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Books in the series: IAEA TECDOC Series

Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts for Light Water Reactors Proceedings of a Technical Meeting Held at Oak Ridge National Laboratories, United States of America, 13-16 October 2014

Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts for Light Water Reactors Proceedings of a Technical Meeting Held at Oak Ridge National Laboratories, United States of America, 13-16 October 2014

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 10/01/2020

This publication provides a record of a Technical Meeting on Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts for Light Water Reactors, held at Oak Ridge National Laboratories in 2014, to consider the early stages of research and development into accident tolerant fuel. Following the Fukushima Daiichi accident, a review of fuel behaviour has been initiated. Zirconium alloy clad fuel operates successfully to high burnup and is the result of 40 years of continuous development and improvement. However, under severe accident conditions, the high temperature zirconium-steam interaction can be a major source of damage to the power plant. This publication considers different ways to ameliorate this problem without sacrificing the good behaviour of fuel in normal operation. Options range from making the cladding more resistant to the high temperature steam oxidation through to completely new fuel designs with ceramic cladding and different fuel materials.

Technical and Scientific Support Organizations Providing Support to Regulatory Functions

Technical and Scientific Support Organizations Providing Support to Regulatory Functions

Author: International Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 10/01/2020

This publication introduces the general principles underlying the provision of technical and scientific support to a regulatory body and the characteristics of organizations providing such support. It describes the services provided to support regulatory functions as well as the associated activities and processes to maintain the needed level of expertise, state of the art tools and equipment. It is the first IAEA publication dedicated to the specific practices and challenges to be met by the technical and scientific support organizations.

Seismic Hazard Assessment in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations Ground Motion Prediction Equations and Site Response

Seismic Hazard Assessment in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations Ground Motion Prediction Equations and Site Response

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 10/01/2020

The objective of this publication is to provide the state-of-the-art practice and detailed technical elements related to ground motion evaluation by ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and site response in the context of seismic hazard assessments as recommended in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-9, Seismic Hazards in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations. The publication includes the basics of GMPEs, ground motion simulation, selection and adjustment of GMPEs, site characterization, and modelling of site response in order to improve seismic hazard assessment. The text aims at delineating the most important aspects of these topics (including current practices, criticalities and open problems) within a coherent framework. In particular, attention has been devoted to filling conceptual gaps. It is written as a reference text for trained users who are responsible for planning preparatory seismic hazard analyses for siting of all nuclear installations and/or providing constraints for anti-seismic design and retrofitting of existing structures.

Impacts of Electricity Market Reforms on the Choice of Nuclear and Other Generation Technologies

Impacts of Electricity Market Reforms on the Choice of Nuclear and Other Generation Technologies

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 10/01/2020

Electricity market reforms have been underway worldwide for the last 20 years. They have included restructuring, privatization, regulation and the introduction of market mechanisms in electricity generation and trading. This publication analyses the impacts of these reforms as well as non-reform factors, on the selection of electricity generation technologies, including nuclear power, by investors. A country case study approach has been adopted in developing the material presented in the publication. Each case study is organized around the following themes: rationale for reform; nature of the electricity market reform; how has the reform shaped the allocation of investment risk in electricity markets and how has this risk allocation influenced investor choice of generation technologies; and finally, how have non-reform related factors influenced investors' choice. This publication will be of use by stakeholders in the strategic planning of the electricity sector, including policy makers, policy analysts, policy advisors, power sector regulators and utility operators.

Advances in Neutron Activation Analysis of Large Objects with Emphasis on Archaeological Examples Results of a Coordinated Research Project

Advances in Neutron Activation Analysis of Large Objects with Emphasis on Archaeological Examples Results of a Coordinated Research Project

Author: International Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 10/01/2020

This publication is a compilation of the main results and findings of an IAEA coordinated research project (CRP). In particular, it discusses an innovative variation of neutron activation analysis (NAA) known as large sample NAA (LSNAA). There is no other way to measure the bulk mass fractions of the elements present in a large sample (up to kilograms in mass) non-destructively. Examples amenable to LSNAA include irregularly shaped archaeological artefacts, excavated rock samples, large samples of assorted ore, and finished products, such as nuclear reactor components. Advantages of LSNAA applications, limitations and scientific and technological requirements are described in this publication, which serves as a reference of interest not only to the NAA experts, research reactor personnel, and those considering this technique, but also to various stakeholders and users such as researchers, industrialists, environmental and legal experts, and administrators.

Development of an Integrated Approach to Routine Automation of Neutron Activation Analysis Results of a Coordinated Research Project

Development of an Integrated Approach to Routine Automation of Neutron Activation Analysis Results of a Coordinated Research Project

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 10/01/2020

Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a powerful technique for determining bulk composition of major and trace elements. Automation may contribute significantly to keep NAA competitive for end-users. It provides opportunities for a larger analytical capacity and a shorter overall turnaround time if large series of samples have to be analysed. This publication documents and disseminates the expertise generated on automation in NAA during a coordinated research project (CRP). The CRP participants presented different cost-effective designs of sample changers for gamma-ray spectrometry as well as irradiation devices, and were able to construct and successfully test these systems. They also implemented, expanded and improved quality control and quality assurance as cross-cutting topical area of their automated NAA procedures. The publication serves as a reference of interest to NAA practitioners, experts, and research reactor personnel, but also to various stakeholders and users interested in basic research and/or services provided by NAA. The individual country reports are available on the CD-ROM attached to this publication.

Guidelines for the Development of a Quality Management System (QMS) on Training and Certification of Personnel for Non-destructive Testing (NDT)

Guidelines for the Development of a Quality Management System (QMS) on Training and Certification of Personnel for Non-destructive Testing (NDT)

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/12/2019

A quality management system (QMS) can be expressed as the organizational structure or processes, procedures and resources needed to implement quality management. Such a system plays an important role in the sustainable training and certification of non-destructive testing (NDT), resulting in better management, technical competence, worldwide recognition and harmonization and competitiveness. The guidelines presented in this publication support developers and provide information on the part NDT plays in overall quality assurance (QA) programmes.

Sample Preparation of Soil and Plant Material for Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

Sample Preparation of Soil and Plant Material for Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/10/2019

Stable isotope techniques can help improve soil management and crop nutrition. To ensure the quality of stable isotope analysis through isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), appropriate sample preparation is crucial. This publication presents methods for proper plant and soil sample processing for IRMS analysis. The information on such methods is often described in a summarized and non-comprehensive way without illustration of every step. This publication fills this gap and presents a selection of standard operating procedures and provides highly detailed guidance on sample preparation that will support practitioners in conducting reliable isotope analysis on plant and soil materials.

Planning and Execution of Knowledge Management Assist Visits for Nuclear Organizations

Planning and Execution of Knowledge Management Assist Visits for Nuclear Organizations

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/10/2019

This publication provides a basic structure and common reference for knowledge management assist visits (KMAVs). As such, it is written primarily for the team members of KMAVs and the counterpart requesting a visit. However, the publication also provides a valuable reference for other IAEA peer review services. The publication provides guidelines across the various activities inherent in KMAVs. Specifically ,KMAVs facilitate the transfer of pragmatic knowledge management methodologies and tools, assist Member States considering implementation of nuclear power programmes to integrate KM into their management system, provide specific consultancy services to address emergent problems and long-term issues related to KM, assist organizations in formulating detailed requirements and action plans related to KM and help organizations identify their own KM maturity levels against a set of pre-defined criteria through a self-assessment exercise.

World Thorium Occurrences, Deposits and Resources

World Thorium Occurrences, Deposits and Resources

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/08/2019

Mindful of possible future limitations on the availability of uranium, the introduction of the thorium fuel cycle is potentially a complementary source of nuclear energy. This publication assimilates current knowledge of thorium geology and mineralization into a brief account on the worldwide occurrence of thorium resources. Although thorium is currently not commercially viable as a fuel, it is important to pre-emptively assess thorium related information should that situation change. Thus, the publication provides an overview of the variety of natural thorium deposit types with associated thorium geology and thorium resources. It reviews available data on thorium occurrences/deposits and thorium resources and presents a classification of deposits according to geological and economic criteria

Material Properties Database for Irradiated Core Structural Components for Lifetime Management for Long Term Operation of Research Reactors Report of a Coordinated Research Project

Material Properties Database for Irradiated Core Structural Components for Lifetime Management for Long Term Operation of Research Reactors Report of a Coordinated Research Project

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/08/2019

This publication presents the results of an IAEA coordinated research project which served as a forum for the establishment of a research reactor material properties database for irradiated core structural components that are important to safety. The database is a compilation of data from comprehensive literature reviews, coordinated research projects and experimental data from research reactors on changes in research reactor core structural material properties owing to irradiation. Such a structured database is a resource for those involved in the aging assessment of core materials used in RRs to ensure the reactor's continued safe operation and possible life extension. The publication describes the coordinated effort to provide a comprehensive background and relevant information on the properties of irradiated core structural materials for RRs and make these data available to the research reactor community. Use of the information provided will contribute to the safe and reliable long-term operation and lifetime extension of operating RRs, as well as to the design of new ones.

Hierarchical Structure of Safety Goals for Nuclear Installations

Hierarchical Structure of Safety Goals for Nuclear Installations

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/08/2019

This publication discusses the development and application of a hierarchical structure of safety goals encompassing high level goals and detailed technical requirements that may assist in forming a coherent and consistent approach to nuclear safety. The suggested hierarchy of safety goals provides a practical approach to consistently embrace the set of safety-related requirements, both qualitative and quantitative, and develop the interconnections between them. Specifically, the structure supports adding country specific safety goals (e.g. risk metrics) to the overall safety considerations in a consistent manner. This process can be aided by reference to the IAEA Safety Standards.

Status and Evaluation of Severe Accident Simulation Codes for Water Cooled Reactors

Status and Evaluation of Severe Accident Simulation Codes for Water Cooled Reactors

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/08/2019

Accurate prediction of source term and modelling of severe accident progression by severe accident analysis codes is integral to the safe operation of water cooled reactors in both developing and developed Member States. The source term released to the environment during severe accidents, calculated by these codes, is utilized by specialized atmospheric transport codes to evaluate the transport of radionuclides in the environment. Though severe accident codes are comprehensively validated based on experiments, there remains disagreement among calculations performed using different codes for the same scenarios. Such differences and their causes are being explored by a number of organizations, including cooperation by developers through code to code benchmarks. Furthermore, severe accident phenomena model improvements are being made with insights from experiments and with the development of models to account for previously less understood phenomena. This publication summarizes the current status of severe accident analysis codes and recommends areas for research and development. The information is detailed in terms of major findings,

Uranium Production Cycle Selected Papers 2012-2015

Uranium Production Cycle Selected Papers 2012-2015

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/08/2019

This volume contains selected contributions from a range of uranium production cycle meetings, particularly those of the Uranium Mining and Remediation Exchange Group (UMREG). UMREG brings together practitioners from all parts of the uranium mining industry, to discuss ideas and exchange experiences related predominantly to remediation and legacy site management. This publication is the second volume to include selected UMREG papers with the common theme of good practices in the uranium production cycle. They were presented at several IAEA technical meetings and reflect the work done in Member States over the period 2012-2015. The topic areas include uranium supply and demand; uranium geology and deposits; uranium exploration; uranium mining and milling; waste management; and environmental issues.

Demonstrating Performance of Spent Fuel and Related Storage System Components during Very Long Term Storage Final Report of a Coordinated Research Project

Demonstrating Performance of Spent Fuel and Related Storage System Components during Very Long Term Storage Final Report of a Coordinated Research Project

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/08/2019

This publication summarizes the work carried out during an IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on safe and reliabe management of spent nuclear fuel. This work contributes to the overall goal of demonstrating the performance of spent nuclear fuel and related storage systems components over long durations, and facilitates the transfer of this knowledge to Member States. The technical areas addressed by the CRP participants were related to potential degradation mechanisms in metal casks and concrete overpacks, such as stress corrosion cracking; long term integrity and performance of the fuel cladding; thermo-mechanical behaviour of the metal seals; and long term gamma and neutron shielding capability. The participants also considered past and ongoing demonstration programmes. For each technical topic addressed the main conclusions have been drawn, including information on the development of specific monitoring and inspection techniques as well as future opportunities for closing relevant data gaps. A major achievement is also the establishment of a worldwide network of experts working on current research projects to demonstrate the long term performance of spent fuel in dry storage systems.

Modelling of Marine Dispersion and Transfer of Radionuclides Accidentally Released from Land Based Facilities

Modelling of Marine Dispersion and Transfer of Radionuclides Accidentally Released from Land Based Facilities

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/08/2019

This publication describes and summarizes the work of the MODARIA (modelling and data for radiological impact assessments) Programme Working Group 10. MODARIA was set up to continue the IAEA's activities in the field of testing, comparing and developing guidance on the application of models to assess radiation exposures to humans and radiological impacts on the environment. Different aspects of the MODARIA programme were addressed by ten working groups. The current publication presents the work undertaken by Working Group 10 on the modelling of marine dispersion and transfer of radionuclides accidentally released from land-based facilities. Two marine dispersion scenarios were studied. These scenarios simulated dispersion of radionuclides in the Baltic Sea following the Chernobyl accident, and dispersion in the Pacific Ocean following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. The publication details some general conclusions and presents a comparison of model performance when applied to the above scenarios. The difficulties of developing operative modelling systems for supporting decision making in cases of emergencies in highly dynamic environments are highlighted.

Conceptual Development of Steady State Compact Fusion Neutron Sources Report of a Coordinated Research Project

Conceptual Development of Steady State Compact Fusion Neutron Sources Report of a Coordinated Research Project

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/08/2019

Fusion neutron sources have many important practical uses, including triggering fission reactions, manufacturing medical isotopes, testing materials and components for use in future fusion power reactors, and facilitating the production of various isotopes like tritium. All these applications can be potentially improved by achieving high energy compact fusion neutron sources (CFNSs). The present publication is a compilation of the main results and findings of an IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on the development of concepts and conceptual designs for both low and high power CFNSs. Through the collaboration of experts in the participating Member States, the results achieved under the project laid the foundation for practical applications of intense fusion neutron sources.

Gallium-68 Cyclotron Production

Gallium-68 Cyclotron Production

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/05/2019

This publication provides a comprehensive overview of the technologies involved in the direct production of gallium-68. It serves as a specific guide for the production and quality control of metal radioisotope gallium-68 in chloride form for radiopharmaceutical production. Emphasis is given on the advances developed over the last few years. The publication, which also describes the legal matters related to the use of the targetry methods, will appeal to scientists and technologists intending to put cyclotron based radioisotope production into practice, as well as post graduate students in the field.

Behaviour of Spent Power Reactor Fuel during Storage Extracts from the Final Reports of Coordinated Research Projects on Behaviour of Spent Fuel Assemblies in Storage (BEFAST I-III) and Spent Fuel Per

Behaviour of Spent Power Reactor Fuel during Storage Extracts from the Final Reports of Coordinated Research Projects on Behaviour of Spent Fuel Assemblies in Storage (BEFAST I-III) and Spent Fuel Per

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/05/2019

This publication focuses on the storage of spent nuclear fuel from power reactors, which is a topic of increasing importance to Member States. To support their needs, the IAEA has carried out successive coordinated research projects (CRPs) on spent fuel performance and the behaviour of spent fuel assemblies in storage since the 1980s. The findings of these CRPs have been reported in a series of publications over the past 30 years. The current publication consolidates these findings and compiles all relevant information in one referenceable source. The technical information provided in this publication will be particularly useful for experts engaged in safety assessments.

Methodology for the Systematic Assessment of the Regulatory Competence Needs (SARCoN) for Regulatory Bodies of Radiation Facilities and Activities

Methodology for the Systematic Assessment of the Regulatory Competence Needs (SARCoN) for Regulatory Bodies of Radiation Facilities and Activities

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/01/2019

The IAEA has introduced a methodology and an assessment tool - Systematic Assessment of Regulatory Competence Needs (SARCoN) - which provides practical guidance on analysing the training and development needs of a regulatory body and, through a gap analysis, guidance on establishing competence needs and how to meet them. The current publication provides information on the use of the SARCoN methodology to support the implementation of the IAEA safety standards for ensuring regulatory competence in respect of radiation facilities and activities. It is to be used in conjunction with IAEA Safety Reports Series No. 79. It can also be used in conjunction with IAEA TECDOC-1757 by regulatory bodies regulating both radiation and nuclear facilities.

