketplace, regions now face far greater competition in attracting outside investment, and multinational companies have to consider local conditions on many levels before choosing to invest. Foreign Direct Investment and the Global Economy looks at the pattern of FDI and its impacts on the global, regional (trade block), national and sub-national scales. The contributors describe the much discussed global-local interlay apparent in the operations of multinational companies and their involvement with 'regulatory' institutions at different levels, from the global to the local.
This important book examines the ways in which community economic development can contribute to local and regional regeneration. It presents a unique overview of the state of contemporary British practice in this important policy area and provides a series of fresh, theoretical, methodological and empirical insights which help us to understand ways in which communities are facing up to the challenges of devising and bringing about their own revitalisation. Community Economic Development is underpinned by the argument that much conventional regeneration work represents at best a short-term fix rather than a long-term sustainable solution to the problems of socially excluded communities. The emphasis of the book is largely on the British experience with contributions from a rich mix of new and established academics and practitioners.
In the past decade Europe has seen much change, and at the same time the importance of the regional perspectives has significantly increased. Regional Development Agencies in Europe brings together experiences of Regional and Development Agencies throughout Europe to provide material for the first major comparative study of bottom-up regional policy across the continent. Using an analytical framework developed by editors, the contributors evaluate the long term potential and limitations of the RDAs in terms of promoting regional and economic development. Institutional and other preconditions for successful regional polices are identified, and combined with a broad analytical and geographical coverage that includes Eastern Europe, a clearer picture of the relevance of the RDAs emerges.
Across Europe concern is rising over the disintegration of social relations and the growing number of people who are being socially excluded. social Exclustoin in European Cities, the first major study of this topic, provides a definition of social exclusion and looks at both the processes which cause it and the dimensions of the problem throughout Europe. The experiences of people living in areas or neighbourhoods with low rates of social integration are considered, illuminating the human impact of exclusion where it is most visible. Finally the contributors evaluate the various policy and community initiatives which are currently confronting the problem in a wide sample of European Cities on a variety of levels, from inform individual actions to supra-national European Union policy, and suggest new ways in which social exclusion could be tackled. With most large cities experiencing some degree of social exclusion, this is an important volume for all those working in the areas of regional policy, town planning, housing management, social work, community development, sociology, political science and urban studies.
This book examines the role of the multinational firms in processes of European integration. It is primarily concerned with the implications of market integration and industrial restructuring for peripheral European regions. Nicholas Phelps argues that, because of the complex relationship between competition and economies of scale, the persistence of market segmentation, and because of the embeddedness of multinational investment in established production locations, there is considerable inertia in the existing trade and investment patterns of multinationals in the EU. This argument is explored empirically in relation to multinationals operating in Wales. This study suggests that processes of restructuring accompanying market integration are slow to take effect and based on a diversity of motives.
This book brings together a rich selection of up-to-date practical experience of EU regional policy from across Europe. It provides different perspectives on the design and operation of regional development strategies under the Structural Funds, from people closely involved in studying, managing or advising on the process at EU, national and regional levels. It therefore offers a more comprehensive and detailed understanding of the structural policies than has been available hitherto. This will prove particularly useful to researchers, practitioners and students interested in European regional policies and processes.
Persistent high employment and growing labour market inequality have become entrenched features of many European countries. This edited collection of papers focuses on the regional and local dimensions of these problems across the European union as a whole and, more particularly, in the UK. In the addressing the contemporary landscape of unemployment, social exclusion and public policy the contributors highlight several key themes, including: How the process of unemployment and social exclusion have an important local level operation. The increasing gender dimension and counts of unemployment to provide effective guides to the true scale of joblessness The need for more local-focused policy interventions to help reduce the problems of unemployment, employment insecurity and low incomes that now characterise many of the advanced countries.
This contributors provide a range of perspectives on the increasingly central issues of state reform, European integration and British regionalism in the 1990s. Using case material, the contributors examine: the effects of state reform and European integration on British regionalism and the devolution debate; and the nature of recent central responses to the re-emergence of regional and devolution issues, with a particular focus on the recent policies of the Major governments and the policies of the Opposition parties. They also present some evidence which suggests that state reform and EC/EU developments have determined and accentuated important new trends in British regionalism, and underpin the plausibility of far-reaching regional and devolution reforms.
