LoveReading

Becoming a member of the LoveReading community is free.

No catches, no fine print just unadulterated book loving, with your favourite books saved to your own digital bookshelf.

New members get entered into our monthly draw to win £100 to spend in your local bookshop Plus lots lots more…

Find out more

Books in the series: IAEA Nuclear Energy Series

Approaches for Overall Instrumentation and Control Architectures of Nuclear Power Plants

Approaches for Overall Instrumentation and Control Architectures of Nuclear Power Plants

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 09/08/2020

This publication concerns approaches for establishing the overall instrumentation and control (I&C) architecture of a nuclear power plant. It describes the characteristics and content of general I&C architectures, presents architectural principles and addresses the limitation of the potential effects of postulated common cause failures. It introduces an architectural development process and discusses technical considerations for the design. The publication emphasizes safety aspects, addresses the defence in depth concept, but also includes consideration of plant availability, operability and security. It recognizes the potential for adverse effects of I&C failures on plant availability and operability that may arise from increased architectural complexity, and also describes the optimization of I&C functionality and features that are required to be implemented.

Framework and Challenges for Initiating Multinational Cooperation for the Development of a Radioactive Waste Repository

Framework and Challenges for Initiating Multinational Cooperation for the Development of a Radioactive Waste Repository

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 07/08/2020

This publication is concerned with radioactive waste that requires geological disposal. It discusses the partnership arrangements necessary for the development of a multinational repository for disposal of this waste, but it also emphasizes that countries should not rely solely on a multinational solution and should in addition have coherent national plans for disposal (a dual track strategy). The publication focuses on multinational approaches based on the IAEA scenario for cooperation among countries in joint projects for the establishment of a shared geological repository. It describes the phased approach that would be needed, indicating the decision processes to be undertaken by partners in the multinational project, both within a national context and in the scope of the joint endeavour. It highlights a wide range of legal and institutional aspects, including the contractual obligations among partners, the economic and financial arrangements, liabilities, nuclear security, regulatory and legislative aspects, waste transportation arrangements, and social issues. It also addresses the uncertainties and risks involved in the implementation of a multinational repository.

INPRO Methodology for Sustainability Assessment of Nuclear Energy Systems: Environmental Impact of Stressors

INPRO Methodology for Sustainability Assessment of Nuclear Energy Systems: Environmental Impact of Stressors

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 07/08/2020

This publication provides guidance on assessing of sustainability of a nuclear energy system (NES) in the area of environmental impact of stressors. The INPRO methodology is a comprehensive tool for the assessment of sustainability of an NES. Basic principles, user requirements and criteria have been defined in different areas of the INPRO methodology. These include economics, infrastructure, waste management, proliferation resistance, environmental impact of stressors, environmental impact from depletion of resources, and safety of nuclear reactors and fuel cycle facilities. The ultimate goal of the application of the INPRO methodology is to check whether the assessed NES fulfils all the criteria, and hence the user requirements and basic principles, and therefore presents a system for a Member State that is sustainable in the long term.

Evaluation of the Status of National Nuclear Infrastructure Development

Evaluation of the Status of National Nuclear Infrastructure Development

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 07/08/2020

This publication provides a holistic approach to evaluate progress in the development of the nuclear power infrastructure based on the guidance contained in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series No. NG-G-3.1, Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power. It can be used by a Member State itself, wishing to evaluate its progress (self-evaluation), or as a basis for an integrated nuclear infrastructure review (INIR) mission. This revised version combines in one publication an explanation of the methodology and the evaluation tables, takes into account all new material and lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident, and presents the results of the INIR missions implemented between 2009 and 2014.

Managing the Financial Risk Associated with the Financing of New Nuclear Power Plant Projects

Managing the Financial Risk Associated with the Financing of New Nuclear Power Plant Projects

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 06/08/2020

Mitigation of the financial risks attendant on a nuclear power plant new build project is a key to ensuring project viability. This publication emphasizes how various risks - including those typically considered to be `engineering risks' - will give rise to such financial risks. It then introduces the linkage between efficient financial risk allocation/mitigation and the cost of capital, and sets out a range of mechanisms which can be used to manage and allocate risks efficiently, thereby minimizing the cost of capital and enhancing project economics. At a practical level the publication provides an insight into the concerns, modes of thinking, and language which a nuclear new-build proponent may expect to encounter within the financing community as they seek to develop their project.

Feasibility Study Preparation for New Research Reactor Programmes

Feasibility Study Preparation for New Research Reactor Programmes

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 05/08/2020

This publication describes the various elements to be included in a comprehensive, robust and logically structured feasibility study report for a new research reactor project. It provides guidance for the main supporting organization or team of a new research reactor to enable them to undertake an authoritative and comprehensive feasibility study that could be submitted to decision makers for their review in order to support proposals and endorse an action plan for construction of such a facility. It includes considerations of justification for a new research reactor, associated key nuclear infrastructure issues, cost-benefit analysis and risk management that would have to be addressed prior to authorizations for the establishment of a new research reactor. Addressing these issues will help Member States to develop a comprehensive understanding of all the roles, obligations and commitments involved in establishing and operating a research reactor and ensure that these are met during all phases of the project life cycle. The publication also includes a generic template for preparing a feasibility study report and provides some examples and lessons learned from individual Member States in preparing such studies.

Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems for new Facilities and Modernization of Existing Research Reactors

Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems for new Facilities and Modernization of Existing Research Reactors

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/07/2020

This publication draws on the results of a technical meeting which addressed key areas of modernization projects for instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in research reactors. The meeting provided a forum for international experts to exchange information on the technical and managerial aspects of I&C systems and modernisation projects specifically related to I&C and to discuss all technical areas relevant to the complex process of research reactor I&C system modernization and the use of digital I&C in new research reactor projects. The publication includes a summary of all papers and provides detailed guidance to research reactor operators intending on upgrading existing facilities from analogue to digital or older digital to newer digital technology, and to governments or agencies seeking to construct a new research facility with the latest digital I&C systems.