Development of Instructors for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training

Development of Instructors for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/12/2018

The present revised publication reflects new training experiences, technological developments, current practices and techniques concerning the development of instructors for nuclear power plant personnel training. It provides practical guidance on various aspects of instructor selection, development and deployment, by quoting actual examples from Member States. The publication highlights the importance of having an appropriate training policy, especially considering the various organizational arrangements that exist in different nuclear power plants and countries.

Soil Quality and Nutrient Management for Sustainable Food Production in Mulch Based Cropping Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa Final Report of a Coordinated Research Project

Soil Quality and Nutrient Management for Sustainable Food Production in Mulch Based Cropping Systems in Sub-Saharan Africa Final Report of a Coordinated Research Project

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/12/2018

This publication summarizes the results from a joint FAO/IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) and provides an integrated and crop-need-based nutrient and water management plan for growing various crops in the moist and dry savannahs of Sub-Sahara Africa. The CRP participants investigated the effects of soil management and agronomic practices in mulch-based farming systems. Impacts on soil fertility, ecosystem service efficiency, agricultural productivity were assessed. Climate change and variability in cropping or integrated crop-livestock systems were considered. The publication provides relevant information on how to improve soil fertility and soil health by applying nuclear techniques and the principles of conservation agriculture. By using these improved crop management methods, farmers can enhance soil resilience, optimize crop yields and minimize production costs.

Examining the Technoeconomics of Nuclear Hydrogen Production and Benchmark Analysis of the IAEA HEEP Software

Examining the Technoeconomics of Nuclear Hydrogen Production and Benchmark Analysis of the IAEA HEEP Software

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/12/2018

This publication documents the results achieved by participants of an IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) related to hydrogen production using nuclear energy. The IAEA has previously developed the Hydrogen Economic Evaluation Programme (HEEP) that supports the analysis of various options for future hydrogen economies. HEEP is the first of its kind software and has been distributed freely to IAEA Member States. The CRP participants performed a generic benchmark analysis for various scenarios of hydrogen production and against other codes built on different platforms and models. The research report highlights various aspects of nuclear hydrogen production based not only on national but also international trends. It considers important technical aspects of coupling nuclear reactors to hydrogen plants and the challenges for nuclear hydrogen production compared to steam or solar energy produced hydrogen. Major accomplishments achieved by Member States are presented in the summary section of this report. A detailed description of the activities and outcomes through the implementation of the CRP can be found in the individual country reports available on the CD-ROM attached to this publication.

Quantitative and Spatial Evaluations of Undiscovered Uranium Resources

Quantitative and Spatial Evaluations of Undiscovered Uranium Resources

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/12/2018

This publication provides an overview on aspects of the uranium production cycle including evaluating the global uranium supply/demand situation. It presents insights on techniques for analysis of undiscovered resources for mineral commodities, which has formed part of a robust statistical procedure in the last 20 years, but has never been systematically applied to uranium. For this publication, experts have carried out case studies on speculative or undiscovered uranium resource potential, systematically applying spatial assessment techniques often with non-spatial quantitative techniques. This publication is the result of the work contributed by those experts over the period 2014-2016 and provides the tools for Member States to investigate and evaluate undiscovered uranium resources and deposits.

Radiation Treatment of Wastewater for Reuse with Particular Focus on Wastewaters Containing Organic Pollutants

Radiation Treatment of Wastewater for Reuse with Particular Focus on Wastewaters Containing Organic Pollutants

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/11/2018

The treatment of wastewater presents the dual challenge of protecting public health and the environment. The presence of increasing amounts of chemical contaminants such as pharmaceuticals, petrochemicals, pesticides and dyes resulting from agricultural, industrial or municipal activities has potential negative impacts on ecosystems. Radiation technologies have been studied for many years for treating different organic pollutants, and their reliability and effectiveness have been demonstrated. This publication provides new insights into the radiation treatment methodologies, particularly the evaluation of toxicity of waste water after radiation treatment, techno-economic aspects of such treatment and its integration with the existing conventional technologies.

Quality Control in the Production of Radiopharmaceuticals

Quality Control in the Production of Radiopharmaceuticals

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/11/2018

Advances have led to the production of new radiopharmaceuticals and availability of new production routes. Various new diagnostic agents in the field (such as Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals and generators) as well as therapeutic agents (such as alpha emitters) have been added to the clinician's menu. It is essential that radiopharmaceuticals are prepared within a robust quality control system encompassing materials and personnel, with adequate documentation, and continuous review of ongoing results. This publication provides guidelines and best practices for the quality control of medical radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals. It was written by a group of experts with experience across a range of radiopharmaceuticals and is intended to support professionals in the preparation of good quality and safe products to be used in nuclear medicine procedures.

Sampling and Isotope Analysis of Agricultural Pollutants in Water

Sampling and Isotope Analysis of Agricultural Pollutants in Water

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/10/2018

Stable isotope techniques can help identify the sources of water pollution associated with agricultural activities. Knowing the origin of nutrients or contaminants is essential to improve agricultural practices. To ensure the quality of stable isotope analysis, appropriate sampling and sample preparation are crucial. This publication presents methods for surface water sampling and sample processing through micro-diffusion and bacterial denitrification combined with laser spectroscopy. Information on such methods is often described in a very summarized and non-comprehensive way without proper illustration of every step. This publication aims to bridge this gap for scientists, technicians and students. It presents a selection of standard operating procedures providing guidance in water sampling and sample preparation that are mandatory when conducting reliable isotope analysis on water.

Uranium Resources as Co- and By-products of Polymetallic, Base, Rare Earth and Precious Metal Ore Deposits

Uranium Resources as Co- and By-products of Polymetallic, Base, Rare Earth and Precious Metal Ore Deposits

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/08/2018

This publication highlights the potential presence of uranium in ore deposits that are not commonly thought of as uraniferous and therefore highlights potential additional sources of uranium supply. It also provides insights into potential legacy mine waste issues for such deposits if the uranium is not extracted. The publication also outlines various historical mining and processing approaches, supported by case studies of each deposit type. The appendix to this publication includes a detailed IAEA deposit classification of uranium deposits and their global distribution, and shows for comparison purposes the equivalent distribution of other deposit types not traditionally considered as uranium deposits (but nevertheless with uranium extraction potential).

Criteria for Diverse Actuation Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

Criteria for Diverse Actuation Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/08/2018

This publication addresses a safety concern within the protection system for nuclear power plants that might result in unacceptable consequences for certain combinations of common cause failures and postulated initiating events, especially in case of programmable digital protection systems. When this situation is encountered, a diverse actuation system is often provided to back up the reactor protection system. The publication identifies and discusses common criteria for the design of diverse actuation systems at nuclear power plants (NPPs) with the aim of developing a consensus on the adequate level of diversity in the reactor protection systems. It relates to IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-39, Design of Instrumentation and Control Systems for Nuclear Power Plants, and provides specific details for utility engineers, operators, researchers, managers, and personnel responsible for all aspects of design and implementation of instrumentation and control systems of diverse actuation systems for NPPs. It will also aid Member States to support assessment of diversity in I&C architecture as a defence against common cause failures.

Soil Moisture Mapping with a Portable Cosmic Ray Neutron Sensor

Soil Moisture Mapping with a Portable Cosmic Ray Neutron Sensor

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2018

This publication was developed as an informational guide for soil moisture mapping at landscape level through a portable `backpack' cosmic-ray neutron sensor. This recently developed device monitors soil water content in a non-invasive way using background neutron counts. It is used to measure water content in the topsoil over wide areas, covering approximately 20 hectares with one single measurement. Through its mobility and combining series of measurements, this provides the spatial variability of the soil water content for better agricultural water management. The publication provides scientists, technicians and students with the necessary information, guidance and steps to calibrate, validate and deploy this portable cosmic-ray neutron sensor.

Analyses Supporting Conversion of Research Reactors from High Enriched Uranium Fuel to Low Enriched Uranium Fuel The Case of the Miniature Neutron Source Reactors

Analyses Supporting Conversion of Research Reactors from High Enriched Uranium Fuel to Low Enriched Uranium Fuel The Case of the Miniature Neutron Source Reactors

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2018

This publication was developed based on the results of an IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) and will serve as a reference to those potentially involved in conversion of research reactors from high enriched uranium (HEU) to low enriched uranium (LEU). The publication contains comprehensive design and safety analyses for the conversion of miniature neutron source reactors (MNSRs) and includes analyses that were performed by MNSR operating organizations participating in the CRP using data specific to their MNSR. The outcome of this CRP can therefore be used to provide best practice guidelines in preparation for conversion of research reactors by individual research reactor operating organizations, and as a procedural and methodological reference for regulatory bodies and other stakeholders involved in the conversion of research reactors.

Geological Classification of Uranium Deposits and Description of Selected Examples

Geological Classification of Uranium Deposits and Description of Selected Examples

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/05/2018

With the increased level of investigation into uranium deposits in recent years, a wealth of new information has become available, which has made it possible to investigate some of the least understood aspects of uranium metallogeny. This publication defines a new classification scheme, which is simple and descriptive, but flexible enough to encompass the recent advances in our understanding of uranium geology and deposit genesis. It contains improved definition of the deposit types, supported by type examples of those deposits for which good data are available, but not well described in previous literature. Along with the descriptive information, new data on uranium resources available for each deposit type are also provided.

World Distribution of Uranium Deposits (UDEPO)

World Distribution of Uranium Deposits (UDEPO)

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/04/2018

The World Distribution of Uranium Deposits (UDEPO) is a database on technical, geographical and geological characteristics of worldwide uranium deposits. The current version presents and describes modifications made since 2009. It presents a preliminary statistical and tabular analysis of the data for the first time, with a view to ensuring that the data is robust enough to serve as a basis for more sophisticated analysis in the future. This is supported by a detailed explanation of the structure of the database to better understand the nature of the data as a form of metadata. Furthermore, some basic graphical representations of the statistical and spatial distribution of the database is presented for the first time.

Benchmark Analysis for Condition Monitoring Test Techniques of Aged Low Voltage Cables in Nuclear Power Plants Final Results of a Coordinated Research Project

Benchmark Analysis for Condition Monitoring Test Techniques of Aged Low Voltage Cables in Nuclear Power Plants Final Results of a Coordinated Research Project

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/10/2017

This publication provides information and guidelines on how to monitor the performance of insulation and jacket materials of existing cables and establish a programme of cable degradation monitoring and ageing management for operating reactors and the next generation of nuclear facilities. This research was done through a coordinated research project (CRP) with participants from 17 Member States. This group of experts compiled the current knowledge in a report together with areas of future research and development to cover aging mechanisms and means to identify and manage the consequences of aging. They established a benchmarking programme using cable samples aged under thermal and/or radiation conditions, and tested before and after ageing by various methods and organizations. The results of these benchmark tests were then compared to identify the best condition monitoring methods and establish recommendations for improvements. The conclusions of the data analysis provided insight into condition monitoring techniques which yield usable or traceable results.

Generic Post-Closure Safety Assessment for Disposal of Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources in Narrow Diameter Boreholes

Generic Post-Closure Safety Assessment for Disposal of Disused Sealed Radioactive Sources in Narrow Diameter Boreholes

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/09/2017

In accordance with the relevant IAEA safety standards, this publication complements IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-1, Borehole Disposal Facilities for Radioactive Waste, by presenting a generic post-closure safety assessment for the IAEA borehole disposal concept of disused sealed radioactive sources in narrow boreholes. All the steps required to conduct such an assessment are covered by providing safety elements to ensure safety at borehole disposal sites. The publication identifies the key safety features, under varying disposal system conditions, in order to support the design and licensing processes of the borehole disposal concept, and facilitate its site specific implementation. The publication is primarily intended for those involved in developing or regulating the disposal of disused sealed radioactive sources to borehole facilities and will be of particular interest to States that have disused sealed radioactive sources but not suitable disposal options at present.

Development of a Reference Database for Particle Induced Gamma Ray Emission (PIGE) Spectroscopy

Development of a Reference Database for Particle Induced Gamma Ray Emission (PIGE) Spectroscopy

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/09/2017

Ion beam analysis techniques are non-destructive analytical techniques used to identify the composition and structure of surface layers of materials. The applications of these techniques span environmental control, cultural heritage and conservation, materials and fusion technologies. The particle-induced gamma-ray emission (PIGE) spectroscopy technique in particular, is a powerful tool for detecting light elements in certain depths of surface layers. This publication describes the coordinated effort to measure and compile cross section data relevant to PIGE analysis and make these data available to the community of practice through a comprehensive online database.

Use of Carbon Isotopic Tracers in Investigating Soil Carbon Sequestration and Stabilization in Agroecosystems

Use of Carbon Isotopic Tracers in Investigating Soil Carbon Sequestration and Stabilization in Agroecosystems

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/08/2017

This publication provides an overview of conventional and isotopic methods available for measuring and modelling soil carbon dynamics. It includes information on the use of carbon isotopes in soil and plant research, including both theoretical and practical aspects of nuclear and radioisotope tracer techniques for in situ glasshouse and field labelling techniques to assess soil organic carbon turnover and sequestration, and provides up-to-date information on topics related to soil carbon sequestration and stabilization in agroecosystems. With its focus on practical application of radiotracer and stable isotope tracer techniques, it will be particularly useful for university and national research scientists working to improve soil organic matter management and conservation in agricultural systems.

Benchmark Analysis of EBR-II Shutdown Heat Removal Tests

Benchmark Analysis of EBR-II Shutdown Heat Removal Tests

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/08/2017

This publication presents the results and main achievements of an IAEA coordinated research project to verify and validate system and safety codes used in the analyses of liquid metal thermal hydraulics and neutronics phenomena in sodium cooled fast reactors. The publication will be of use to the researchers and professionals currently working on relevant fast reactors programmes. In addition, it is intended to support the training of the next generation of analysts and designers through international benchmark exercises

Use of Low Enriched Uranium Fuel in Accelerator Driven Subcritical Systems

Use of Low Enriched Uranium Fuel in Accelerator Driven Subcritical Systems

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/08/2017

This publication presents the results and conclusions of an international research collaboration devoted to gaining a better understanding of the physics of Accelerator Driven Subcritical Systems (ADS), with particular emphasis on using low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. The publication contains information on nine ADS facilities, including descriptions of the hardware deployed, experiments conducted, computational resources and procedures used in the analyses, principal results obtained, and conclusions drawn from the knowledge gained as a consequence of this work. It is intended to provide information for users of ADS systems and those involved in the design of new ADS facilities to use LEU fuel and in the conversion of some existing facilities from using highly enriched Uranium (HEU) to LEU.

Use of the Benchmarking System for Operational Waste from WWER Reactors

Use of the Benchmarking System for Operational Waste from WWER Reactors

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/07/2017

The focus of this publication is on benchmarking low and intermediate level waste generated and managed during the normal operating life of a WWER, and it identifies and defines the benchmarking parameters selected for WWER type reactors. It includes a brief discussion on why those parameters were selected and their intended benchmarking benefits, and provides a description of the database and graphical user interface selected, designed and developed, including how to use it for data input and data analysis. The CD-ROM accompanying this publication provides an overview of practices at WWER sites, which were to a large extent prepared using the WWER BMS.

Selection of Technical Solutions for the Management of Radioactive Waste

Selection of Technical Solutions for the Management of Radioactive Waste

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/07/2017

The objectives of this publication are to identify and critically review the criteria to be considered while selecting waste management technologies; summarize, evaluate, rank and compare the different technical solutions; and offer a systematic approach for selecting the best matching solution. This publication covers the management of radioactive waste from all nuclear operations, including waste generated from research reactors, power reactors, and nuclear fuel cycle activities including high level waste (HLW) arising from reprocessing and spent nuclear fuel declared as waste (SFW), as well as low level waste (LLW) and intermediate level waste (ILW) arising from the production and use of radionuclides in industry, agriculture, medicine, education and research.