Innovation, Networks and Learning Regions? address key issues of understanding in contemporary economic geography and local economic policy making in cities and regions in the advanced economies. Developing the idea that innovation is the primary driving force behind economic change and growth, the international range of contributors stress the importance of knowledge and information as the 'raw materials' of innovation. They examine the ways in which these elements may be acquired and linked through networks, and demonstrate that there are empirical examples of innovative areas which do not have highly developed networks yet appear to be relatively successful in terms of local economic growth. In so doing, they raise crucial questions about the ways in which regions or localities might be described as truly 'learning' areas, and about the sustainability of future economic and quality of life success based on innovation and high-technology.
Regional development strategies have become the focus of attention in many countries in the 1990s. This textbook provides a conceptual, theoretical and empirical analysis of regional development strategies within a European context It examines the various regional development strategies which are currently being pursued within the regions of Europe - defined in its loosest term to include East and West. The book describes how many different European regions are attempting to reduce regional disparities by engaging themselves in coherent and focused regional development strategies, and there is also private sector approach to regional economic development. There are many case studies from Europe and from other parts of the world, including Japan, thereby providing lessons that different countries and regions can learn form each other.
Based on cases and interviews in Britain, Europe and the United States, this book explains the recurrence of regional planning and of initiatives in regional governance, in a wide range of advanced industrial countries. Providing an analysis of the nature of regional planning and governance, the book traces the development of regional planning and the institutions associated with it. It also looks at the way that regions have been changing their form under pressure from economic and political developments and examines how regional planning and governance has responded, comparing experience in the UK, the rest of Europe and the US. In concluding that regionalism is an imperative feature of politics in most countries, associated with almost any of the variety of forms of governance, the author offers a major appraisal of the significance of regional planning in an intemational context
The political and economic geography of Europe is changing - the European Community is expanding its boundaries towards EFTA and is resuming a closer association with Central and Eastern European regions engaged in radical restructuring. As EC integration accelerates there is the prospect of intensified inter-regional competition. This book, divided into five parts, examines in detail the changes and the challenge for policy makers. The introduction draws out the central themes of the book, addressing EC regional performance and future indicators, the enlargement and changing map of Europe and the implications for the EC of Eastern European changes. The second part deals with EC issues, particularly focusing on the economic and spatial impact of European integration. Part 3 addresses Eastern European issues, and Part 4 covers the Peripheral Regions. The final part is devoted to a policy debate, concluding with a policy agenda for the forthcoming decade.
This book documents the changing nature and challenge of regional development in Britain and Ireland in the final decade of this century. In the first half of this book, region-by-region profiles review the experience of the eighties and reflect on the present climate, assessing problems and opportunities. The second half provides 25 commentaries on changes influencing the development of regions from questions of industry, technology and employment to the impact of national policy and 1992, and the prospects and capacity for regional policy and development.
Since the beginning of the 1980s, British trade unions have experienced a dramatic retreat, marked by rapidly falling membership and declining industrial power. The authors examine the regional dimensions of this retreat of organised labour, paying particular attention to: The resilience of the unions' historical heartland areas. The impact of economic restructuring on local union traditions. The shrinking landscape of industrial militancy. The geographical decentralization of the new industrial relations. The link between these factors and the more general debate on regional development and regional labour markets. An important synthesis of economic geography and industrial relations work, this book marks a major contribution towards the newly emerging field of labour geography
Based on the author's extensive research in the field, this book analyzes regional policy for the whole of Europe. Comparing East and West, it offers a new model of regional policy and gives an overview of the direction that it may take in Europe as a whole. Topics covered include: the evaluation of regional policy; its main aims; its infrastructure in Western Europe; its form in Eastern Europe; and the development of regional policy from 1917 to the 1990s. The book is intended for professionals and academics working in the areas of regional studies, economics and policy studies.
One of the most striking trends in economic development since the 1970s has been the rising importance of the small firm. Focusing on the issues of enterprise development and the regional dimensions of small-firm growth, this book explores the literature of this area. Moving from an analysis of measures of growth to the effects of both internal and external variables - arguing that the owner-manager has a key role in the growth performance of the firm - the authors explore regional disparities in, and constraints on, growth, and make significant advances in the policy debate on understanding how faster growth can be achieved.
Providing a new picture of the socio-economic map of central Europe after several years of transformation, and focusing in particular on Poland, this book gives an account of the major problems of regional restructuring. The author identifies the opportunities and problems faced by particular regions by relating the Polish experience to the experience of other central European countries. This in turn provides a general picture of spatial patterns of transformation in this specific part of Europe and will interest those concerned with the transformation of Eastern Europe.