Uranium Geology, Exploration, Resources, Production and Related Activities, Volume 1

Uranium Geology, Exploration, Resources, Production and Related Activities, Volume 1

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/07/2020

This publication summarizes important information relating to uranium supply and demand and incorporates data from previous publications, as well as from the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP), and other publicly available information and government data which have been collected and reviewed by experts. It focuses on Africa and provides a comprehensive reference source for uranium geology, exploration, resources, production and related activities in 53 countries. It will be useful to decision makers at all levels, including but not limited to, government officers in energy and mineral resource fields, exploration companies, geologists, geological surveys, energy utilities, universities, research institutions, and natural resource authorities.

Uranium Geology, Exploration, Resources, Production and Related Activities, Volume 3

Uranium Geology, Exploration, Resources, Production and Related Activities, Volume 3

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/07/2020

This publication is part of a series that summarizes important information relating to uranium supply and demand and incorporates data from previous publications, as well as from the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP), and other publicly available information and government data which have been collected and reviewed by experts. This volume focuses on South-east Asia, the Pacific, and East Asia and provides a comprehensive reference source for uranium geology, exploration, resources, production and related activities in 18 countries. It will be useful to decision makers at all levels, including but not limited to, government officers in energy and mineral resource fields, exploration companies, geologists, geological surveys, energy utilities, universities, research institutions and natural resource authorities.

Uranium Geology, Exploration, Resources, Production and Related Activities, Volume 2

Uranium Geology, Exploration, Resources, Production and Related Activities, Volume 2

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/07/2020

This publication is part of a series that summarizes important information relating to uranium supply and demand and incorporates data from previous publications, as well as from the International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP), and other publicly available information and government data which have been collected and reviewed by experts. This volume focuses on Central, Eastern and South-eastern Europe and provides a comprehensive reference source for uranium geology, exploration, resources, production and related activities in 25 countries. It will be useful to decision makers at all levels, including but not limited to, government officers in energy and mineral resource fields, exploration companies, geologists, geological surveys, energy utilities, universities, research institutions and natural resource authorities.

Passive Shutdown Systems for Fast Neutron Reactors

Passive Shutdown Systems for Fast Neutron Reactors

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/07/2020

Designs for nuclear power plants increasingly include passive features. A major focus of the design of modern fast reactors is on inherent and passive safety. Inherent and passive safety features are especially important when active systems such as emergency shutdown systems for reactor shutdown are not functioning properly. This publication discusses the past experience in the development of such systems along with the research that is ongoing. It is a comprehensive publication which provides information on the basic design principles for passive shutdown systems and the related operational experience gathered so far, and also reviews the innovative concepts under development and the needs for research and development and qualification tests.

Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power (Russian Edition)

Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power (Russian Edition)

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/07/2020

The development and implementation of an appropriate infrastructure to support the successful introduction of nuclear power and its safe, secure, peaceful and sustainable application is an issue of central concern, especially for countries that are considering and planning their first nuclear power plant. In preparing the necessary nuclear infrastructure, there are several activities that need to be completed. These activities can be split into three progressive phases of development. This publication provides a description of the conditions expected to be achieved by the end of each phase to assist with the best use of resources. 'Milestones' refer to the conditions necessary to demonstrate that the phase has been successfully completed.

Initiating Nuclear Power Programmes

Initiating Nuclear Power Programmes

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/05/2020

The development of the infrastructure for a nuclear power programme includes the establishment of policies and strategies in areas such as human resource development, nuclear fuel cycle and waste management, industrial involvement and nuclear safety. It also requires the establishment of a legal and regulatory framework that creates an environment enabling the project to be implemented in a transparent and effective manner. These elements of this infrastructure will have an impact on the project and will guide the discussions of the future owner/operator with potential vendors. In this regard, it is important that the owner/operator, if already identified, participates in this process from the beginning. This publication provides guidance on the establishment and development of the owner/operator so that it can discharge its responsibilities throughout the phases of the programme. It also discusses the management of the interfaces between the owner/operator and other stakeholders.

International Safeguards in the Design of Enrichment Plants

International Safeguards in the Design of Enrichment Plants

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 28/02/2020

This publication is part of a series that aims to inform nuclear facility designers, vendors, operators and State governments about IAEA safeguards, and demonstrates how associated requirements can be considered early in the design phase of a new nuclear facility. This particular publication is applicable to the design and construction of commercial uranium enrichment plants. Safeguards by design dialogue undertaken early in the design and construction of enrichments plants facilitates the implementation of safeguards throughout all the lifecycle stages of the facility. The potential to reduce costs, avoid retrofits and achieve efficiencies both for the operator and for IAEA Member States are important drivers for the early consideration of safeguards in a nuclear facility design project.

International Safeguards in the Design of Reprocessing Plants

International Safeguards in the Design of Reprocessing Plants

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 28/02/2020

This publication is part of a series that aims to inform nuclear facility designers, vendors, operators and State governments about IAEA safeguards, and demonstrates how associated requirements can be considered early in the design phase of a new nuclear facility. This particular publication is applicable to the design of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Safeguards by design dialogue undertaken early in the design and construction of reprocessing plants, facilitates the implementation of safeguards throughout all the lifecycle stages of the facility. The potential to reduce costs, avoid retrofits and achieve efficiencies both for the operator and for IAEA Member States are important drivers for the early consideration of safeguards in a nuclear facility design project.

Developing Cost Estimates for Environmental Remediation Projects

Developing Cost Estimates for Environmental Remediation Projects

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 28/02/2020

This publication addresses costs arising during individual phases of an environmental remediation project, how they can be calculated, and how they can be structured and documented. It provides the methodology of cost estimation and includes examples of cost estimate models, development plans, cost elements and work breakdown structures. The guide also contains an overview of potentially suitable remediation technologies, which may help the reader to structure the options study.

Review of Fuel Failures in Water Cooled Reactors (2006-2015)

Review of Fuel Failures in Water Cooled Reactors (2006-2015)

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/01/2020

Since the 1970's, the IAEA has been involved in the analysis of fuel failures in water cooled reactors in normal (non-accident) operational conditions. This updated version of Nuclear Energy Series NF-T-2.1 provides information on all aspects of fuel failures in current nuclear power plant operations. It summarizes fuel failure occurrences, their mechanisms and root causes, as well as fuel failure prevention and management in plant operation for 97% of light and heavy water-cooled nuclear power units operated worldwide during the period 2006-2015. Data on fuel failures 1987-2006 extracted from three previous IAEA fuel failure reports are included and analysed in the present publication together with the 2006-2015 fuel failure data to reveal long-term tendencies in fuel performance. In addition to fuel rod leakers, fuel structural damages and other fuel assembly issues are considered in the report.

Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power (Arabic Edition)

Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power (Arabic Edition)

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/12/2019

The development and implementation of an appropriate infrastructure to support the successful introduction of nuclear power and its safe, secure, peaceful and sustainable application is an issue of central concern, especially for countries that are considering and planning their first nuclear power plant. In preparing the necessary nuclear infrastructure, there are several activities that need to be completed. These activities can be split into three progressive phases of development. This publication provides a description of the conditions expected to be achieved by the end of each phase to assist with the best use of resources. 'Milestones' refer to the conditions necessary to demonstrate that the phase has been successfully completed.

Guidance on Nuclear Energy Cogeneration

Guidance on Nuclear Energy Cogeneration

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/09/2019

Cogeneration, i.e. the production of electricity and heat, has proven to be a highly efficient and environmentally attractive option for energy conversion. Nuclear cogeneration could be considered as an option in light of actions on climate change. However, nuclear cogeneration is not widely deployed. This publication provides a quick introduction to the advantages, experience, and future planning for implementation of nuclear cogeneration. It also highlights some demonstration projects that were developed in the past in connection with industries, describing technical concepts for combined nuclear-industrial complexes. The publication is intended to be of interest to users in academia and industry as well as government agencies and public institutions requiring basic information on various aspects of using nuclear power for cogeneration.

Decommissioning after a Nuclear Accident: Approaches, Techniques, Practices and Implementation Considerations

Decommissioning after a Nuclear Accident: Approaches, Techniques, Practices and Implementation Considerations

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/08/2019

This publication describes differences in post-accident situations compared with normal decommissioning (i.e. decommissioning after a planned final shutdown) and identifies significant decision factors as applicable. It focuses on the on-site decommissioning aspects of a technical nature, which need to be addressed after a nuclear accident. Non-technical issues, such as policy and strategy, project planning, organization and management are also covered. The collection of experience on approaches, techniques, practices and implementation considerations is based on practical examples and lessons learned from past events, including the Fukushima Daiichi accident. Although the publication addresses decommissioning of nuclear power reactors after an accident, many aspects and considerations are also relevant for non-power nuclear facilities as well as legacy nuclear facilities.

Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power

Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/08/2019

The development and implementation of an appropriate infrastructure to support the successful introduction of nuclear power and its safe, secure, peaceful and sustainable application is an issue of central concern, especially for countries that are considering and planning their first nuclear power plant. In preparing the necessary nuclear infrastructure, there are several activities that need to be completed. These activities can be split into three progressive phases of development. This publication provides a description of the conditions expected to be achieved by the end of each phase to assist with the best use of resources. `Milestones' refer to the conditions necessary to demonstrate that the phase has been successfully completed.

Waste from Innovative Types of Reactors and Fuel Cycles

Waste from Innovative Types of Reactors and Fuel Cycles

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/08/2019

For reactors currently operating, the types of wastes expected to be generated under normal operating regime are known and, aside from a few problematic wastes (such as graphite, tritium and radiocarbon) most of these wastes have clearly defined cradle-to-grave (end-to-end) pathways. However, for advanced and innovative reactors and their fuel cycles, some waste types may either have new or different properties or might be problematic for processing with the currently available technologies. One of the primary challenges for advanced and innovative reactors and their nuclear fuel cycles is that solutions must be identified for all eventually problematic wastes prior to initiating construction of these facilities. This publication sets the stage for considering the waste generation of advanced fuel fabrication, reactor operation and decommissioning, reprocessing of spent fuel and waste pathways early in the development of new reactors and their associated fuel cycles. It describes waste flows in broad chemical and physical terms and identifies possible processing, recycling and disposition pathways. The publication is intended to support the nuclear industry in taking an early and integrated approach to waste managemen

Preventive Measures for Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control

Preventive Measures for Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/08/2019

This publication elaborates upon the recommendations given in IAEA Nuclear Security Series No. 15, Nuclear Security Recommendations on Nuclear and Other Radioactive Material out of Regulatory Control, in relation to preventative measures. It serves as a guidance document for Member States interested in strengthening their nuclear security regime as it relates to nuclear and other radioactive material out of regulatory control and in improving their capabilities. The publication covers the following indicative elements: general considerations for preventive measures; deterrence measures; including deterrence by punishment and deterrence by denial, information security; promotion of nuclear security culture; measures for addressing the insider threat, including measures to promote the trustworthiness of personnel. The last section of the publication provides guidance for international cooperation and assistance to strengthen preventive measures.

Options for Management of Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste for Countries Developing New Nuclear Power Programmes

Options for Management of Spent Fuel and Radioactive Waste for Countries Developing New Nuclear Power Programmes

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/03/2019

Many countries are considering the construction of their first nuclear power plant or the expansion of a small nuclear power programme, and some have limited experience in managing radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel. The present revised publication provides a concise summary of key issues related to the development of a sound radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel management system. It is intended to brief countries with small or newly established nuclear power programmes about the challenges of, and to describe current and potential alternatives for, managing reactor waste and spent fuel arising during operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants.

Technical Support to Nuclear Power Plants and Programmes

Technical Support to Nuclear Power Plants and Programmes

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/12/2018

This publication addresses relevant aspects of requesting and obtaining effective technical support (TS) and its adequate utilization in decision making on nuclear power programmes, projects and plants. It describes the TS functions and associated organizational activities and skills in providing technical and scientific input to the decisions on plant safety and performance throughout the plant's lifecycle and serves as a guidance for establishing and sustaining TS capability and capacity in Member States both embarking on nuclear power programmes and operating nuclear power plants. The publication also presents observations, lessons learned and conclusions drawn from good practices for defining and maintaining roles, responsibilities and interfacing requirements of technical support organizations (TSOs), nuclear power project/plant entities and other stakeholders. As such, it provides a set of descriptive and practiced processes that integrate technical and scientific information for safety, performance and economical aspects in support of sound and timely decisions on the safe, reliable and efficient operation of nuclear power plants.