Identification of High Confidence Nuclear Forensics Signatures Results of a Coordinated Research Project and Related Research

Identification of High Confidence Nuclear Forensics Signatures Results of a Coordinated Research Project and Related Research

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/07/2017

The results of a Coordinated Research Project and related research on the identification of high confidence nuclear forensic isotopic, chemical and physical data characteristics, or signatures, provides information on signatures that can help identify the origin and history of nuclear and other radioactive material encountered out of regulatory control. This research report compiles findings from investigations of materials obtained from throughout the nuclear fuel cycle to include radioactive sources. The report further provides recent results used to identify, analyse in the laboratory, predict and interpret these signatures relative to the requirements of a nuclear forensics examination. The report describes some of the controls on the incorporation and persistence of these signatures in these materials as well as their potential use in a national system of identification to include a national nuclear forensics library.

Assessment of Equipment Capability to Perform Reliably Under Severe Accident Conditions

Assessment of Equipment Capability to Perform Reliably Under Severe Accident Conditions

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2017

The experience from the last 40 years has shown that severe accidents can subject electrical and instrumentation and control (I&C) equipment to environmental conditions exceeding the equipment's original design basis assumptions. Severe accident conditions can then cause rapid degradation or damage to various degrees up to complete failure of such equipment. This publication provides the technical basis to consider when assessing the capability of electrical and I&C equipment to perform reliably during a severe accident. It provides examples of calculation tools to determine the environmental parameters as well as examples and methods that Member States can apply to assess equipment reliability.

Contents and Sample Arguments of a Safety Case for Near Surface Disposal of Radioactive Waste

Contents and Sample Arguments of a Safety Case for Near Surface Disposal of Radioactive Waste

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2017

This publication arises from the results of two projects to assist Member States in understanding and developing safety cases for near-surface radioactive waste disposal facilities. The objective of the publication is to give detailed information on the contents of safety cases for radioactive waste disposal and the types of arguments that may be included. It is written for technical experts preparing a safety case, and decision makers in the regulatory body and government. The publication outlines the key uses and aspects of the safety case, its evolution in parallel with that of the disposal facility, the key decision steps in the development of the waste disposal facility, the components of the safety case, their place in the Matrix of Arguments for a Safety Case (the MASC matrix), and a detailed description of the development of sample arguments that might be included in a safety case for each of two hypothetical radioactive waste disposal facilities.

Model Regulations for Decommissioning of Facilities

Model Regulations for Decommissioning of Facilities

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2017

The IAEA has systematic programmes to provide Member States with the guidance, services and training necessary for establishing a legal and regulatory framework for the safe use of nuclear technologies, including the planning and implementation of decommissioning. The model regulations provided in this publication cover all aspects of the planning, conduct and termination of the decommissioning of facilities and management of the associated waste, in accordance with the relevant requirements of the IAEA safety standards. They provide a framework for establishing regulatory requirements and conditions of authorization to be incorporated into individual authorizations for the decommissioning of specific facilities. The model regulations also establish criteria to be used for assessing compliance with regulatory requirements. The publication will be of assistance to Member States in appraising the adequacy of their existing regulations and regulatory guides, and serves as a reference for those Member States developing regulations for the first time.

Managing Irrigation Water to Enhance Crop Productivity under Water-Limiting Conditions: A Role for Isotopic Techniques Final Report of a Coordinated Research Project

Managing Irrigation Water to Enhance Crop Productivity under Water-Limiting Conditions: A Role for Isotopic Techniques Final Report of a Coordinated Research Project

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/05/2017

This publication presents the outcome of an IAEA coordinated research project and provides research findings and isotopic methodologies to quantify the soil evaporation component of water losses and determine the transpiration efficiency for several important crop species under a variety of environments. The TECDOC also presents a simple, fast and portable vacuum distillation apparatus for extraction water from soil and plant samples for isotopic analyses for the separation of soil evaporation, which helped to reduce the bottleneck in sample throughput for many soil water and hydrology studies.

Severe Accident Mitigation through Improvements in Filtered Containment Vent Systems and Containment Cooling Strategies for Water Cooled Reactors Proceedings of a Technical Meeting on Severe Accident

Severe Accident Mitigation through Improvements in Filtered Containment Vent Systems and Containment Cooling Strategies for Water Cooled Reactors Proceedings of a Technical Meeting on Severe Accident

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/05/2017

One of the most important lessons from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant is that a reliable containment venting system can be crucial for effective accident management during severe accidents, especially for smaller volume containments in relation to the rated nuclear power. Containment venting can enhance the capability to maintain core cooling and containment integrity as well as reduce uncontrolled radioactive releases to the environment if the venting system has a filtration capacity. In general, a filtered containment vent system increases the flexibility of plant personnel in coping with unforeseen events. This publication provides the overview of the current status of related activities with the goal to share information between Member States on actions, upgrades, and new technologies pertaining to containment cooling and venting.

Utilization of a Network of Small Magnetic Confinement Fusion Devices for Mainstream Fusion Research

Utilization of a Network of Small Magnetic Confinement Fusion Devices for Mainstream Fusion Research

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 08/05/2017

Small magnetic confinement fusion devices have played and continue to play an important role in fusion research. Thanks to their compactness, flexibility and low operation costs, they can support scientific and technology developments, modelling analysis, and training and education. This publication presents the outcome of an IAEA coordinated research project on utilisation of a network of small magnetic confinement fusion devices for mainstream fusion research and reports on the research work accomplished within the framework of the project. It presents the contribution of these devices in research in a wide range of areas such as plasma confinement and energy transport, plasma stability in different magnetic configurations, plasma turbulence and its impact on local and global plasma parameters, processes at the plasma edge and plasma-wall interaction, scenarios with additional heating and non-inductive current drive.

Cosmic Ray Neutron Sensing Use, Calibration and Validation for Soil Moisture Estimation

Cosmic Ray Neutron Sensing Use, Calibration and Validation for Soil Moisture Estimation

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/03/2017

Nuclear and related techniques can help develop climate smart agricultural practices by optimizing water use efficiency. The measurement of soil water content is essential to improve the use of this resource in agriculture. However, most sensors monitor small areas (less than 1m in radius), hence a large number of sensors are needed to obtain soil water content across a large area. This can be both costly and labour intensive and so larger scale measuring devices are needed as an alternative to traditional point-based soil moisture sensing techniques. The cosmic ray neutron sensor (CRNS) is such a device that monitors soil water content in a non-invasive and continuous way. This publication provides background information about this novel technique, and explains in detail the calibration and validation process.

Status of Radon Related Activities in Member States Participating in Technical Cooperation Projects in Europe

Status of Radon Related Activities in Member States Participating in Technical Cooperation Projects in Europe

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/03/2017

This publication summarizes the status of radon programmes at the start of 2014 in the Member States in Europe participating in the IAEA technical cooperation project on establishing enhanced approaches to the control of public exposure to radon. The current status was determined from responses to a questionnaire covering the following elements of a national radon action plan: policies and strategies; radon measurement surveys; establishment of reference levels; managing radon in existing buildings and in future buildings; education and training of professionals; and public awareness initiatives.

Guidelines for Developing Wetlands in Agricultural Catchments

Guidelines for Developing Wetlands in Agricultural Catchments

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 28/02/2017

This publication presents the results of an international research project on optimizing the capture and storage of water by assessing nutrient using water conservation zones in agricultural landscapes. Eight countries from Asia Pacific, Africa and Europe participated in the project. Field studies were established in all participating countries using isotopic and nuclear techniques to assess three types of water conservation zones that are used to harvest water for irrigation, crop production and improve downstream water quality. In addition, isotopic and nuclear techniques were used to collect data to identify the ideal locations in the landscapes for developing wetlands. The publication provides information to researchers working in the area of soil and water management, natural resource managers, policy makers and farmers. For those working to develop wetlands, information is provided to support planning, monitoring and evaluation.

Performance of Models in Radiological Impact Assessment for Normal Operation Report of Working Group 1 Reference Methodologies for Controlling Discharges of Routine Releases of EMRAS II Topical Headin

Performance of Models in Radiological Impact Assessment for Normal Operation Report of Working Group 1 Reference Methodologies for Controlling Discharges of Routine Releases of EMRAS II Topical Headin

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/01/2017

This publication provides the results from Working Group 1, on Reference Methodologies for Controlling Discharges of Routine Releases, of the IAEA's EMRAS II (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) programme, which ran from 2009 to 2011. This Working Group carried out an intercomparison of methods used for assessing radiological impacts to people and the environment due to authorized releases of radionuclides during normal operation of nuclear facilities. Three important types of exposure scenarios were considered, those related to atmospheric, marine and river releases. The publication describes the details of the hypothetical radioactive release scenarios, the environmental pathways considered, the environmental transfer models applied, the calculation methods and the results obtained. An analysis of the results and the main findings and conclusions relevant for the use of the described input data and methodologies in regulatory applications is included. The publication also presents considerations on selection of the `representative person' and a summary of the different approaches in some States for the regulatory control of radioactive discharges. Input data is included in the annex.

Attributes of Full Scope Level 1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for Applications in Nuclear Power Plants

Attributes of Full Scope Level 1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) for Applications in Nuclear Power Plants

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 19/01/2017

This publication aims to further promote the use and application of PSA in Member States by providing a comprehensive list of PSA applications and describing what technical features (termed `attributes') need to be satisfied to reliably support them. Consideration has also been given to the basic set of attributes characterizing a `base case PSA' that is performed to assess overall plant safety. The present publication can support PSA practitioners in appropriate planning of a PSA project taking into account possible uses of the PSA in the future. It can also be used by reviewers as an aid in assessing the quality of PSAs and judging the adequacy of a PSA for particular applications.

Nuclear Power Plant Outage Optimization Strategy, 2016 Edition

Nuclear Power Plant Outage Optimization Strategy, 2016 Edition

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 19/01/2017

Nuclear power plant outage management is a key factor for safe and economic nuclear power plant performance. This publication discusses plant outage strategy and how this strategy is actually implemented. The main areas that are important for outage optimization that were identified by the utilities and government organizations participating in this report are: (1) organization and management; (2) outage planning and preparation; (3) outage execution; (4) safety outage review; and (5) counter measures to avoid the extension of outages and to facilitate the work in forced outages. Good outage management practices cover many different areas of work and this publication aims to communicate these good practices in a way that they can be used effectively by operators and utilities.

Guidelines on Devising a Programme for Competence Acquisition and Development Among Nuclear Regulators

Guidelines on Devising a Programme for Competence Acquisition and Development Among Nuclear Regulators

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 19/01/2017

This publication provides the outline of a programme to strengthen regulatory competences, based on the operating experience of countries with a developed nuclear programme and which are members of the Forum of Radiological and Nuclear Regulatory Agencies (FORO). The guidelines are designed to optimize the resources of the Ibero-American region and they complement and supplement the IAEA's Safety Reports Series No. 79.

Knowledge Management for Nuclear Research and Development Organizations

Knowledge Management for Nuclear Research and Development Organizations

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/12/2016

This publication elaborates on the role of nuclear knowledge management in a research and development (R&D) context, and on the importance of facilitating innovation and future development of nuclear technologies for nuclear power, its associated fuel cycles, and nuclear applications in medicine, industry and agriculture. It highlights aspects such as transferring and preserving knowledge, exchanging information, establishing and supporting cooperative networks, and training the next generation of nuclear experts. It concludes with basic concepts, trends and key drivers for nuclear knowledge management for R&D project managers and other workers from nuclear R&D organizations.

Commissioning of Radiotherapy Treatment Planning Systems: Testing for Typical External Beam Treatment Techniques Report of the Coordinated Research Project on Development of Procedures for Quality Ass

Commissioning of Radiotherapy Treatment Planning Systems: Testing for Typical External Beam Treatment Techniques Report of the Coordinated Research Project on Development of Procedures for Quality Ass

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/12/2016

This publication is intended as a guide for the clinical commissioning of radiotherapy treatment planning systems (RTPSs) and provides a simple protocol for these tasks. The procedures for clinical commissioning tests cover typical treatment techniques used in radiotherapy hospitals and are based on the use of a specific phantom. The purpose of this testing is twofold. Firstly, the tests will provide an educational opportunity for the user to become familiar with the operation of the RTPS. Secondly, the tests will demonstrate to the user that the logistic chain starting from computed tomography (CT) scanning, anatomic modelling, treatment planning and monitor unit/ time (MU) calculation is operable for typical treatment techniques and leads to the desired results with sufficient accuracy.

Guia para la Elaboracion de un Programa de Creacion y Desarrollo de Competencias de Reguladores de Reactores Nucleares

Guia para la Elaboracion de un Programa de Creacion y Desarrollo de Competencias de Reguladores de Reactores Nucleares

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/12/2016

This publication provides the outline of a programme to strengthen regulatory competences, based on the operating experience of countries with a developed nuclear programme and which are members of the Forum of Radiological and Nuclear Regulatory Agencies (FORO). The guidelines are designed to optimize the resources of the Ibero-American region and they complement and supplement the IAEA's Safety Reports Series No. 79 as a frame of reference.

Trends of Synchrotron Radiation Applications in Cultural Heritage, Forensics and Materials Science

Trends of Synchrotron Radiation Applications in Cultural Heritage, Forensics and Materials Science

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 07/11/2016

This publication provides an overview of the analytical applications of synchrotron radiation (SR) sources in the fields of cultural heritage, forensics and materials science, and presents relevant research projects carried out by 14 Member States. The papers included in this publication were presented by experts during a technical meeting held at the IAEA. The meeting provided a forum for specialists in SR applications to review the current status of, and developments and trends in, SR applications, with an emphasis on the fields of cultural heritage, forensics and characterization of energy related materials.

Development of Radiometric and Allied Analytical Methods and Strategies to Strengthen National Residue Control Programmes for Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Veterinary Drug Residues Final Report of a Coo

Development of Radiometric and Allied Analytical Methods and Strategies to Strengthen National Residue Control Programmes for Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Veterinary Drug Residues Final Report of a Coo

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 07/11/2016

This publication was produced under an IAEA coordinated research project and details the results of the work completed by the project counterparts in developing radiometric and complementary techniques for veterinary drug residues. The information is useful for research on, and technology transfer to facilitate, veterinary drug and associated residue testing in food and environmental samples. The publication presents a source of standard operating procedures that can be used for step-by-step laboratory analyses and will be useful for Member States in implementing food safety control programmes.

Volcanic Hazard Assessments for Nuclear Installations Methods and Examples in Site Evaluation

Volcanic Hazard Assessments for Nuclear Installations Methods and Examples in Site Evaluation

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 07/11/2016

This publication provides information on detailed methodologies and examples in the application of volcanic hazard assessment to site evaluation for nuclear installations, thereby addressing the recommendations in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-21, Volcanic Hazards in Site Evaluation for Nuclear Installations. It demonstrates the practicability of evaluating the recommendations through a systematic volcanic hazard assessment and examples from Member States. The results of this hazard assessment can be used to derive the appropriate design bases and operational considerations for specific nuclear installations.

Environmental Change in Post-Closure Safety Assessment of Solid Radioactive Waste Repositories Report of Working Group 3 Reference Models for Waste Disposal of EMRAS II Topical Heading Reference Appro

Environmental Change in Post-Closure Safety Assessment of Solid Radioactive Waste Repositories Report of Working Group 3 Reference Models for Waste Disposal of EMRAS II Topical Heading Reference Appro

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 07/11/2016

This publication describes the work of the Reference Models for Waste Disposal Working Group, one of nine set up as part of programme entitled Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety (EMRAS II), which concentrated on the improvement of environmental transfer models and the development of reference approaches to estimate the radiological impacts on humans, as well as on flora and fauna, arising from radionuclides in the environment.

Integrated Soil, Water and Nutrient Management for Sustainable Rice-Wheat Cropping Systems in Asia

Integrated Soil, Water and Nutrient Management for Sustainable Rice-Wheat Cropping Systems in Asia

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 07/11/2016

The rice-wheat system is the predominant cropping system in Asia, providing food, employment and income, ensuring the livelihoods of about one billion resource poor people. However, the productivity of the current rice-wheat systems is seriously threatened by increasing land degradation and scarcity of water and labour, inefficient cropping practices and other emerging socioeconomic and environmental drivers. Responding to the need to develop alternate crop establishment methods and improved cropping practices, this publication summarizes the results from a joint FAO/IAEA coordinated research project on optimizing productivity and sustainability of rice-wheat cropping systems. It provides relevant information on how to modify existing water and nutrient management systems and improve soil management in both traditional and emerging crop establishment methods for sustainable intensification of cereal production in Asia.