Economic Assessment of the Long Term Operation of Nuclear Power Plants

Economic Assessment of the Long Term Operation of Nuclear Power Plants

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/12/2018

This publication describes the various approaches to the techno-economic assessment of a project for the long term operation of a nuclear power plant in its specific market environment. It examines the process of defining the technical scope required to prolong the operating licences of nuclear power plants and highlights the need for further studies on technical cost drivers and economic assessments in order to better define the cost boundaries of long term operation. Information is also provided on the new IAEA software LTOFIN, which was developed to assist in performing long term operation economic assessments within the process described in the publication.

Strategic Environmental Assessment for Nuclear Power Programmes

Strategic Environmental Assessment for Nuclear Power Programmes

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/12/2018

This publication provides practical guidance for performing strategic environmental assessments (SEAs) for nuclear power programmes. It incorporates the latest knowledge and draws on best practices in conducting SEAs. Based on inputs from SEA experts from across the world, it lays down an effective SEA process that contributes to: strengthening decision making for nuclear power programmes; achieving environmentally sound and sustainable development; and improving good governance and building public trust and confidence in decision-making. Importantly, SEA for nuclear power programmes can ensure effective communication with the public and other stakeholders. Consequently, significant emphasis is placed on stakeholder engagement and public participation. Further, appropriate tools for assessment and quality review are presented for all stages of the SEA process.

Buried and Underground Piping and Tank Ageing Management for Nuclear Power Plants

Buried and Underground Piping and Tank Ageing Management for Nuclear Power Plants

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/12/2018

This publication is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of the major nuclear power plant (NPP) components. It deals with buried and underground piping and tank systems that are included as part of an NPP and addresses potential ageing mechanisms, age related degradation, and ageing management as well as condition assessments for the material and components of such systems. The intended target audience for this publication are NPP owners, operators, designers, engineers and specialists.

Experimental Facilities in Support of Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Neutron Systems

Experimental Facilities in Support of Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Neutron Systems

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/12/2018

This publication presents both an overview and detailed information on more than 150 experimental facilities being used for developing and deploying innovative liquid metal-cooled (sodium, lead and lead-bismuth) fast neutron systems, both critical and subcritical. Facilities, both under construction and those in operation are considered. It is expected that by providing the end users with detailed information on existing and future experimental facilities able to support innovative liquid metal cooled fast neutron systems, the publication will facilitate cooperation between organizations and knowledge transfer. An overview of the existing and future experimental facilities is presented in the body text of this publication. The profiles of all facilities in the form of individual papers are available on the attached CD-ROM and in the related on-line database maintained by the IAEA Catalogue of Facilities in Support of Liquid Metal-cooled Fast Neutron Systems (LMFNS Catalogue).

Enhancing Benefits of Nuclear Energy Technology Innovation through Cooperation among Countries

Enhancing Benefits of Nuclear Energy Technology Innovation through Cooperation among Countries

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/12/2018

This publication provides a summary of the INPRO collaborative project on synergistic nuclear energy regional group interactions evaluated for sustainability. Benefits of nuclear technology innovation can be amplified through co-operation among countries in the nuclear fuel cycle. Nuclear energy sustainability can be enhanced, not only for technology holders but also for a variety of technology users, including those who do not pursue innovations in their home countries. If one partner in a synergistic collaboration is achieving enhanced sustainability, then the other partner(s) may achieve similar enhancement through collaboration without the requisite large national investments in technology, R&D and related infrastructure development. Within the publication, 28 case studies have been conducted by Member States to identify and evaluate mutually beneficial patterns of co-operation in the nuclear fuel cycle and the driving forces and impediments involved in such co-operation.

Accelerator Simulation and Theoretical Modelling of Radiation Effects (SMoRE)

Accelerator Simulation and Theoretical Modelling of Radiation Effects (SMoRE)

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/09/2018

This publication summarizes the findings and conclusions of the IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on accelerator simulation and theoretical modelling of radiation effects, aimed at supporting Member States in the development of advanced radiation resistant structural materials for implementation in innovative nuclear systems. This aim can be achieved through enhancement of both experimental neutron-emulation capabilities of ion accelerators and improvement of the predictive efficiency of theoretical models and computer codes. This dual approach is challenging but necessary, because outputs of accelerator simulation experiments need adequate theoretical interpretation, and theoretical models and codes need high dose experimental data for their verification. Both ion irradiation investigations and computer modelling have been the specific subjects of the CRP, and the results of these studies are presented in this publication which also includes state-of-the-art reviews of four major aspects of the project: challenges and trends of structural materials development for present and future reactor designs, accelerator methodologies for material testing, multiscale modelling tools, and advanced examination techniques.

Maintenance Optimization Programme for Nuclear Power Plants

Maintenance Optimization Programme for Nuclear Power Plants

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2018

This publication deals with the latest nuclear power plant maintenance optimization programmes and provides key requirements and strategies for successful implementation. It documents shared proven maintenance optimization methods and techniques from Member States, including more detailed examples in the annexes of this publication.

Commissioning Guidelines for Nuclear Power Plants

Commissioning Guidelines for Nuclear Power Plants

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2018

Commissioning is one of the key steps towards putting into service a new nuclear facility, or a new system, structure or component within an existing facility. Commissioning activities need to be planned early in the design and procurement process, with careful consideration of eventual acceptance criteria and test methods. This publication describes commissioning in its basic form, the commissioning process specific to nuclear power plants (NPPs), the relevant management system requirements, typical organizational models and critical human resources issues. It also provides details on experience and lessons learned obtained in IAEA Member States. The publication will be of use to all stakeholders involved in the commissioning of NPPs, including owner operators, contractors, engineers, regulatory bodies and vendors.

International Safeguards in the Design of Facilities for Long Term Spent Fuel Management

International Safeguards in the Design of Facilities for Long Term Spent Fuel Management

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2018

This publication is the fifth in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series to provide guidance on the inclusion of safeguards in nuclear facility design and construction. It is principally intended for designers and operators of facilities for long term spent fuel; however, vendors, national authorities and financial backers can also benefit from the information provided. The publication complements the general considerations addressed in International Safeguards in Nuclear Facility Design and Construction, IAEA Nuclear Energy Series No. NP-T-2.8.