Application of the Risk Matrix Method to Radiotherapy

Application of the Risk Matrix Method to Radiotherapy

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 07/11/2016

This publication describes a project to introduce a tool for self-evaluation by radiotherapy services that allows the analysis of errors or failures that might give rise to accidents. The results of applying this tool to a generic radiotherapy service are also presented. These results are used as a basis for a set of recommendations to strengthen quality and safety programmes in radiotherapy departments. Both operational experience (lessons learned from accidental exposure) and the results of probability safety assessment studies have been taken into account in applying the tool and formulating these recommendations.

Management of the Interface between Nuclear Safety and Security for Research Reactors

Management of the Interface between Nuclear Safety and Security for Research Reactors

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 07/11/2016

The aim of this publication is to provide technical guidelines and practical information to assist Member States, operating organizations and regulatory bodies, on the basis of international good practices, and to manage the interface between nuclear safety and security at research reactor facilities in an integrated and coordinated manner. The publication was developed based on input from IAEA technical and consultants meetings held between 2013 and 2015.

Use of Phosphorus Isotopes for Improving Phosphorus Management in Agricultural Systems

Use of Phosphorus Isotopes for Improving Phosphorus Management in Agricultural Systems

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 07/11/2016

Phosphorus is an essential element in plant, human and animal nutrition. Soils with low levels of phosphorus are widespread in many regions of the world, and the deficiency limits plant growth and reduces crop production and food quality. This publication provides comprehensive and up to date information on several topics related to phosphorus in soil-plant systems, in agricultural systems and in the environment. It presents the theoretical background as well as practical information on how to use nuclear and radioisotope tracer techniques in both laboratory and greenhouse experiments to assess soil phosphorus forms and plant-available soil phosphorus pools, and to understand the cycling processes in soil-plant systems. The publication focuses on practical applications of radiotracer techniques and can serve as resource material for research projects on improving sustainable phosphorus management in agricultural systems and as practical guidance on the use of phosphate isotopes in soil-plant research.

Preparing and Conducting Review Missions of Instrumentation and Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

Preparing and Conducting Review Missions of Instrumentation and Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 07/11/2016

The IERICS (Independent Engineering Review of Instrumentation and Control Systems) mission is a comprehensive engineering review service directly addressing strategy and the key elements for implementation of modern instrumentation and control (I&C) systems, noting in applicable cases, specific concerns related to the implementation of advanced digital I&C systems and the use of software and/or digital logic in safety applications of a nuclear power plant. The guidelines outlined in this publication provide a basic structure, common reference and checklist across the various areas covered by an IERICS mission. Publications referenced in these guidelines could provide additional useful information for the counterpart while preparing for the IERICS mission. A structure for the mission report is given in the Appendix. In 2016, this publication was revised by international experts who had participated in previous IERICS missions. The revision reflects experiences and lessons learned from the preparation and conduct of those missions.

Sustainable Electricity Supply Scenarios for West Africa

Sustainable Electricity Supply Scenarios for West Africa

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 14/07/2016

This publication covers topics relevant to Member States in the process of evaluation of future electricity supply options and strategies, from resource evaluation to electricity demand analysis and connections to overall social, economic and demographic developments. It is an outcome of a study carried out in West Africa, providing a coherent sub regional platform for the development of a robust policy framework for an enhanced and sustainable provision of electricity services to support socioeconomic growth.

Processing of Irradiated Graphite to Meet Acceptance Criteria for Waste Disposal Results of a Coordinated Research Project

Processing of Irradiated Graphite to Meet Acceptance Criteria for Waste Disposal Results of a Coordinated Research Project

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 14/07/2016

Graphite is widely used in the nuclear industry and in research facilities and this has led to increasing amounts of irradiated graphite residing in temporary storage facilities pending disposal. This publication arises from a coordinated research project (CRP) on the processing of irradiated graphite to meet acceptance criteria for waste disposal. It presents the findings of the CRP, the general conclusions and recommendations. The topics covered include graphite management issues, characterization of irradiated graphite, processing and treatment, immobilization and disposal. Included on the attached CD-ROM are formal reports from the participants.

Considerations on the Application of the IAEA Safety Requirements for the Design of Nuclear Power Plants

Considerations on the Application of the IAEA Safety Requirements for the Design of Nuclear Power Plants

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 14/07/2016

This publication facilitates the understanding and practical application of the IAEA Safety Requirements for the Design of Nuclear Power Plants, SSR 2/1 (Rev. 1), which has been revised after the Fukushima Daiichi accident to strengthen the safety of the plant designs. It addresses in particular some novel requirements and concepts in SSR-2/1 (Rev. 1), that due to the complexity of the topics could lead to different interpretations. The publication is intended to clarify them in order to contribute to the harmonization of approaches and to coalesce or minimize diverging views.

Design Safety Considerations for Water Cooled Small Modular Reactors Incorporating Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Daiichi Accident

Design Safety Considerations for Water Cooled Small Modular Reactors Incorporating Lessons Learned from the Fukushima Daiichi Accident

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 26/04/2016

This publication presents technology developers and users with common considerations, approaches and measures for enhancing the defence in depth and operability of water cooled small modular reactor (SMR) design concepts to cope with extreme natural hazards. Indicative requirements to prevent an accident such as the Fukushima Daiichi accident from recurring are also provided for States planning to adopt water cooled SMR designs and technologies. This publication was produced within the framework of the IAEA Action Plan on Nuclear Safety, specifically under item 12 on effectively utilizing research and development.

Supporting Sampling and Sample Preparation Tools for Isotope and Nuclear Analysis

Supporting Sampling and Sample Preparation Tools for Isotope and Nuclear Analysis

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 26/04/2016

Nuclear and related techniques can help develop climate smart agricultural practices by optimizing water and nutrient use efficiency, assessing organic carbon sequestration in soil, and assisting in the evaluation of soil erosion control measures. Knowledge on the behaviour of radioactive materials in soil, water and foodstuffs is also essential in enhancing nuclear emergency preparedness and response. Appropriate sampling and sample preparation are the first steps to ensure the quality and effective use of the measurements and this publication provides comprehensive detail on the necessary steps.

Radiation Technology for Cleaner Products and Processes Proceedings of the Technical Meeting on Deployment of Clean (Green) Radiation Technology for Environmental Remediation

Radiation Technology for Cleaner Products and Processes Proceedings of the Technical Meeting on Deployment of Clean (Green) Radiation Technology for Environmental Remediation

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 26/04/2016

The development of appropriate green technologies capable of reducing the use and release of pollutants is becoming increasingly important in order to meet improved environmental regulations. The application of radiation technologies has proven to offer many advantages in lessening the environmental impact of processes and in the green development of new products. Examples include industrial effluents and municipal waste treatment, materials modification and the sterilization of equipment. This publication presents the proceedings of a technical meeting on the deployment of clean radiation technology for environmental remediation. The meeting provided a forum for presenting recent developments and reviewing global, regional and national level initiatives. Papers provided detailed practical experience and lessons learned in the use of radiation technologies for the treatment of environmental pollutants and in the development of new materials and other products. Economic and regulatory issues were addressed. Consideration was also given to future developments and roadmaps for integrating radiation technology with conventional technologies on a larger scale.

Criteria for Radionuclide Activity Concentrations for Food and Drinking Water

Criteria for Radionuclide Activity Concentrations for Food and Drinking Water

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 26/04/2016

This publication considers the various international standards to be applied at the national level for the assessment of levels of radionuclides in food and in drinking water in different circumstances for the purposes of control, other than in a nuclear or radiological emergency. It collates and provides an overview of the different criteria used in assessing and controlling the radionuclide content of food and drinking water.The approach used to derive reference levels of radionuclide activity concentration in food and in drinking water as criteria for use in particular circumstances is also considered. This publication is intended for the use by regulatory bodies, policy makers and interested parties with responsibilities in relation to the management of various situations where radionuclides are, or could be, present in food and in drinking water, other than in the case of a nuclear or radiological emergency.

Good Practice for Introducing Radiopharmaceuticals for Clinical Use

Good Practice for Introducing Radiopharmaceuticals for Clinical Use

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2015

The use of new radiopharmaceuticals can provide extremely valuable information in the evaluation of cancer, as well as heart and brain diseases - information that often times cannot be obtained by other means. However, there is a perceived need in many Member States for a useful reference to facilitate and expedite the introduction of radiopharmaceuticals already in clinical use in other countries. This publication intends to provide practical support for the introduction of new radiotracers, including recommendations on the necessary steps needed to facilitate and expedite the introduction of radiopharmaceuticals in clinical use, while ensuring that a safe and high quality product is administered to the patient at all times.

Model Regulations for the Use of Radiation Sources and for the Management of the Associated Radioactive Waste Supplement to IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-1.5

Model Regulations for the Use of Radiation Sources and for the Management of the Associated Radioactive Waste Supplement to IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-1.5

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2015

This publication provides advice on an appropriate set of regulations covering all aspects of the use of radiation sources and the safe management of the associated radioactive waste. The publication provides the framework for the regulatory requirements and conditions to be incorporated into individual authorizations for the use of radiation sources in industry, medical facilities, research and education, and agriculture. It also establishes criteria to be used for assessing compliance. The content allows states to appraise the adequacy of their existing regulations and regulatory guides, and acts as a reference for those states developing regulations for the first time. The publication is a supplement to the guidance in the IAEA Safety Guide GS-G-1.5, Regulatory Control of Radiation Sources.

Methodology for Safety Assessment Applied to Predisposal Waste Management Report of the Results of the International Project on Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions (SADRWM

Methodology for Safety Assessment Applied to Predisposal Waste Management Report of the Results of the International Project on Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions (SADRWM

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2015

The IAEA's programme on Safety Assessment Driving Radioactive Waste Management Solutions (SADRWMS) focused on approaches and mechanisms for application of safety assessment methodologies for the predisposal management of radioactive waste. The initial outcome of the SADRWMS Project was achieved through the development of flowcharts, which have since been incorporated into IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GSG-3, Safety Case and Safety Assessment for Predisposal Management of Radioactive Waste. In 2005, an initial specification was developed for the Safety Assessment Framework (SAFRAN) software tool to apply the SADRWMS flowcharts. In 2008, an in-depth application of the SAFRAN tool and the SADRWMS methodology was carried out on the predisposal management facilities of the Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology Radioactive Waste Management Centre (TINT Facility). This publication summarizes the content and outcomes of the SADRWMS programme. The Chairman's Report of the SADRWMS Project and the Report of the TINT test case are provided on the CD-ROM which accompanies this report.

Model Regulations for the Use of Radiation Sources and for the Management of the Associated Radioactive Waste Supplement to IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-1.5

Model Regulations for the Use of Radiation Sources and for the Management of the Associated Radioactive Waste Supplement to IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-1.5

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2015

This publication provides advice on an appropriate set of regulations covering all aspects of the use of radiation sources and the safe management of the associated radioactive waste. The publication provides the framework for the regulatory requirements and conditions to be incorporated into individual authorizations for the use of radiation sources in industry, medical facilities, research and education, and in agriculture. It also establishes criteria to be used for assessing compliance. The content allows States to appraise the adequacy of their existing regulations and regulatory guides, and acts as a reference for those States developing regulations for the first time. The publication is a supplement to the guidance in the IAEA Safety Guide GS-G-1.5, Regulatory Control of Radiation Sources.

BN-600 MOX Core Benchmark Analysis Results from Phases 4 and 6 of a Coordinated Research Project on Updated Codes and Methods to Reduce the Calculational Uncertainties of the LMFR Reactivity Effects

BN-600 MOX Core Benchmark Analysis Results from Phases 4 and 6 of a Coordinated Research Project on Updated Codes and Methods to Reduce the Calculational Uncertainties of the LMFR Reactivity Effects

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2013

This publication presents the main results and achievements of an undertaking (part of a wider IAEA coordinated research project) devoted to the benchmark analyses of two mixed oxide (MOX) fuelled BN-600 core designs. The studies conducted contributed to the progress in development, verification and validation of new codes and data libraries for fast reactor analyses; promoted deeper understanding of the influence of reactivity coefficients and their uncertainties on the results of experience and transient analyses in the initial phase of transients, such as unprotected loss of flow (ULOF); and facilitated exchange of opinions between specialists.

Spent Fuel Storage Operation Lessons Learned

Spent Fuel Storage Operation Lessons Learned

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2013

Past experience can usefully inform current practice and ensure the avoidance of known problems. Learning from such experience can also assist in maintaining an industry's reputation and the good will of stakeholders. This publication collects Member State experiences in the design, construction and operation of spent fuel storage facilities. It collates the improvements which have been incorporated into the design of new storage facilities over the past fifty years, highlights good operating practices and designs and shares lessons learned. The information provided will assist those Member States that already have a developed storage capability and also those considering development of a spent nuclear fuel storage capability in making informed decisions when managing their spent nuclear fuel.

Programa Nacional de Proteccion Radiologica en las Exposiciones Medicas

Programa Nacional de Proteccion Radiologica en las Exposiciones Medicas

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2013

The Use of Numerical Models in Support of Site Characterization and Performance Assessment Studies of Geological Repositories

The Use of Numerical Models in Support of Site Characterization and Performance Assessment Studies of Geological Repositories

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2013

To build confidence in future applications of nuclear energy systems, and the continuing use of existing ones, there has to be confidence that spent nuclear fuel and radioactive wastes can be securely stored and safely disposed. Numerical models play a key role in nuclear waste isolation projects. This publication presents the outcome of an IAEA coordinated research project in which numerical modelling is used to address the pertinent issue of site characterization and its impact on the safety, using data and information from a potential repository site.

Characterization of Swelling Clays as Components of the Engineered Barrier System for Geological Repositories Results of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project 2002-2007

Characterization of Swelling Clays as Components of the Engineered Barrier System for Geological Repositories Results of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project 2002-2007

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2013

This publication presents the results of a coordinated research project (CRP) carried out between 2002 and 2007 on the subject of swelling clays proposed for use as a component in the engineered barrier system (EBS) of the multibarrier concept for disposal of radioactive waste. The structure of the book includes an overview of the repository concepts of the Member States involved in the CRP; a general description of key material properties and a means of assessing those properties of relevance to screening potentially suitable swelling clays for repository use; and a summary of the properties measured for the candidate materials selected by each of the participating Member States and a preliminary assessment of their potential suitability for use as a component of the EBS of a deep geological repository. The publication contributes to the process of swelling clay identification, characterization and evaluation for potential suitability for deep geological repository applications.

The Behaviours of Cementitious Materials in Long Term Storage and Disposal of Radioactive Waste Results of a Coordinated Research Project

The Behaviours of Cementitious Materials in Long Term Storage and Disposal of Radioactive Waste Results of a Coordinated Research Project

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2013

This publication presents the outcome of an IAEA coordinated research project that investigated the behaviour and performance of cementitious materials used for an overall waste conditioning system. The publication is intended to assist the reader in comparing cementitious systems and technologies and in reaching an informed decision based on safety, technological maturity, economics, and other local needs. It highlights the active interchange of experiences among leading research groups, which enabled them to access valuable information on the underlying science and technology of cementitious materials used in radioactive waste management. The publication can be used as a screening tool to identify cementitious systems and technologies to meet specific waste management objectives in terms of the conditioning of waste generated, the technical complexity of waste streams, the environmental impact considerations and the desired end product.

Spent Fuel Performance Assessment and Research Final Report of a Coordinated Research Project (SPAR-II)

Spent Fuel Performance Assessment and Research Final Report of a Coordinated Research Project (SPAR-II)

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 01/09/2012

Spent fuel storage has become an important component of spent fuel management options. As storage durations increase, spent fuel performance is a critical issue. This publication presents the results of an IAEA coordinated research project on this topic and contains useful information on the integrity and degradation of spent fuel during storage. The experience and insights provided by the participating countries will help Member States to identify challenges in implementing longterm storage and to understand the current status of spent fuel performance research related to longterm storage.

Spent Fuel Performance Assessment and Research

Spent Fuel Performance Assessment and Research

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2012

Review of Sealed Source Designs and Manufacturing Techniques Affecting Disused Source Management

Review of Sealed Source Designs and Manufacturing Techniques Affecting Disused Source Management

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2012

Sealed radioactive sources are widely used in industry, medicine and research, and are often small and mobile. The nuclear community has taken special care of all aspects affecting the management of sealed sources, including disused sources and their individual designs. This publication collects information on the most typical design features and manufacturing techniques of sealed radioactive sources and examines how they affect the management of disused radioactive sources. The approaches and methods described will also be useful for source designers and manufacturers in helping them to consider waste management points of view when they improve their products.

Aplicacion del Metodo de la Matriz de Riesgo a la Radioterapia Texto Principal

Aplicacion del Metodo de la Matriz de Riesgo a la Radioterapia Texto Principal

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2012

Analisis Probabilista de Seguridad de Tratamientos de Radioterapia con Acelerador Lineal

Analisis Probabilista de Seguridad de Tratamientos de Radioterapia con Acelerador Lineal

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2012

This publication addresses the issue of accidental exposures of radiotherapy patients and how to avoid them. More proactive approaches are required to anticipate and thus avoid situations that could lead to accidental exposures. In this context, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the Ibero American Forum of Radiation and Nuclear and Safety Regulatory Agencies (the FORO) have applied proactive methods, such as probabilistic safety assessment to radiotherapy treatments with accelerators. The methodology and results of this exercise are described in this publication.

Exemption from Regulatory Control of Goods Containing Small Amounts of Radioactive Material

Exemption from Regulatory Control of Goods Containing Small Amounts of Radioactive Material

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2012

This publication examines some of the issues that need to be considered in relation to authorization and exemption from regulatory control, focusing in particular on consumer products and other goods containing small amounts of radioactive material. All aspects of their life cycle following manufacture, including transport, storage, supply use and disposal, are considered. The publication aims to generate discussion on how the concepts of authorization and exemption should be applied with a view to developing an internationally accepted, harmonized approach.

Neutron Transmutation Doping of Silicon at Research Reactors

Neutron Transmutation Doping of Silicon at Research Reactors

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 26/06/2012

This publication details the processes and history of neutron transmutation doping of silicon, particularly its commercial pathway, followed by the requirements for a technologically modern and economically viable production scheme and the current trends in the global market for semiconductor products. It provides guidance on the technical requirements, involved processes and required quality standards for the transmission of sound practices as well as advice for research reactor managers and operators planning commercial scale production of silicon. Furthermore, a detailed and specific database of most of the world's research reactor facilities in this domain is included, featuring their irradiation capabilities, associated production capacities and processing.

Role of Nuclear Based Techniques in Development and Characterization of Materials for Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cells

Role of Nuclear Based Techniques in Development and Characterization of Materials for Hydrogen Storage and Fuel Cells

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 24/05/2012

This publication is the proceedings of a technical meeting presents an overview of the state of the art in performance testing and micro-structural characterization of recent and candidate materials for fuel cells and hydrogen storage, with a special focus on the application of nuclear techniques. The main objectives of the meeting were to support new trends in research and development programmes, to identify a methodology for application of nuclear techniques, and to strengthen international cooperation between scientists, with a special emphasis on sharing best practice and on technology transfer.

Knowledge Management for Nuclear Research and Development Organizations

Knowledge Management for Nuclear Research and Development Organizations

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 01/05/2012

This publication elaborates on the role of nuclear knowledge management in a research and development (R&D) context, and on the importance of facilitating innovation and future development of nuclear technologies for nuclear power, its associated fuel cycles, and nuclear applications in medicine, industry and agriculture. It highlights aspects such as transferring and preserving knowledge, exchanging information, establishing and supporting cooperative networks, and training the next generation of nuclear experts. It concludes with basic concepts, trends and key drivers for nuclear knowledge management for R&D project managers and other workers from nuclear R&D organizations.

Notification and Authorization for the Use of Radiation Sources Supplement to IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-1.5

Notification and Authorization for the Use of Radiation Sources Supplement to IAEA Safety Standards Series No. GS-G-1.5

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2011

This publication provides practical guidance on establishing a system of notification and authorization for the regulatory control over the use of radiation sources, including the provision for granting exemptions from regulatory requirements. It also provides examples of the notification and authorization procedures, detailing the documentation to be submitted by applicants, and provides a basis for the decisions to be made by regulatory bodies. It provides additonal examples of specific review and assessment procedures for applications requesting authorization for the use of radiation sources in diagnostic radiology, nuclear medicine, radiotherapy, industrial radiography, research and industrial irradiators, and gauges containing radioactive sources.

Non-Linear Response to a Type of Seismic Input Motion

Non-Linear Response to a Type of Seismic Input Motion

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2011

This publication reports the results and findings of a coordinated research project on the safety significance of near-field earthquakes in the design of nuclear power plants. It describes the outcome of a benchmark exercise conducted by a number of institutions on the effects of low to moderate magnitude near-field earthquakes, comparing model analytical simulations with the results of a shaking test performed in France on a physical model of a conventional shear-wall structure. The results build the basis for proposals for possible evolution of engineering practices in order to realistically take into account the effects of near-field earthquakes.

Dense Magnetized Plasmas

Dense Magnetized Plasmas

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2011

This publication presents results achieved within an IAEA coordinated research project on dense magnetized plasmas (DMPs) with respect to the needs of plasma research in developed and developing IAEA Member States, performed under comprehensive international collaboration. Of specific interest is the improvement of experimental set-ups for DMPs, including new ideas on drivers, chambers and targets, interface issues and plasma-wall interactions. Better understanding of discharge physics and control, improved theory and numerical modelling using various codes are reported. Important issues are diagnostics development, material testing and development, and material post-irradiation diagnostics and analysis. The publication illustrates the speed of progress in DMP applications facilitated by the sharing of knowledge, staffing and costs, the promotion of technology transfer among Member States and issues relating to knowledge preservation. It also reports the main conclusions and recommendations from the experts' meeting and will serve as a useful resource to fusion scientists, fusion engineers, plasma physicists and material science physicists.

Exposure of the Public from Large Deposits of Mineral Residues

Exposure of the Public from Large Deposits of Mineral Residues

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2011

This publication presents the results of an investigation to determine the doses received by members of the public near large deposits of mineral residues containing radionuclides of natural origin. The key elements of the study were to consider the available information from examples of actual mineral residue deposits, including the results of any relevant dose assessments, and to use this information to define the input parameters for calculating the radiological impact of a representative mineral residue deposit containing two million cubic metres of material. The results were found to be consistent with those obtained for actual mineral residue deposits in various parts of the world and confirmed that, for a radionuclide activity concentration of 1 Bq/g in the residue, the annual dose to the most exposed individual would not exceed a small fraction of 1 mSv.

Research Reactor Application for Materials Under High Neutron Fluence

Research Reactor Application for Materials Under High Neutron Fluence

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2011

This publication presents the proceedings of a technical meeting on research reactor application for materials under high neutron fluence. The overall objective of the meeting was to enhance research reactor utilization in Member States for practical applications such as isotope production, neutron radiography, neutron beam research, and material characterization and testing consistent with the reactor's research function. In addition, the meeting participants focused on the specific applications of research reactors in irradiation of materials at high neutron fluence, as well as integration issues. The publication will serve as a tool to maintain existing knowledge available in Member States and is expected to contribute to the initiation and development of new research programmes related to the testing of structural materials needed for innovative reactor systems.

Preparing and Conducting Review Missions of Instrumentation and Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

Preparing and Conducting Review Missions of Instrumentation and Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2011

The IERICS (Independent Engineering Review of Instrumentation and Control Systems) mission is a comprehensive engineering review service directly addressing strategy and the key elements for implementation of modern instrumentation and control (I&C) systems, noting in applicable cases, specific concerns related to the implementation of advanced digital I&C systems and the use of software and/or digital logic in safety applications of a nuclear power plant. The guidelines outlined in this publication provide a basic structure, common reference and checklist across the various areas covered by an IERICS mission. Publications referenced in these guidelines could provide additional useful information for the counterpart while preparing for the IERICS mission. A structure for the mission report is given in the Appendix.

Mitigation of Hydrogen Hazards in Severe Accidents in Nuclear Power Plants

Mitigation of Hydrogen Hazards in Severe Accidents in Nuclear Power Plants

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2011

The generation of hydrogen and the risk of hydrogen combustion, as well as other phenomena leading to containment over pressurization in the case of severe accidents, represent complex safety issues related to accident management. This publication concentrates on practical aspects of hydrogen risk related computational analysis and implementation of the risk mitigation measures for various reactor designs, with reference to documents already in existence.

Design Lessons Drawn from the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

Design Lessons Drawn from the Decommissioning of Nuclear Facilities

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2011

At a time when many older facilities are being decommissioned and many more are undergoing major retrofits to extend their lives, there is a wealth of information emerging to guide the design of new facilities, to make them easier to rebuild and eventually decommission. In this publication, the most important lessons learned in recent years are organized and examined to enable the intended audience to gauge the importance of this aspect of planning for new nuclear facilities. With many new players entering the nuclear field, whether as customers or suppliers, it is important that the lessons learned on this issue be widely and promptly disseminated. This publication presents the issues in a concise and systematic manner, along with practical and thought provoking examples.

Evaluation of Human Resource Needs for a New Nuclear Power Plant Armenian Case Study

Evaluation of Human Resource Needs for a New Nuclear Power Plant Armenian Case Study

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2011

This publication draws on the experience of an IAEA technical cooperation project using Armenia as an example to look at the tasks linked to the management of human resources that will be required by a country planning a new nuclear power plant. It summarizes the major findings of the project, and identifies and analyses the demand in human resources at all stages of construction of a new nuclear power plant unit. This includes, in detail, the issues of selection of an option for construction, standard processes associated with construction work, customer actions at various stages leading up to commissioning, means, conditions and requirements for the training of specialists, and assessments of various projects being considered for implementation. The target readers of the publication are governmenl officials and officers of ministries in Member States planning to embark upon or expand a nuclear power programme, as well as national utilities and regulators.

Good Practices in Heavy Water Reactor Operation

Good Practices in Heavy Water Reactor Operation

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2010

This publication reports on the outcome of an IAEA workshop on heavy water reactor operation. It summarizes the material presented at the workshop and discusses a broad range of operational practices, including regulatory aspects, the reduction of occupational dose, performance improvements, and reduction of operating and maintenance costs.

Progress in Radioactive Graphite Waste Management

Progress in Radioactive Graphite Waste Management

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2010

This is the proceedings of an international conference on progress in and solutions for radioactive graphite waste management. The main objectives of the meeting were to promote exchange of information among IAEA Member States' representatives and to discuss new trends and innovative developments in the management of radioactive graphite. These developments will have an impact on new graphite-moderated reactor systems as well as on new reactor programmes in the 21st century, where design for decommissioning is very important. In the summary the reader will find evaluations of the relative merits of various options.

Information Technology for Nuclear Power Plant Configuration Management

Information Technology for Nuclear Power Plant Configuration Management

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2010

A major concern with operating plants is their performance with respect to safety, reliability and availability. Modernization of the information technology tools for configuration management (CM) in nuclear power plants has been one of the key factors in increasing plant availability. This publication presents a basic approach for the application of information technology to CM, considering experience gained from organizations and utilities that have successfully implemented configuration management. It focuses on the attributes of CM related to information retention and retrieval, lays out what is required from a software program to effectively support a strong CM programme, provides information related to information technology and organization, and outlines the design of a CM software system.

Small Reactors without On-Site Refuelling: Neutronic Characteristics, Emergency Planning and Development Scenarios Final Report of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project Neutronic Characteristics, Emerg

Small Reactors without On-Site Refuelling: Neutronic Characteristics, Emergency Planning and Development Scenarios Final Report of an IAEA Coordinated Research Project Neutronic Characteristics, Emerg

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2010

Based on a coordinated research project (CRP) devoted to the assessment of innovative technology options for small reactors without on-site refuelling, this publication compiles the findings of research and development activities addressing neutronic characteristics, emergency planning considerations and deployment scenarios for such reactor types. The summary report documents the results and conclusions achieved by the CRP and suggests research and development activities to be furthered after completion of the project. The publication will be a useful guide for many Member States pursuing an attractive and affordable nuclear power option.

Advanced Fuel Pellet Materials and Fuel Rod Design for Water Cooled Reactors

Advanced Fuel Pellet Materials and Fuel Rod Design for Water Cooled Reactors

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2010

This publication is the proceedings of a technical meeting on enhancement of efficiency of nuclear power through increased fuel utilization and better performance. It provides an overview of the current status in the development of fuel pellet material and of improvements in fuel rod designs for light and heavy water cooled power reactors. The meeting participants focused their discussions on modern technological and design tools enabling reliable fuel performance in current and planned operational environments, analysed high burn-up fuel structure and properties as well as specific features of advanced fuels. In addition, there was a round-table discussion that addressed the regulatory aspects of fuel quality assurance.

Delayed Hydride Cracking of Zirconium Alloy Fuel Cladding

Delayed Hydride Cracking of Zirconium Alloy Fuel Cladding

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2010

This publication examines the phenomena of delayed hydride cracking (DHC) in Zircaloy-4 claddings and presents the results of a coordinated research project on this subject. It discusses the circumstances and the mechanisms that lead to DHC in Zircaloy-4 cladding materials and documents the knowledge gained through an inter-laboratory comparison where the physical conditions for DHC have been studied. An advanced DHC testing methodology developed in Studsvik, Sweden, and consistent experimental data of international round-robin DHC velocity measurements in CANDU/PHWR and LWR cladding Zircaloy-4 materials are also attached.

Best Practices in the Management of an Operating Experience Programme at Nuclear Power Plants

Best Practices in the Management of an Operating Experience Programme at Nuclear Power Plants

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 15/05/2010

This publication outlines the key management attributes and characteristics for the successful implementation, review and continuous improvement of an operating experience programme at a nuclear utility company and individual nuclear power plants. It was developed to support successful management of an operating experience programme, various requirements of which are set forth in the IAEA Safety Requirements No. NS-R-2, Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Operation. Implementation of these best practices will enable nuclear installations and related institutions to successfully strengthen and enhance their operating experience feedback process.

Induced Mutation in Tropical Fruit Trees

Induced Mutation in Tropical Fruit Trees

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2009

This publication is based on an FAO/IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) and provides insight into the application of induced mutation and in vitro techniques for the improvement of well known fruit trees such as citrus, mango, avocado and papaya, as well as more exotic fruit trees such as litchi, annona, jujube, carambola, pitanga and jaboticaba. The latter are of particular importance due to their adaptation to harsh environments and their high potential as basic food and micronutrient providers for populations in poorer and more remote regions. The findings of the CRP show that application of radiation induced mutation techniques in tropical and subtropical fruit trees can contribute to improving nutritional balance food security, and to enhancing the economic status of growers.

Quality Control of Pesticide Products

Quality Control of Pesticide Products

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2009

In light of an established need for more efficient analytical procedures, this publication, which documents the findings of an IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on Quality Control of Pesticide Products , simplifies the existing protocol for pesticide analysis while simultaneously upholding existing standards of quality. This publication includes both a report on the development work done in the CRP and a training manual for use by pesticide analysis laboratories. Based on peer reviewed and internationally recognized methods published by the Association of Analytical Communities (AOAC) and the Collaborative International Pesticides Analytical Council (CIPAC), this report provides laboratories with versatile tools to enhance the analysis of pesticide chemicals and to extend the scope of available analytical repertoires. Adoption of the proposed analytical methodologies promises to reduce laboratories' use of solvents and the time spent on reconfiguration and set-up of analytical equipment.

Licence Applications for Low and Intermediate Level Waste Predisposal Facilities A Manual for Operators

Licence Applications for Low and Intermediate Level Waste Predisposal Facilities A Manual for Operators

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2009

A number of waste processing and storage facilities have been, or are being, established in many developing Member States. The objective of this publication is to provide advice to the operators of radioactive waste processing and storage facilities for preparing an application for authorization/licensing of the operation of such facilities. It will provide useful guidance in the preparation of detailed documentation to corroborate the licensing application to be submitted to the regulatory authority. Furthermore, it explains the methods and techniques used to obtain information from available sources and the system to be used to introduce this information into the support documentation.