Industrial Safety Guidelines for Nuclear Facilities

Industrial Safety Guidelines for Nuclear Facilities

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/05/2018

These IAEA guidelines on industrial safety for nuclear facilities are co-sponsored by the International Labour Organization. Specific review of industrial safety practices at nuclear plants have been part of the IAEA OSART (Operational Safety Review Team) missions for decades, and supplementary guidance for such reviews has been available since 1990. This publication presents the latest good practices that nuclear organizations have put into place to implement high quality industrial safety programmes.

Establishing the Nuclear Security Infrastructure for a Nuclear Power Programme (French)

Establishing the Nuclear Security Infrastructure for a Nuclear Power Programme (French)

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/04/2018

This publication provides guidance on the actions to be taken by a State in implementing an effective nuclear security infrastructure for a nuclear power programme. The topics covered are: development of national policy and strategy; common nuclear security measures; infrastructure issues relating to nuclear and other radioactive material; associated facilities; and cooperation with other States. The guidance provided is intended primarily for use by national policy makers, national legislators, competent authorities, institutions and individuals involved in the establishment, implementation, maintenance or sustainability of the nuclear security infrastructure for a nuclear power programme.

Research Reactors for Development of Materials and Fuels for Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems

Research Reactors for Development of Materials and Fuels for Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/01/2018

This publication presents an overview of research reactor capabilities and capacities in the development of fuels and materials for innovative nuclear reactors, such as GenIV reactors. The compendium provides comprehensive information on the potential for materials and fuel testing research of 30 research reactors, both operational and in development. This information includes their power levels, mode of operation, current status, availability and historical overview of their utilization. A summary of these capabilities and capacities is presented in the overview tables of section 6. Papers providing a technical description of the research reactors, including their specific features for utilization are collected as profiles on a CD-ROM and represent an integral part of this publication. The publication is intended to foster wider access to information on existing research reactors with capacity for advanced material testing research and thus ensure their increased utilization in this particular domain. It is expected that it can also serve as a supporting tool for the establishment of regional and international networking through research reactor coalitions and IAEA designated international centres based on research reactors.

Non-Baseload Operations in Nuclear Power Plants

Non-Baseload Operations in Nuclear Power Plants

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/01/2018

This publication aims to address all relevant aspects of flexible (non-baseload) operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs) specifically focusing on changing electrical output to match the electrical demand and to control the frequency of the electrical system. It provides collective guidance based on current knowledge and operational experience, for the decision making, preparation and implementation of flexible operation for Member States who are considering future flexible operations of their NPPs.

Opportunities for Cogeneration with Nuclear Energy

Opportunities for Cogeneration with Nuclear Energy

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/01/2018

This publication presents a comprehensive overview of various aspects relating to the application of cogeneration with nuclear energy, which may offer advantages such as increased efficiency, better cost effectiveness, and reduced environmental impact. The publication provides details on experiences, best practices and expectations for the foreseeable future of cogeneration with nuclear power technology and serves as a guide that supports newcomer countries. It includes information on systems and applications in various sectors, feasibility aspects, technical and economic details, and case studies.

Instrumentation and Control Systems for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

Instrumentation and Control Systems for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/01/2018

This publication emphasizes the key cross cutting technological issues associated with instrumentation and control systems and human system interfaces that arise from the specific behaviour and operational characteristics of advanced small modular reactors (SMRs). It is intended to assist Member States in understanding current knowledge, practices, design and architecture, implementation, operating and maintenance related aspects with I&C systems in SRMs, as well as for discussing the challenges and issues that need to be resolved in this field in the first phases of design and implementation by Member States active in SMR development.

International Safeguards in the Design of Fuel Fabrication Plants

International Safeguards in the Design of Fuel Fabrication Plants

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/01/2018

This publication is the third in a series from the IAEA that provides guidance on the early consideration of safeguards requirements in the design and construction of nuclear facilities. It is principally intended for designers and operators of nuclear fuel fabrication facilities; however, vendors, state authorities and investors may also benefit from the information provided. This guidance is introductory rather than comprehensive; more detailed information on IAEA safeguards implementation can be found in the Guidance for States Implementing Comprehensive Safeguards Agreements and Additional Protocols , IAEA Services Series No. 21 , May 2016 and other publications in that series. This publication expands upon the general considerations addressed in International Safeguards in Nuclear Facility Design and Construction , IAEA Nuclear Energy Series No. NP-T-2.8 , April 2013.

Industrial Involvement to Support a National Nuclear Power Programme

Industrial Involvement to Support a National Nuclear Power Programme

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 08/05/2017

This publication, an update of Technical Reports Series No. 281, provides guidance in making the many considerations and decisions involved in preparing national industrial organizations for participation in a nuclear power programme, including those that will participate in the construction and commissioning of the first nuclear power plant units. Roles and responsibilities of government, industry, utility and other stakeholders are detailed.

Strategic Planning for Research Reactors

Strategic Planning for Research Reactors

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/04/2017

This publication is a revision of IAEA-TECDOC-1212 which primarily focused on enhancing the utilization of existing research reactors. This updated version also provides guidance on how to develop and implement a strategic plan for a new research reactor project and will be of particular interest for organizations which are preparing a feasibility study to establish such a new facility. This publication will enable managers to determine more accurately the actual and potential capabilities of an existing reactor, or the intended purpose and type of a new facility. At the same time, management will be able to match these capabilities to stakeholders/users' needs and establish the strategy of meeting such needs. In addition, several annexes are presented, including some examples as clarification to the main text and ready-to-use templates as assistance to the team drafting a strategic plan.

In Situ Leach Uranium Mining

In Situ Leach Uranium Mining

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 19/01/2017

In situ leach or leaching (ISL) or in situ recovery (ISR) mining has become one of the standard uranium production methods. Its application to amenable uranium deposits (in certain sedimentary formations) has been growing in view of its competitive production costs and low surface impacts. This publication provides an historical overview and shows how ISL experience around the world can be used to direct the development of technical activities, taking into account environmental considerations, and emphasizing the economics of the process, including responsible mine closure. The publication provides information on how to design, operate and regulate current and future projects safely and efficiently, with a view to maximizing performance and minimizing negative environmental impact.

Development of Knowledge Portals for Nuclear Power Plants

Development of Knowledge Portals for Nuclear Power Plants

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/12/2016

This publication supports earlier IAEA publications on knowledge management in proposing guidelines for the development of a knowledge portal for nuclear power plants (NPPs), and covers the main design principles and the typical content of such a knowledge portal. The information provided is based upon actual experiences of NPP operating organizations in Member States as well as of other related industries.

Procurement Engineering and Supply Chain Guidelines in Support of Operation and Maintenance of Nuclear Facilities

Procurement Engineering and Supply Chain Guidelines in Support of Operation and Maintenance of Nuclear Facilities

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 07/11/2016

Procurement must be effectively managed to ensure availability of design functions throughout a nuclear facility's service life. Ineffective control of procurement process can jeopardize facility safety, reduce reliability, or can result in increased costs to operating organizations. This publication provides an overview of nuclear procurement processes, issues of special concern, and provides guidance for good practices to set up and manage a high-quality procurement organization. Lessons learned for organizations considering new build nuclear projects are also included.

Building a National Position for a New Nuclear Power Programme

Building a National Position for a New Nuclear Power Programme

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 28/06/2016

This publication provides guidance to countries seeking to establish a national position on the introduction or re-establishment of a nuclear power programme. It provides direction to political decision makers, energy experts, and other stakeholders about the process for establishing a national position as countries prepare national nuclear energy policies. It also helps embarking countries to build a consistent and durable national position for nuclear power on the basis of sound energy planning and greater public involvement in order to maintain the country's long term commitment, regardless of possible political changes in a country.

Nuclear Accident Knowledge Taxonomy

Nuclear Accident Knowledge Taxonomy

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 24/05/2016

There is a need to categorize and structure knowledge related to nuclear accidents. Development of the structure is challenging unless conducted with consideration of the experience of people who were involved in the accidents. In order to support those activities, the IAEA has taken a leading role to assist in the development of a knowledge organization system and associated taxonomy for nuclear accident knowledge domain, which could be implemented and applied by Member States' nuclear organizations. This publication is intended to support Member State activity in managing knowledge from serious nuclear accidents, providing a description of knowledge organization system features, information about the developed system taxonomy, and details on the methodology to organize knowledge in this area.

Knowledge Management and Its Implementation in Nuclear Organizations

Knowledge Management and Its Implementation in Nuclear Organizations

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 10/05/2016

The IAEA's nuclear knowledge management activities provide guidance in knowledge management and assist in transferring and preserving knowledge, exchanging information, establishing and supporting cooperative networks and in training the next generation of nuclear experts. This publication shares best practices and experiences based on the knowledge management assist visit programme undertaken by IAEA expert teams during the period 2005-2013. These visits have involved different types of organizations, including nuclear power plants, nuclear R&D organizations and nuclear based educational establishments such as universities. Based on the records of these visits, a secondary aim of this publication is to provide feedback and recommendations for future development of the assessment tool(s) and participating organizations for improving future assistance.

Managing the Unexpected in Decommissioning

Managing the Unexpected in Decommissioning

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 26/04/2016

This publication explores the implications of decommissioning in the light of unexpected events and the trade-off between activities to reduce them and factors militating against any such extra work. It classifies and sets out some instances where unexpected findings in a decommissioning programme led to a need to either stop, or reconsider the work, re-think the options, or move forward on a different path. It provides practical guidance in planning and management of decommissioning taking into account unexpected events. This guidance includes an evaluation of the experience and lessons learned in tackling decommissioning that is often neglected. Thus it will enable future decommissioning teams to adopt the relevant lessons to reduce additional costs, time delays and radiation exposures.

Advancing Implementation of Decommissioning and Environmental Remediation Programmes

Advancing Implementation of Decommissioning and Environmental Remediation Programmes

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 26/04/2016

Despite significant progress having been achieved in recent years, much remains to be done in terms of addressing the legacies from the early development of nuclear energy, including the dismantling of redundant research and fuel cycle facilities, research reactors and power plants, and the remediation of sites affected by past uranium mining and processing operations. Some countries are moving forward with dealing with these legacies, and accordingly have built up appropriate technical resources and expertise, but many national programmes still face very significant challenges. This publication discusses the barriers that prevent the implementation of decommissioning and environmental remediation (D&ER) projects and provides potential solutions to overcome the identified barriers and thereby facilitates a better implementation of D&ER programmes.

Modelling Nuclear Energy Systems with MESSAGE

Modelling Nuclear Energy Systems with MESSAGE

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/03/2016

Assessing nuclear energy transition scenarios requires appropriate modelling tools. The IAEA tool, Model for Energy Supply System Alternatives and their General Environmental Impacts (MESSAGE), is described in this publication. The tool simulates the development of a complete energy system and provides a convenient platform for modelling and analysing nuclear energy systems (NESs), as it can efficiently model nuclear technologies with their specific features. Among other things, the tool can help produce a description of an entire NES with time dependent parameters for long-term planning; confirm the feasibility of a NES through correlation and consistency of all NES components, taking into account all constraints and boundary conditions imposed on the system; and balance fissile material in a closed fuel cycle and determine fuel cycle requirements. In addition, it assists the user in the choice of alternatives by comparison of different options relating to fuel requirements and volume and toxicity of waste. The publication provides a detailed guidance on how to build mathematical models representing complex nuclear energy systems within the framework of the MESSAGE tool.

Ageing Management of Concrete Structures in Nuclear Power Plants

Ageing Management of Concrete Structures in Nuclear Power Plants

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 01/03/2016

This publication is one in a series of reports on the assessment and management of ageing of major nuclear power plant (NPP) components. Current practices for assessment of safety margins (fitness for service) and inspection, monitoring and mitigation of ageing related degradation of selected concrete structures related to NPPs are documented. Implications for and differences in new reactor designs are discussed. This information is intended to help all involved directly and indirectly in ensuring the safe operation of NPPs, and also to provide a common technical basis for dialogue between plant operators and regulators when dealing with age related licensing issues.