Quantification of Radionuclide Transfer in Terrestrial and Freshwater Environments for Radiological Assessments

Quantification of Radionuclide Transfer in Terrestrial and Freshwater Environments for Radiological Assessments

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2009

For many years the IAEA has published a set of documents aimed at assessing and limiting the radiation exposure of the population from various nuclear activities. The present publication is intended to support IAEA Technical Reports Series No.472 (TRS 472). It provides radioecological concepts, models, parameters and data for assessing site-specific past, present and potential future radiation exposures of humans and other biota in terrestrial and freshwater environments in various climate conditions. It can be used for radioecological assessment of both routine discharges of radionuclides to the environment and accidental releases. In addition, it will serve as useful background documentation for other relevant activities, such as training in radioecology and radiation protection.

Periodic Safety Review of Nuclear Power Plants Experience of Member States

Periodic Safety Review of Nuclear Power Plants Experience of Member States

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2009

This publication presents the legal framework for periodic safety reviews (PSRs) and discusses the methodology and the principal stages of the PSR, including details of the safety factor approach for carrying out a PSR. The benefits and required sources are also summarized.

World Distribution of Uranium Deposits (UDEPO) with Uranium Deposit Classification 2009 Edition

World Distribution of Uranium Deposits (UDEPO) with Uranium Deposit Classification 2009 Edition

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2009

The World Distribution of Uranium Deposits (UDEPO) is a database on technical, geographical and geological characteristics of worldwide uranium deposits. Its purpose is to provide reliable and up-to-date information on the uranium deposits in the world. The UDEPO contains information on the location of deposits, the amount of uranium and average uranium grade in the deposits, geological type of the deposits, status of the deposits, operating organizations (if the deposit is being mined) and other technical and geological details about the deposits. It covers not only operational mines but also depleted or dormant deposits in order to provide an overview of past operations and future possibilities in addition to the existing uranium production information. This publication, with attached CD-ROM, is a snapshot of the database as of the end of 2008.

Selection and Breeding of Cattle and Buffalo in Asia Strategies and Criteria for Improved Breeding

Selection and Breeding of Cattle and Buffalo in Asia Strategies and Criteria for Improved Breeding

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2009

This publication was produced in the framework of an IAEA technical cooperation project and presents the latest trends in livestock production and cattle breeding management in Asia. It includes information on traits for dairy and beef cattle, their selection criteria, and breeding objectives, proposed systems for operating a cattle breeding and genetic improvement programme in Asia, and an overview of current and future technologies for improvement of cattle breeding. The publication is intended for livestock specialists involved in all levels of cattle breeding in Asia, but also for representatives from agricultural ministries, universities, departments of livestock and veterinary services as well as public and private veterinarians and consultants.

Passive Safety Systems and Natural Circulation in Water Cooled Nuclear Power Plants

Passive Safety Systems and Natural Circulation in Water Cooled Nuclear Power Plants

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2009

Since the mid-1980s there has been much discussion of the advantages of passive safety systems in advanced nuclear power plants (NPPs). It has been recognized that the application of passive safety systems can contribute to simplification and potentially improve economics of new NPP designs. However, this implies careful design and analysis methods to assure that these systems perform their intended functions. This publication draws on the studies of an IAEA coordinated research project on the topic and reports the findings of the latest research activities. It describes passive safety systems in a wide range of advanced water-cooled nuclear power plant designs, defines the thermal hydraulic phenomena associated with natural circulation phenomena and cross-links these phenomena with the passive safety systems.

Master Curve Approach to Monitor Fracture Toughness of Reactor Pressure Vessels in Nuclear Power Plants

Master Curve Approach to Monitor Fracture Toughness of Reactor Pressure Vessels in Nuclear Power Plants

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2009

This publication provides information about the master curve approach for assessing the structural integrity of reactor pressure vessels (RPVs) under current and future operation and accident conditions in nuclear power plants (NPPs). This direct measurement of fracture toughness approach is technically superior to the correlative and indirect methods used in the past to assess irradiated RPV integrity. The results in the report should allow utility engineers and scientists to directly measure fracture toughness using small surveillance sized specimens and apply the results using the master curve approach for RPV structural integrity assessment in NPPs.

Dose Reduction in CT while Maintaining Diagnostic Confidence A Feasibility/Demonstration Study

Dose Reduction in CT while Maintaining Diagnostic Confidence A Feasibility/Demonstration Study

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2009

Computed tomography (CT) has emerged as one of the most important imaging techniques of modern times. Given the medical necessity and usefulness of this diagnostic tool, scientists have focused on the issue of dose reduction while maintaining diagnostic confidence. This publication details the findings of a coordinated research project (CRP) on the topic and provides guidelines for both the medical community and the equipment manufacturers and suppliers on making their respective contributions to dose reduction.

Estudios de Hidrologia Isotopica en America Latina 2006

Estudios de Hidrologia Isotopica en America Latina 2006

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2009

This publication summarizes the main findings and conclusions obtained from several hydrological studies conducted in Latin America, involving the use of hydrochemical and isotope tools. The studies were carried out in eleven aquifers in seven Latin American Member States as part of a Technical Cooperation Project conducted between 2001 and 2005. The main aspects addressed in the isotope studies were related to groundwater origin and dynamics; interconnection between surface waters and groundwaters; groundwater flow patterns; groundwater modelling; and vulnerability to pollution.

Clinical Applications of SPECT/CT New Hybrid Nuclear Medicine Imaging System

Clinical Applications of SPECT/CT New Hybrid Nuclear Medicine Imaging System

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2008

Integrated single photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography (SPECT/CT) has emerged as an important diagnostic tool in medical imaging, where morphological markers are superimposed on anatomical images to allow a more thorough examination and higher levels of diagnostic accuracy. This publication presents an overview of the SPECT/CT technology for use by nuclear medicine physicians, radiologists and clinical practitioners. The publication also covers the current medical status of SPECT/CT imaging, the role of this technology in the clinical management of patients and possible trends for future development.

Improving the Reproductive Management of Dairy Cattle Subjected to Artificial Insemination

Improving the Reproductive Management of Dairy Cattle Subjected to Artificial Insemination

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2007

This publication was produced as part of an IAEA Technical Cooperation Project. It details the results obtained by project counterparts from surveys taken and experiments performed in monitoring the reproductive performance of cattle and the application of artificial insemination in the counterparts' respective countries. This publication is intended for livestock specialists involved in the management of reproductive services for cattle farmers in Asia, including those in ministries of agriculture or livestock, departments of livestock and veterinary services, and artificial insemination centres as well as public and private veterinarians.

On-Site Visits to Radiotherapy Centres: Medical Physics Procedures Quality Assurance Team for Radiation Oncology (QUATRO)

On-Site Visits to Radiotherapy Centres: Medical Physics Procedures Quality Assurance Team for Radiation Oncology (QUATRO)

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2007

The Quality Assurance Team for Radiation Oncology (QUATRO) provides independent quality audits both proactive (comprehensive reviews of the radiotherapy practices) and reactive (focused investigations in response to suspected or actual incidents during radiotherapy). The QUATRO methodology for proactive audit is described in the IAEA publication Comprehensive Audits of Radiotherapy Practices: A Tool for Quality Improvement. This publication describes the audit technique for medical physics aspects of the operation of radiotherapy hospitals with the purpose of helping to identify and rectify problems in the area of radiotherapy physics. It includes the follow-up of inconsistent results detected with the thermoluminescent dosimetry postal service operated jointly by the IAEA and WHO as well as problems found during the radiation treatment planning process for both tele- and brachytherapy. Reactive QUATRO audits help hospitals at a very early stage in the problem solving process, focusing on the prevention of incidents or accidents in radiotherapy.

Managing the First Nuclear Power Plant Project

Managing the First Nuclear Power Plant Project

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2007

Experience shows that the time between an initial policy decision by a State to consider nuclear power until the initiation of its first nuclear power plant is about 10-15 years. The proper management of the wide scope of project activities during this period represents a major challenge for the involved governmental, utility, regulatory, supplier and other support organizations. The main focus is to ensure that the project is implemented successfully from a commercial point of view while remaining in accordance with the appropriate engineering and quality requirements, safety standards and security guides. This publication provides an introductory overall description of the main project management activities and gives references to the related detailed guidance. The target audience are decision makers, advisers and senior managers in governmental organizations, utilities, industrial organizations and regulatory bodies in the countries desiring to launch their first nuclear power plant project.

Nuclear Fuel Cycle Simulation System (VISTA)

Nuclear Fuel Cycle Simulation System (VISTA)

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2007

The Nuclear Fuel Cycle Simulation System (VISTA) is a simulation system which estimates long term nuclear fuel cycle material and service requirements as well as the material arising from the operation of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and nuclear power reactors. This publication is the accompanying text which gives details of the modelling and an example scenario.

Dose Reporting in Ion Beam Therapy Proceedings of a Meeting Organized Jointly by the IAEA and the ICRU held in Ohio, USA, 18-20 March 2006

Dose Reporting in Ion Beam Therapy Proceedings of a Meeting Organized Jointly by the IAEA and the ICRU held in Ohio, USA, 18-20 March 2006

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2007

This publication is the result of a collaborative exercise between IAEA and ICRU regarding standardization of dose reporting procedures for the clinical use of particle beams. It contains contributions on ion therapy topics including beam production, dosimetry, relative biological effectiveness, treatment planning, clinical requirements and current protocols, patient selection for ion treatment, and quantities for treatment reporting. These topics provide the necessary information to develop the best possible set of recommendations for harmonizing the reporting of ion beam therapy internationally.

Innovative Waste Treatment and Conditioning Technologies at Nuclear Power Plants

Innovative Waste Treatment and Conditioning Technologies at Nuclear Power Plants

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2006

IAEA Member States and individual nuclear power plants (NPPs) must carry out radioactive waste processing (treatment and conditioning) in an efficient and cost effective manner. Determination of which of the many available technologies and strategies are best suited to meet national or local needs is often a complex assessment. The aim of this publication is to inform decision makers by presenting information on innovative technologies for processing wastes generated by NPPs. The report identifies the key benefits which may derive from the adoption of those technologies, the different waste streams to which each technology is relevant, and the limitations of the technologies.

Status of Innovative Small and Medium Sized Reactor Designs 2005 Reactors with Conventional Refuelling Schemes

Status of Innovative Small and Medium Sized Reactor Designs 2005 Reactors with Conventional Refuelling Schemes

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2006

The objective of this report is to provide Member States, including those considering the initiation of nuclear power programmes, with balanced and objective information on important development trends and objectives of innovative small and medium sized reactors (SMRs) for a variety of uses, on the achieved state of the art in design and technology development for such reactors and on their design and regulatory status. The publication is intended for many categories of stakeholders, including regulators, electricity producers, designers, non-electricity producers and policy makers. The main sections of this publication provide a summary of major specifications, applications and user related special features of innovative SMRs. The annexes, intended mainly for designers and technical managers, provide detailed design descriptions of innovative SMRs, focusing on their potential to provide solutions in the areas of concern associated with future nuclear energy systems.

Control de Calidad en Mamografia Protocolo elaborado en el marco de dos proyectos regionales ARCAL/OIEA

Control de Calidad en Mamografia Protocolo elaborado en el marco de dos proyectos regionales ARCAL/OIEA

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2006

En la region de America Latina, el cancer de mama representa la segunda causa de muerte por cancer en la poblacion femenina en riesgo, Ilegando a ser en algunos paises hasta la primera causa. Muchas paises de la region carecen de un censo nacional de los equipos de rayos X empleados en la practica mamografica, capacitacion de medicos radiologos, fisicos medicos, tecnicos o tecnologos e ingenieros de mantenimiento en lo que a un programa de aseguramiento de la calidad mamografica compete, a pesar de que la region cuenta con programas de formacion en fisica medica. Tambien se observa la ausencia de programas de aseguramiento de la calidad en los servicios de mamografia, de campanas de deteccion precoz del cancer de mama. Con este documento se intenta contribuir a reducir algunas de las carencias expuestas y contribuir a que se pueda planificar, organizar y Ilevar a cabo un programa de control de calidad en los servicios mamograficos.

Indicators for Management of Planned Outages in Nuclear Power Plants

Indicators for Management of Planned Outages in Nuclear Power Plants

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/05/2006

Planned outages are a major contributor to nuclear power plant (NPP) non-availability, risk and cost. Effective management of planned outages is a key factor for improvement of NPP safety, availability and competitiveness. To support outage management, an outage monitoring system is implemented that follows all the fundamental and critical activities and deadlines in each phase of the outage. The IAEA has produced this publication on indicators for planned outage monitoring to complement a series of technical publications related to practices regarding outage management and cost effective maintenance. The aim of this publication is to provide guidelines for outage monitoring systems, examples of specific outage indicators and good practices in outage monitoring. This publication outlines a set of outage indicators that could be considered by operators of NPPs when establishing or revising their own specific outage indicator systems.

Recent Developments in Uranium Exploration, Production and Environmental Issues Proceedings of a Technical Meeting held in Straz, Czech Republic, 6-8 September 2004

Recent Developments in Uranium Exploration, Production and Environmental Issues Proceedings of a Technical Meeting held in Straz, Czech Republic, 6-8 September 2004

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2005

The uranium industry is in a period of transition. In Europe, the industry is in transition from uranium production to site rehabilitation. The WISMUT project in Germany, which is featured in this publication, is the largest and one of the most advanced rehabilitation projects in the world. By contrast, other countries such as China, India and Argentina are expanding their industries to meet growing uranium demand. Activities in these countries, which are also described in this publication, range from new project licensing to the application of new technology to increase productivity and lower costs at existing operations. Changes within the uranium industry are nowhere more evident than in the marketplace, where the price of uranium has more than doubled in the past two years. There is a discussion of the reasons for this price rise and of the adequacy of production capacity to meet reactor uranium requirements.

Categorization of Radioactive Sources

Categorization of Radioactive Sources

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2005

The objective of this publication is to provide a simple, logical system for ranking radioactive sources based on their potential to cause harm to human health and for grouping the practices in which these sources are used into discrete categories. While the categorization focuses on sealed sources, the methodology can also be used to categorize unsealed radioactive sources.

Radiological Aspects of Non-Fixed Contamination of Packages and Conveyances Final Report of a Coordinated Research Project 2001-2002

Radiological Aspects of Non-Fixed Contamination of Packages and Conveyances Final Report of a Coordinated Research Project 2001-2002

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2005

This publication reports the findings of an international Coordinated Research Programme (CRP) organized by the IAEA in which scientists from France, Germany, Japan, UK, USA and the World Nuclear Transport Institute participated. On the basis of extensive studies, the possible radiation exposure that may result due to the presence of non-fixed contamination on packages and conveyances has been estimated. The study reveals that the limits on non-fixed contamination prescribed in the IAEA Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material and also adopted by the various other international and national regulations are adequate for ensuring that the potential radiation exposure of workers and public due to the presence of non-fixed contamination is not significant. Related work carried out by the researchers, which is reported in the CD-ROM supplied with this publication, provides useful leads for further work by researchers interested in estimating exposures from non-fixed contamination by a large variety of radionuclides.

Application of Isotopes to the Assessment of Pollutant Behaviour in the Unsaturated Zone for Groundwater Protection Final Report of a Coordinated Research Project 2004-2005

Application of Isotopes to the Assessment of Pollutant Behaviour in the Unsaturated Zone for Groundwater Protection Final Report of a Coordinated Research Project 2004-2005

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2005

This publication is based on the findings of a coordinated research project (CRP) and presents the results obtained from ten field sites, located under different climatic conditions, equipped with instrumentation to monitor and sample water and solute transport through the unsaturated zone. A number of isotope and hydrochemical tools have been used to study groundwater recharge and transport of pollutants in this zone. The information gained from these studies has led to a better understanding of flow and transport processes which is essential to assess the vulnerability of groundwater to contamination.

Prevention of the Inadvertent Movement and Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials

Prevention of the Inadvertent Movement and Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2005

This publication will primarily be of interest to customs, border police and other law enforcement bodies. It outlines the typical regulatory framework so that customs, police and other law enforcement staff are aware of the measures being taken to prevent loss of control. It also deals with the roles of customs, border police and other law enforcement bodies in the prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials.