Application of Field Programmable Gate Arrays in Instrumentation and Control Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

Application of Field Programmable Gate Arrays in Instrumentation and Control Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 10/02/2016

Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are gaining increased attention worldwide for application in nuclear power plant (NPP) instrumentation and control (I&C) systems, particularly for safety and safety related applications, but also for non-safety ones. NPP operators and equipment suppliers see potential advantages of FPGA based digital I&C systems as compared to microprocessor based applications. This is because FPGA based systems can be made simpler, more testable and less reliant on complex software (e.g. operating systems), and are easier to qualify for safety and safety related applications. This publication results from IAEA consultancy meetings covering the various aspects, including design, qualification, implementation, licensing, and operation, of FPGA based I&C systems in NPPs.

INPRO Methodology for Sustainability Assessment of Nuclear Energy Systems

INPRO Methodology for Sustainability Assessment of Nuclear Energy Systems

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2015

INPRO is an international project to help ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute in a sustainable manner to meeting the energy needs of the 21st century. A basic principle of INPRO in the area of environmental impact from depletion of resources is that a nuclear energy system will be capable of contributing to the energy needs in the 21st century while making efficient use of non-renewable resources needed for construction, operation and decommissioning. Recognizing that a national nuclear energy programme in a given country may be based both on indigenous resources and resources purchased from abroad, this publication provides background materials and summarizes the results of international global resource availability studies that could contribute to the corresponding national assessments.

Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power

Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2015

The development and implementation of an appropriate infrastructure to support the successful introduction of nuclear power and its safe, secure, peaceful and efficient application is an issue of central concern, especially for countries that are considering and planning their first nuclear power plant. In preparing the necessary nuclear infrastructure there are several activities that need to be completed. These activities can be split into three progressive phases of development. In order to assist with the best use of resources, a description of the conditions which would be expected to be achieved by the end of each phase is provided. The term milestones refers to the conditions necessary to demonstrate that the phase has been successfully completed. This publication can be used by Member States to assess their own development status and to prioritize the activities that they need to complete in order to prepare to order, license, construct and then operate a nuclear power plant.

Role of Thorium to Supplement Fuel Cycles of Future Nuclear Energy Systems

Role of Thorium to Supplement Fuel Cycles of Future Nuclear Energy Systems

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2012

The investigation of the thorium fuel cycle is a collaborative INPRO (International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles) activity within the main area of global vision of sustainable nuclear energy for the 21st century. The current publication reports on the sustainability of nuclear power by re-examining the potential of thorium based fuel cycles to support future large scale deployment of nuclear energy systems by increasing the availability of nuclear material. Special attention is paid to the thorium fuel cycle from the point of view of economics and proliferation resistance.

Project Management in Nuclear Power Plant Construction

Project Management in Nuclear Power Plant Construction

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 01/02/2012

Project management is a leadership function primarily concerned with the organization, coordination and control of large undertakings, with the aim of achieving technical excellence by working to quality standards, optimizing the schedule and the supply chain, and minimizing costs. Competent project management can reduce costs through more efficient work sequences, higher productivity, shorter activity durations and the parallel reduction of accumulated interest during construction of nuclear power plants. Based on past proven practices in Member States, this publication provides guidance on project management from the preparatory phase to plant turnover to commissioning of nuclear power plants. The guidelines and experiences described will enable project managers to obtain better performance in nuclear power plant construction.

Radioactive Waste Management Objectives

Radioactive Waste Management Objectives

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2011

This publication describes what must be considered and achieved to satisfy the IAEA Nuclear Energy Basic Principles (NE-BP) in the area of radioactive waste management. These objectives are intended to provide a framework for the design of programmes relating to radioactive waste management technology and a basis for the development of guidelines on radioactive waste management, decommissioning and environmental remediation.

Introduction to the Use of the INPRO Methodology in a Nuclear Energy System Assessment

Introduction to the Use of the INPRO Methodology in a Nuclear Energy System Assessment

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2011

The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) is an international project to help insure that nuclear energy is available to contribute in a sustainable manner to meeting the energy needs of the 21st century. This publication was prepared to ease the application of the INPRO methodology, an IAEA tool that assists Member States in strategic planning and decision making on nuclear power programmes. It provides an overview of the methodology and recommendations on how to perform a nuclear energy system assessment using it. Different users of the INPRO methodology are addressed: nuclear technology developers, experienced nuclear technology users and prospective first time users of nuclear power technology.

Status of Developments in the Back End of the Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle

Status of Developments in the Back End of the Fast Reactor Fuel Cycle

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2011

Closed fuel cycle schemes in combination with fast reactors are emerging as the key strategy for sustainable development of nuclear energy. Back end fuel cycles for fast reactors and thermal reactors mainly differ with respect to reprocessing operations. This publication highlights emerging innovations and R&D needs for the back end of the fast reactor fuel cycle, with an emphasis on the reprocessing of spent mixed uranium and plutonium based ceramic and metallic fuels. The publication has been prepared in collaboration with experts from Member States and will serve as a useful resource for nuclear scientists and engineers involved in fast reactor fuel development as well as reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel for sodium cooled fast reactors.

Status and Trends in Nuclear Education

Status and Trends in Nuclear Education

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2011

The development of policies and strategies in nuclear education plays an essential role with regard to facilitating sustainable education and training in nuclear science and technology. This publication supports the development of such policies and strategies. In its first part it provides a general overview of activities regarding nuclear knowledge management, nuclear education, and national and regional needs and expectations. The second part presents detailed country reports on the status of nuclear education in Member States. These country reports also address partnerships between educational institutions and the nuclear industry, as well as cooperation with government and research organizations. Best practices in nuclear education and recommendations are consolidated in an introductory chapter, which could be useful for easy benchmarking, improvements and formulating strategies.

Impact of High Burnup Uranium Oxide and Mixed Uranium-Plutonium Oxide Water Reactor Fuel on Spent Fuel Management

Impact of High Burnup Uranium Oxide and Mixed Uranium-Plutonium Oxide Water Reactor Fuel on Spent Fuel Management

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2011

This publication examines the many aspects of the increased use of high burnup uranium oxide (UOX) and mixed oxide (MOX) fuel, and its potential impact on spent fuel management as well as on the whole nuclear industry. It discusses reactor types, with emphasis on light water reactor (LWR) and heavy water reactor (HWR) technology, considers the current state of UOX and MOX worldwide, provides information on the various fuel and cladding types and spent fuel management components, and elaborates on the characteristics of spent fuel related to higher burnup UOX and MOX fuels, followed by a detailed analysis. The publication also identifies areas for future research and development.