Strengthening Control Over Radioactive Sources in Authorized Use and Regaining Control Over Orphan Sources National Strategies

Strengthening Control Over Radioactive Sources in Authorized Use and Regaining Control Over Orphan Sources National Strategies

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2005

The control of radioactive sources is a high visibility and high priority topic in contemporary society. Fatalities from orphan radioactive sources and the possible use of radioactive sources in radiological dispersal devices make it more important than ever that governments know about and have good control over radioactive sources within their territories, especially Category 1, 2 and 3 sources. This publication provides the necessary background and a systematic methodology for governments to evaluate how well they are controlling radioactive sources. Part I of the report provides details of the applications of radioactive sources and Part II describes the process for gathering information, performing an evaluation and then developing a prioritized national strategic action plan. Many examples of events involving sources are given as illustrations of the points discussed.

Methodology for the Assessment of Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles Report of Phase 1B (first part) of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) (Chine

Methodology for the Assessment of Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles Report of Phase 1B (first part) of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) (Chine

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2005

The main objectives of INPRO are to: help ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute towards fulfilling energy needs in the 21st century in a sustainable manner; and bring together both technology holders and technology users to consider jointly the international and national actions required to achieve desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles. Within INPRO the future energy demand and supply was explored and several scenarios were identified. The following requirement for energy supply will play a crucial role: sustainability of the way the energy supply will be realized. Fulfilling the growing need for energy in developing countries is also an important issue. On the basis of scenarios for the next fifty years, requirements for the different aspects of the future of nuclear energy systems, such as those on economics, environment, safety, waste, proliferation resistance and infrastructure, have been identified as well as a methodology developed to assess innovative nuclear systems and fuel cycles. On the basis of this assessment, the need for innovations in existing nuclear technology, to be achieved via research, development and demonstration, can be defined. To facilitate the deployment of innovative nuclear systems, different aspects of the infrastructure, technical as well as institutional, also have been reviewed, and recommendations for changes are made to anticipate the main developments worldwide, such as ongoing globalization.

Improvement of In-Service Inspection in Nuclear Power Plants

Improvement of In-Service Inspection in Nuclear Power Plants

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2004

This publication describes strategies for improving the effectiveness of in-service inspection (ISI). The role of ISI in maintaining or improving safety and the relationship of ISI improvement to cost are examined. The strategies for improving ISI effectiveness discussed in this publication consider the entire framework of ISI, including effective selection of the proper scope of inspection and the effectiveness of non-destructive examination as demonstrated through inspection qualification programmes. Improving the effectiveness of ISI in an economical and organized way requires adoption of a strategy that meets the specific objectives of each plant owner. Several such strategies are considered.

Calibracion de fuentes de fotones y rayos beta usadas en braquiterapia

Calibracion de fuentes de fotones y rayos beta usadas en braquiterapia

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2004

This publication discusses calibration techniques of the most commonly used gamma and beta ray brachytherapy sources. For Cs-137 low dose rate (LDR) source calibrations, the IAEA Dosimetry Laboratory maintains reference sources calibrated at a primary standards dosimetry laboratory. These sources can be used to calibrate well type ionization chambers maintained at the secondary standards dosimetry laboratories. In Section 7 of this report Cs-137 LDR calibrations are discussed in detail.

Response to Events Involving the Inadvertent Movement or Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials

Response to Events Involving the Inadvertent Movement or Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2004

The prime objective of this publication is to provide Member States with practical information for use by emergency response and law enforcement personnel involved in dealing with incidents of inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. The purpose of the response is to regain control of the relevant radioactive materials so that the risk of harm to people and the environment is mitigated.

Prevencion del desplazamiento involuntario y el trafico ilicito de materiales radiactivos

Prevencion del desplazamiento involuntario y el trafico ilicito de materiales radiactivos

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2004

This publication will primarily be of interest to customs, border police and other law enforcement bodies. It outlines the typical regulatory framework so that customs, police and other law enforcement staff are aware of the measures being taken to prevent loss of control. It also deals with the roles of customs, border police and other law enforcement bodies in the prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials.

Recent Developments in Uranium Resources and Production with Emphasis on In Situ Leach Mining

Recent Developments in Uranium Resources and Production with Emphasis on In Situ Leach Mining

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2004

In situ leach (ISL) mining of uranium involves injecting mild acidic or alkaline chemicals through surface boreholes into permeable, uranium-bearing sandstones. The chemicals dissolve the uranium, and the uranium-bearing solutions are pumped to the surface through a second set of boreholes. ISL mining of uranium totalled 6410 tonnes of uranium in 2002, and accounted for 18% of worldwide uranium production. Seven countries reported ISL production in 2002, and other countries are considering the potential for developing an ISL capability, as ISL has economic and environmental advantages for producing uranium from carefully selected deposits. This publication contains 26 papers on various aspects of ISL mining including the geology of ISL-amenable sandstone deposits, case histories of ISL production using leaching solutions of varying chemistry and finally post-mining rehabilitation of ISL projects. The papers were presented at a meeting held in Beijing, China, in 2002, attended by 59 scientists from 18 countries and one international organization (OECD/NEA). Attendees at the meeting also toured one of China's ISL operations, a description of which is included in this publication.

Respuesta a sucesos relacionados con el desplazamiento involuntario o el trafico ilicito de materiales radiactivos

Respuesta a sucesos relacionados con el desplazamiento involuntario o el trafico ilicito de materiales radiactivos

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2004

The prime objective of this publication is to provide Member States with practical information for use by emergency response and law enforcement personnel involved in dealing with incidents of inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. The purpose of the response is to regain control of the relevant radioactive materials so that the risk of harm to people and the environment is mitigated.

Deteccion de materiales radiactivos en las fronteras

Deteccion de materiales radiactivos en las fronteras

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2004

The purpose of this publication is to provide guidance for Member States for use by customs, police or other law enforcement bodies on the radiation monitoring of vehicles, people and commodities at border crossing facilities as a countermeasure to illicit trafficking and also to detect inadvertent movement of radioactive materials. Such monitoring may be one component of efforts towards finding radioactive materials that have been lost from control and which may enter a Member State.

Detection of Radioactive Materials at Borders

Detection of Radioactive Materials at Borders

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2004

The purpose of this publication is to provide guidance for Member States for use by customs, police or other law enforcement bodies on the radiation monitoring of vehicles, people and commodities at border crossing facilities as a countermeasure to illicit trafficking and also to detect inadvertent movement of radioactive materials. Such monitoring may be one component of efforts towards finding radioactive materials that have been lost from control and which may enter a Member State.

Incorporation of Advanced Accident Analysis Methodology into Safety Analysis Reports

Incorporation of Advanced Accident Analysis Methodology into Safety Analysis Reports

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2003

This publication complements Safety Report No. 23, Accident Analysis for Nuclear Power Plants, and presents additional guidance for specific application of advanced computer codes in accident analysis needed for the safety analysis reports. It provides an overview of available advanced computer codes for various technical disciplines relevant to reactor accidents and discusses the application of such codes for various categories of accidents.

Prevention of the Inadvertent Movement and Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials

Prevention of the Inadvertent Movement and Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2003

This publication will primarily be of interest to customs, border police and other law enforcement bodies. It outlines the typical regulatory framework so that customs, police and other law enforcement staff are aware of the measures being taken to prevent loss of control. It also deals with the roles of customs, border police and other law enforcement bodies in the prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials.

Prevention of the Inadvertent Movement and Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials

Prevention of the Inadvertent Movement and Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2003

This publication will primarily be of interest to customs, border police and other law enforcement bodies. It outlines the typical regulatory framework so that customs, police and other law enforcement staff are aware of the measures being taken to prevent loss of control. It also deals with the roles of customs, border police and other law enforcement bodies in the prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials.

Intercomparison of PIXE Spectrometry Software Packages

Intercomparison of PIXE Spectrometry Software Packages

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2003

During the year 2000, an exercise was organized to make a similar intercomparison of widely available software packages for analysis of particle induced X ray emission (PIXE) spectra. This publication describes the method used in this intercomparison exercise and presents the results obtained. It also gives a general overview of the participating software packages. No recommendation for a particular software package or method for spectrum analysis is given. It is intended that the readers reach their own conclusions and make their own choices, according to their specific needs. This publication will be useful to anyone involved in PIXE spectrum analysis. It includes a companion CD with the complete set of test spectra used for intercomparison. The test spectra on this CD can be used to test any PIXE spectral analysis software package.

Potential of Thorium Based Fuel Cycles to Constrain Plutonium and Reduce Long Lived Waste Toxicity

Potential of Thorium Based Fuel Cycles to Constrain Plutonium and Reduce Long Lived Waste Toxicity

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2003

This publication constitutes the final report of the Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Potential of Thorium-based Fuel Cycles to Constrain Plutonium and to Reduce Long-term Waste Toxicity initiated by the IAEA in 1995. The Member States participating in the CRP were: China, Germany, India, Israel, Japan, Republic of Korea, the Netherlands, Russian Federation, and the United States of America. The CRP examined the different fuel cycle options in which plutonium can be recycled with thorium to incinerate plutonium. The potential of the thorium matrix has been examined through computer simulations. Each participant had chosen their own cycle, and the different cycles are compared through certain predefined parameters (e.g., annual reduction of plutonium stockpiles). The radiotoxicity accumulation and the transmutation potential of thorium based cycles for current, advanced and innovative nuclear power reactors are investigated. The research programme was divided into three stages: (1) Benchmark calculations, (2) Optimization of the incineration of plutonium in various reactor types, (3) Assessment of the resulting impact on the waste radiotoxicity.

Guidance for the Evaluation of Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles Report of Phase 1A of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)

Guidance for the Evaluation of Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles Report of Phase 1A of the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO)

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2003

This publication reports on the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles, referred to as INPRO, which was initiated by the IAEA in 2000. The main objectives of INPRO are: to help to ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute to fulfilling energy needs in the 21st century in a sustainable manner; and to bring together both technology holders and technology users to consider jointly the international and national actions required to achieve desired innovations in nuclear reactors and fuel cycles.

Management of Disused Long Lived Sealed Radioactive Sources (LLSRS)

Management of Disused Long Lived Sealed Radioactive Sources (LLSRS)

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2003

This publication provides advice and technical know-how on the management of disused and spent long lived sealed radioactive sources (LLSRS). It also provides background material for possible technical assistance to developing countries and serves as a reference for technical staff involved with IAEA programmes on the subject.

Analysis of Differences in Fuel Safety Criteria for WWER and Western PWR Nuclear Power Plants

Analysis of Differences in Fuel Safety Criteria for WWER and Western PWR Nuclear Power Plants

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2003

This report captures the common features and differences between Western PWR and WWER fuel, and may serve as a general basis for the safety evaluation of these fuels. Therefore, it should be very beneficial for PWR and WWER licensing activities, as it focuses on the issues of importance for the review of fuel safety cases.

Review of National Accelerator Driven System Programmes for Partitioning and Transmutation

Review of National Accelerator Driven System Programmes for Partitioning and Transmutation

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2003

One of the current important issues of nuclear power is the long lived waste toxicity problem. A possible way to contribute towards solving this issue is given by the utilization and transmutation of minor actinides and long lived fission products. To this end, the combination of external intensive neutron sources with facilities containing nuclear fuel, so-called hybrid systems, is under investigation in several Member States. The surplus of neutrons in such systems may be used to convert most of the long lived radioactive nuclides into isotopes having a shorter lifetime. There clearly is a need for coordinating the efforts of the various groups involved in this R&D, and also for the exchange of information from nationally or internationally coordinated activities. Consideration of the advantages of hybrid systems, and the wide field of interdisciplinary areas of research involved, clearly shows the need for an international cooperation in this novel R&D area. This publication contains the proceedings of the Advisory Group Meeting on Review of National Accelerator Driven System (ADS) Programmes . The scope of the meeting included review of the current R&D programmes in the Member States, and the assessment of the progress in the development of hybrid concepts.

Safety Margins of Operating Reactors Analysis of Uncertainties and Implications for Decision Making

Safety Margins of Operating Reactors Analysis of Uncertainties and Implications for Decision Making

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2003

This publication deals with the basic concept of safety margins and their role in assuring safety of nuclear installations. It describes capabilities of thermal hydraulic computer codes used to determine safety margins, evaluation of uncertainties, methods for safety margin evaluation and utilization of safety margins in operation and modifications of nuclear power plants.

Combined Methods for Liquid Radioactive Waste Treatment

Combined Methods for Liquid Radioactive Waste Treatment

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2003

This publication provides a summary report of a Coordinated Research Project and individual reports of the project participants, compiling results of four years of investigation and development to identify and evaluate different options for combining treatment processes for liquid radioactive waste of complex compositions. The objective of the project was to identify, through the exchange of information and the results of experimental work, specific combined methods for liquid radioactive waste treatment and to define their applicability and efficiency for treatment of different waste streams.

Assessing Radiation Doses to the Public From Radionuclides in Timber and Wood Products

Assessing Radiation Doses to the Public From Radionuclides in Timber and Wood Products

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2003

In this publication, a generic methodology has been developed which can be used for both screening and specific level assessments of the dose to the public caused by industrial treatment and/or domestic use of wood contaminated with long lived radionuclides in natural conditions of areas historically affected by major radioactive releases. The methodology can be also applied to determine the long lived radionuclide activity concentrations in wood which would not result in public exposure exceeding appropriate radiological standards.

Consideration of External Events in the Design of Nuclear Facilities Other than Nuclear Power Plants, with Emphasis on Earthquakes

Consideration of External Events in the Design of Nuclear Facilities Other than Nuclear Power Plants, with Emphasis on Earthquakes

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2003

This publication aims to provide guidelines for the assessment of the safety of nuclear facilities other than NPPs in relation to external events through the application of simplified methods and procedures for their siting and design. The approach adopted is both simplified and conservative compared with that used for power reactors. It seeks to provide a rational balance for a suitable combination of sustainable effort in site investigations and refinement in design procedures, compatible with the assigned safety objectives, graded from those of NPPs. This publication is the successor to IAEA TECDOC 348 (1985), which focused on the seismic design of nuclear facilities with limited radioactive inventory. After some 17 years, new operational data have become available, sophisticated design methodologies are now more easily obtainable, and experts felt that the trade-off between sustainable investment in the facilities and design conservatism had to be redefined. The publication has been mainly developed for engineers, constructors and utilities, but it can be effectively applied also by regulatory bodies as a quick and conservative review tool.

Corrosion of Research Reactor Aluminium Clad Spent Fuel in Water

Corrosion of Research Reactor Aluminium Clad Spent Fuel in Water

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2003

A large variety of spent fuels from research reactors around the world are currently stored underwater in basins. Most of this fuel is clad in aluminium based alloys that are susceptible to corrosion in water. Studies have shown that the important problem of localized corrosion is a very complex phenomenon and difficult to predict. This publication documents a study of corrosion mechanisms and corrosion control on all types of aluminium clad research reactor spent fuel stored in water. It will contribute to the understanding of localized corrosion and serve as guidance to those faced with extending the interim wet storage of research reactor spent fuel.

Power Reactors and Sub-Critical Blanket Systems with Lead and Lead-Bismuth as Coolant and/or Target Material

Power Reactors and Sub-Critical Blanket Systems with Lead and Lead-Bismuth as Coolant and/or Target Material

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2003

This publication summarizes the results of the IAEA Advisory Group Meeting (AGM) on Design and Performance of Reactor and Sub-critical Blanket Systems with Lead and Lead-bismuth as Coolant and/or Target Material . Its purpose was to provide a forum for international information exchange on all the topics relevant to lead and lead-bismuth eutectic cooled critical and subcritical reactors. In addition, the AGM aimed at: (1) finding ways and means to improve international coordination efforts in this area; (2) obtaining advice from Member States with regard to the activities to be implemented in this area by the IAEA, in order to best meet their needs; and (3) laying out plans for effective coordination and support of the R&D activities in this area.

Response to Events Involving the Inadvertent Movement or Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials

Response to Events Involving the Inadvertent Movement or Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2003

The prime objective of this publication is to provide Member States with practical information for use by emergency response and law enforcement personnel involved in dealing with incidents of inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. The purpose of the response is to regain control of the relevant radioactive materials so that the risk of harm to people and the environment is mitigated.

Intervention en cas de detection de mouvements fortuits ou de trafic illicite de matieres radioactives

Intervention en cas de detection de mouvements fortuits ou de trafic illicite de matieres radioactives

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2003

The prime objective of this publication is to provide Member States with practical information for use by emergency response and law enforcement personnel involved in dealing with incidents of inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. The purpose of the response is to regain control of the relevant radioactive materials so that the risk of harm to people and the environment is mitigated.

Practices and Developments in Spent Fuel Burnup Credit Applications

Practices and Developments in Spent Fuel Burnup Credit Applications

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2003

Given a trend towards higher burnup power reactor fuel, the IAEA began an active programme in burnup credit (BUC) with major meetings in 1997 (TECDOC-1013) and 2000 (TECDOC-1241) exploring worldwide interest in using BUC in spent fuel management systems. This publication documents the proceedings of the IAEA's third major BUC meeting in Madrid in April 2002 on requirements, practices and developments in BUC applications. Fifty-four participants from 18 countries addressed validation of codes and methods, key issues, safety assessment and implementation, and future applications. This meeting encouraged the IAEA to continue its activities on burnup credit including dissemination of related information, given the number of Member States having to deal with increased quantities of spent fuel and extended durations.

Configuration Management in Nuclear Power Plants

Configuration Management in Nuclear Power Plants

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2003

Currently, the nuclear industry and governmental organizations are showing an increasing interest in the implementation of Configuration Management (CM) processes as an effective way for limiting configuration errors and related risks. In this report the necessary attributes of a good operational CM are identified. It is recognized and emphasized that CM is one aspect of the overall management system. Nevertheless, this is an important part of managerial activity focused on the compliance of knowledge of the plant personnel, plant documentation and records with the state of the plant technology. The concepts developed in this report present a basic approach to CM, taking into consideration experience gained from organizations and utilities which have successfully implemented partial or full CM programmes and from discussions at meetings organized by the IAEA on the subject.

Application of Simulation Techniques for Accident Management Training in Nuclear Power Plants

Application of Simulation Techniques for Accident Management Training in Nuclear Power Plants

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2003

This report describes simulation techniques used in the training of personnel involved in accident management of nuclear power plants (NPPs). This concerns both the plant personnel and the persons involved in the management of off-site releases. The report pertains to light water reactors and pressurized heavy water reactors, but it can equally be applied to power reactors of other types. The report is intended for use by experts responsible for planning, developing, executing or supervising the training of personnel involved in the implementation of accident management programmes in NPPs.

Practice Specific Model Regulations Radiation Safety of Non-Medical Irradiation Facilities

Practice Specific Model Regulations Radiation Safety of Non-Medical Irradiation Facilities

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2003

This publication provides organizations intending to purchase and operate industrial irradiation facilities with information and guidance regarding the design and safe operation of such facilities. It is not intended to repeat basic requirements such as those detailed in the Safety Standards. The set of model regulations is intended for use by both users and regulators. Registrants/licensees may choose to follow the guidance or may propose alternative measures that provide an equivalent level of protection and safety. Regulators can use the guidance for reviewing applications for authorization and during the inspection of facilities.

Selection of Efficient Options for Processing and Storage of Radioactive Waste in Countries with Small Amounts of Waste Generation

Selection of Efficient Options for Processing and Storage of Radioactive Waste in Countries with Small Amounts of Waste Generation

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2003

This publication will assist decision makers in countries using nuclear energy for non-power applications to organize their waste management practices. It describes methodologies, criteria and options for the selection of appropriate technologies forprocessing and storing radioactive waste generated by these applications. A review of both technical and non-technical factors important for decision making and planning, and for implementation of waste management activities at the country and facility levels are presented. Practical recommendations for the selection of particular technologies for different scales of waste generation are made.

Clean Laboratories and Clean Rooms for Analysis of Radionuclides and Trace Elements

Clean Laboratories and Clean Rooms for Analysis of Radionuclides and Trace Elements

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2003

This publication summarizes the requirements of clean laboratory environments, for construction materials as well as for materials used during routine analysis, maintenance, and pitfalls in the analysis of radionuclides and elements at trace- and ultra trace levels. Included are papers contributed by experts from India, the Netherlands, the United States of America and the IAEA Laboratories, Seibersdorf.

Managing Human Resources in the Nuclear Power Industry Lessons Learned

Managing Human Resources in the Nuclear Power Industry Lessons Learned

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2003

This publication is directed at senior and middle level managers in nuclear operating organizations. Its objectives are to facilitate the recognition of priority issues with respect to managing human resources, and to provide pragmatic ideas regarding improvements. If not managed effectively, the human resource issues addressed in this publication can result in significant performance problems at nuclear power plants.

Use of Computational Fluid Dynamics Codes for Safety Analysis of Nuclear Reactor Systems

Use of Computational Fluid Dynamics Codes for Safety Analysis of Nuclear Reactor Systems

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2003

With further progress in safety analysis techniques, the increasing use of three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes for nuclear applications is expected. The present publication constitutes the report of the joint IAEA and OECD/NEA technical meeting on the Use of CFD Codes for Safety Analysis of Reactor Systems, including Containment, held in Pisa, Italy, from 11 to 14 November 2002. It includes summaries of the presentations and of the discussions as well as conclusions and recommendations for further work. A CD containing the entire collection of papers is provided as a supplement to this report. CFD codes provide a unique tool for analysis of local phenomena and have a broad potential for qualitative assessment in areas in which traditional methods (lumped parameter or 1-D simulations) are inadequate. They contribute to a deeper understanding of flow physics, and thus lead to better designs at reduced cost and/or to more precisely quantified safety margins. In nuclear safety, CFD codes have a complementary role to play in combination with traditional system codes, particularly in those areas where multidimensional aspects are important. Combined applications, supported by proper experiments, may guarantee a more precise evaluation of safety margins.

Fuel Failure in Water Reactors Causes and Mitigation

Fuel Failure in Water Reactors Causes and Mitigation

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2003

The report presents the proceedings of a Technical Meeting on Fuel Failure in Water Reactors: Causes and Mitigation held in Bratislava, Slovakia in June 2002. Utility and fuel vendor experience in identification of fuel failure causes and on remedies implemented to reduce the number of fuel failures and/or to mitigate fuel failure impact on nuclear power plant operation is analysed and discussed in the report. Emphasis is given to the fuel failure events most frequently observed during the last decade, including grid-to-rod fretting and axial offset anomaly failures in PWRs and severe secondary failures in BWRs. The report also includes information on fuel failure mechanisms and recommendations for fuel failure rate decrease in the near future.

Earthquake Experience and Seismic Qualification by Indirect Methods in Nuclear Installations

Earthquake Experience and Seismic Qualification by Indirect Methods in Nuclear Installations

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2003

The objective of this TECDOC is to provide a technical background to help regulators, plant owners and designers in the definition, implementation and review of seismic qualification procedures for components and equipment, mainly for existing plants, consistent with the IAEA safety standards. Many engineering companies and utilities have developed their own methodologies for these purposes. A common feature of these approaches is that they rely to a large extent on engineering judgement and therefore the review and assessment of the qualification processes are sometimes rather difficult. This publication intends to provide information and recommendations for the improvement of the reliability of these procedures, for the understanding of their limitations and applicability, and for their optimal use.

Determining the Suitability of Materials for Disposal at Sea Under the London Convention 1972 A Radiological Assessment Procedure

Determining the Suitability of Materials for Disposal at Sea Under the London Convention 1972 A Radiological Assessment Procedure

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2003

Over the years the IAEA has provided advice to the Contracting Parties to the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter (London Convention 1972) on the definition of de minimis levels of specific activity, below which materials can be regarded as `non-radioactive' for the purpose of this Convention. The IAEA has prepared several documents elaborating the concept of de minimis for the benefit of the Contracting Parties. In 1999, the IAEA provided advice on the application of the principles of exclusion and exemption to sea disposal, which was adopted at the Contracting Parties' Twenty-first Consultative Meeting. At the same meeting, the Contracting Parties adopted guidelines, which interpret the IAEA's advice further and incorporate a Stepwise Evaluation Procedure to determine if candidate material can be designated as de minimis under the Convention. The final step in the Stepwise Evaluation Procedure involves a specific assessment to determine whether candidate materials for sea disposal contain de minimis levels of radioactivity. This publication has been prepared in response to a request by the Contracting Parties to the IAEA to provide additional guidance on how such specific assessments should be performed.

Detection of Radioactive Materials at Borders

Detection of Radioactive Materials at Borders

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2003

The purpose of this publication is to provide guidance for Member States for use by customs, police or other law enforcement bodies on the radiation monitoring of vehicles, people and commodities at border crossing facilities as a countermeasure to illicit trafficking and also to detect inadvertent movement of radioactive materials. Such monitoring may be one component of efforts towards finding radioactive materials that have been lost from control and which may enter a Member State.

Detection of Radioactive Materials at Borders

Detection of Radioactive Materials at Borders

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2003

The purpose of this publication is to provide guidance for Member States for use by customs, police or other law enforcement bodies on the radiation monitoring of vehicles, people and commodities at border crossing facilities as a countermeasure to illicit trafficking and also to detect inadvertent movement of radioactive materials. Such monitoring may be one component of efforts towards finding radioactive materials that have been lost from control and which may enter a Member State.

Prevention of the Inadvertent Movement and Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials

Prevention of the Inadvertent Movement and Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2002

This publication will primarily be of interest to customs, border police and other law enforcement bodies. It outlines the typical regulatory framework so that customs, police and other law enforcement staff are aware of the measures being taken to prevent loss of control. It also deals with the roles of customs, border police and other law enforcement bodies in the prevention of the inadvertent movement and illicit trafficking of radioactive materials.

Radionuclide Transport Dynamics in Freshwater Resources

Radionuclide Transport Dynamics in Freshwater Resources

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2002

Solutions for Cost Effective Assessment of Software Based Instrumentation and Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

Solutions for Cost Effective Assessment of Software Based Instrumentation and Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2002

The overall objective is to facilitate the cost-effective implementation of software-based I&C systems in nuclear power plants. This publication reports on the results of a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) and gives details of the experience gained in the areas of project management; requirements specifications; use of software explicitly tailored for nuclear applications, use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) systems, generic pre-qualification of systems and components; safety/reliability enhancements; verification and validation; and licensing impact.

Nuclear Power Plant Outage Optimisation Strategy

Nuclear Power Plant Outage Optimisation Strategy

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2002

Comparative Studies of Energy Supply Options in Poland for 1997-2020

Comparative Studies of Energy Supply Options in Poland for 1997-2020

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2002

Validation of Fast Reactor Thermomechanical and Thermohydraulic Codes

Validation of Fast Reactor Thermomechanical and Thermohydraulic Codes

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2002

This publication, arising from a Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP), describes the main results and recommendations. The work carried out by the research groups at the participating institutes within the CRP on harmonization and validation of fast reactor thermomechanical and thermohydraulic codes and relations is also included.

Thorium Fuel Utilization Options and Trends

Thorium Fuel Utilization Options and Trends

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2002

Response to Events Involving the Inadvertent Movement or Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials

Response to Events Involving the Inadvertent Movement or Illicit Trafficking of Radioactive Materials

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2002

The prime objective of this publication is to provide Member States with practical information for use by emergency response and law enforcement personnel involved in dealing with incidents of inadvertent movement or illicit trafficking of radioactive materials. The purpose of the response is to regain control of the relevant radioactive materials so that the risk of harm to people and the environment is mitigated.

Technical and Economic Limits to Fuel Burnup Extension

Technical and Economic Limits to Fuel Burnup Extension

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2002

Cost Drivers for the Assessment of Nuclear Power Plant Life Extension

Cost Drivers for the Assessment of Nuclear Power Plant Life Extension

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2002

Management of Spent High Activity Radioactive Sources (SHARS)

Management of Spent High Activity Radioactive Sources (SHARS)

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2002

This publication provides technical advice to those who need to manage disused and spent high activity sources and discusses relevant issues involved. It also provides background information for any possible technical assistance to be provided and serves as a reference for technical staff sent by the IAEA to provide advice to Member States.

Design Concepts of Nuclear Desalination Plants

Design Concepts of Nuclear Desalination Plants

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2002

Interest in using nuclear energy for producing potable water has been growing worldwide in the past decade. This publication presents material on the current status of nuclear desalination activities and preliminary design concepts of nuclear desalination plants, as made available to the IAEA by various Member States. This publication is aimed at planners, designers and potential end-users in those Member States interested in further assessment of nuclear desalination.

Development of Kits for Radioimmunometric Assays for Tumour Markers

Development of Kits for Radioimmunometric Assays for Tumour Markers

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2002

This publication focuses on the need for indigenous development of capabilities to produce reliable kits for radioimmunometric assays for Prostate Specific Antigen.

Effects of Radiation and Environmental Factors on the Durability of Materials in Spent Fuel Storage and Disposal

Effects of Radiation and Environmental Factors on the Durability of Materials in Spent Fuel Storage and Disposal

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2002

This is the second report that addresses results from the Co-ordinated Research Project on Irradiation Enhanced Degradation of Materials in Spent Fuel Storage Facilities. The first report is entitled Durability of Spent Nuclear Fuels and Storage Facility Components in Wet Storage, IAEA-TECDOC-1012. Because of the enhanced importance of wet storage, the scope of the first report was expanded to include both irradiated and unirradiated effects on fuels and facility materials. This second report addresses results of topical studies that are relevant to issues important to materials behaviour in wet storage technology but also involves topics on materials behaviour in dry storage and repository environments, including effects of radiation.

Inventory of Accidents and Losses at Sea Involving Radioactive Material

Inventory of Accidents and Losses at Sea Involving Radioactive Material

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2001

This publication describes the contends of the inventory of accidents and losses at sea involving radioactive material. It covers accidents and losses resulting in the actual release of radioactive materials into the marine environment and also those which have the potential for release. Records of radioactive materials involved in accidents, recovered intact from the sea, are also reported. Information on losses of sealed sources resulting in actual or potential release of activity to the marine environment and of sealed sources that were recovered intact is included.

Assessment and Management of Ageing of Major Nuclear Power Plant Components Important to Safety BWR Pressure Vessels Internals

Assessment and Management of Ageing of Major Nuclear Power Plant Components Important to Safety BWR Pressure Vessels Internals

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2000

The objective of this report is to identify significant ageing mechanisms and degradation locations, as well as to document current practices for the assessment and management of the ageing of boiling water reactor (BWR) pressure vessel internals (RPVIs). The report emphasizes safety aspects and also provides information on current inspections as well as on monitoring and mitigation practices for managing ageing of BWR RPVIs.

Biomonitoring of Atmospheric Pollution (with Emphasis on Trace Elements) BioMAP II

Biomonitoring of Atmospheric Pollution (with Emphasis on Trace Elements) BioMAP II

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2000

The publication contains papers presented at the Second International Workshop on Biomonitoring of Atmospheric Pollution (with emphasis on trace elements) - BioMAP II. There are 40 papers addressing goals and quality assessment of biomonitoring surveys, the applicability of bio-organisms in both qualitative and quantitative senses, response modelling, the use of multi-element analytical techniques, interpretation of results for specific pollutants, and the use of appropriate statistical tools for detailed data interpretation.

Advanced Methods of Process/Quality Control in Nuclear Reactor Fuel Manufacture

Advanced Methods of Process/Quality Control in Nuclear Reactor Fuel Manufacture

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2000

Generic Procedures for Assessment and Response during a Radiological Emergency

Generic Procedures for Assessment and Response during a Radiological Emergency

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2000

This manual provides the tools, generic procedures and data needed for initial response to different types of radiological emergency, including emergencies involving sealed and unsealed radioactive materials and radiation generators, and transport emergencies. It is intended for use by persons or groups who are responding to a radiological emergency. It explains the roles and responsibilities of the members of the generic response organization. The intention is that users of the manual will develop a better understanding of steps to be taken in a radiological emergency, in order to effectively achieve the goals of emergency response.

Emerging New Applications of Nucleonic Control Systems in Industry Systems in Industry

Emerging New Applications of Nucleonic Control Systems in Industry Systems in Industry

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2000