Selection and Use of Performance Indicators in Decommissioning

Selection and Use of Performance Indicators in Decommissioning

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2011

This publication provides guidance for application to decommissioning projects. It is structured in order to take the reader progressively through all aspects of designing, selecting and using performance indicators. A process for setting up a performance indicator system against basic principles is presented, including a discussion of each step in the process. Finally, practical guidance on the use of performance indicators in specific Member States is provided alongside field experience. While the advice is primarily for use by decommissioning project managers, its value will also be in improving the project information provided to stakeholders such as regulators and other interested groups.

Nuclear Energy General Objectives

Nuclear Energy General Objectives

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2011

This publication describes what must be considered and achieved to satisfy the IAEA Nuclear Energy Basic Principles in the area of general nuclear issues, which include: energy systems analysis and development of strategies for nuclear energy, economics, infrastructure, management systems, human resources, and knowledge management. The objectives were developed through collaboration with, and advice from, participants and Member States in multiple technical meetings, committee meetings and conventions.

Introduction to the Use of the INPRO Methodology in a Nuclear Energy System Assessment

Introduction to the Use of the INPRO Methodology in a Nuclear Energy System Assessment

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2011

The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) is an international project to help insure that nuclear energy is available to contribute in a sustainable manner to meeting the energy needs of the 21st century. This publication was prepared to ease the application of the INPRO methodology, an IAEA tool that assists Member States in strategic planning and decision making on nuclear power programmes. It provides an overview of the methodology and recommendations on how to perform a nuclear energy system assessment using it. Different users of the INPRO methodology are addressed: nuclear technology developers, experienced nuclear technology users and prospective first time users of nuclear power technology.

Good Practices for Water Quality Management in Research Reactors and Spent Fuel Storage Facilities

Good Practices for Water Quality Management in Research Reactors and Spent Fuel Storage Facilities

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2011

Excellent water quality in research reactors and spent fuel wet storage facilities is essential to prevent degradation of research reactor components and aluminium clad fuel elements, and to achieve optimum storage performance. A lot of information is available in the open literature on this subject but no comprehensive document addressing the rationale of water quality management in research reactors has been published so far. This publication is intended to fill this gap by providing a comprehensive catalogue of good practices for management of water quality. It is intended to assist research reactor managers and operators in implementing water quality programmes in their facilities. Once implemented, such programmes will help to improve the performance of the reactor, provide natural life extension and minimize corrosion in both research reactor internals and spent fuel cladding in wet storage facilities, thus maintaining its integrity and safety until the spent fuel can be moved to a dry storage facility,or is submitted for final disposal or reprocessing.

Construction Technologies for Nuclear Power Plants

Construction Technologies for Nuclear Power Plants

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2011

This publication serves as a guide to the tools and steps that support plans for constructing nuclear power plants, and, consequently, improve technical and management skills. It details information on the conventional and recently introduced advanced techniques and methods being used in different aspects of the construction phase of a project, both in the nuclear industry and in non-nuclear industries.

The Management System for the Development of Disposal Facilities for Radioactive Waste

The Management System for the Development of Disposal Facilities for Radioactive Waste

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2011

This publication addresses management system requirements, planning, and establishment of management system procedures and methodologies relevant to the development (design/construction), operation and/or upgrading of disposal facilities. This basic information is useful in the planning and implementation of a comprehensive management programme for all activities and processes that take place during the life cycle of a repository, and can contribute to building public confidence and acceptance of disposal facilities. The publication complements the recent IAEA Safety Guide on the management system for the disposal of radioactive waste, expanding it to the design, construction and operational stages.

Comparative Analysis of Methods and Tools for Nuclear Knowledge Preservation

Comparative Analysis of Methods and Tools for Nuclear Knowledge Preservation

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2011

This publication draws on the results of a coordinated research project on comparative analysis of methods and tools for knowledge preservation in nuclear organizations. The project was initiated by the IAEA in order to enhance the capacity of Member States to maintain and preserve the information and knowledge resources related to the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. The project participants explored methods and tools used to capture, interpret, analyse and disseminate data and information, as well as the knowledge ultimately derived from them. Furthermore, a survey tool on the current status of knowledge preservation in nuclear and supporting organizations was developed. The analysis of the survey served as a basis for the recommendations and conclusions on good practices in knowledge preservation.

Stress Corrosion Cracking in Light Water Reactors

Stress Corrosion Cracking in Light Water Reactors

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2011

The average operating age of existing nuclear power plants is increasing and safety and performance of these ageing plants must be achieved by effectively managing material degradations within an acceptable level. Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) is a significant material degradation for major components of both pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and boiling water reactors (BWRs), and is still an important outstanding technical issue. This publication provides general descriptions of degradation mechanisms of different types of SCC which are concerned with systems, structures and components in PWRs and BWRs. It includes examples of good practices in preventing, mitigating and repairing SCC damage and summarizes related national and international research and development programmes. Practical operational experience and practices in Member States are also presented in this overview.

Stakeholder Involvement Throughout the Life Cycle of Nuclear Facilities

Stakeholder Involvement Throughout the Life Cycle of Nuclear Facilities

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2011

Involving interested parties in every stage of the life cycle of nuclear facilities is essential to enhance mutual trust on issues related to nuclear energy production. Beyond the groups traditionally involved in the decision making process, such as the nuclear industry, scientific bodies and relevant national and local governmental institutions, the concept of stakeholders also includes the media, the public, local communities and non-governmental organizations. Often questioning former communication practices, the information and participation of stakeholders now relies on a number of relatively new principles. While acknowledging the existence of different national approaches, this publication proposes a route to effective stakeholder involvement throughout the main phases of the life cycle of nuclear facilities (i.e. construction, operation, radioactive waste management, decommissioning) and the use of up-to-date methods to implement stakeholder involvement programmes.

Status and Trends of Nuclear Fuels Technology for Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors

Status and Trends of Nuclear Fuels Technology for Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 31/05/2011

From the inception of nuclear energy, the important role of the sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR) and its fuel cycle has been recognized for long term sustainability of nuclear power. This publication covers the status and trends of SFR fuel technology, highlighting manufacturing processes, out of pile properties and irradiation behaviour of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide, monocarbide, mononitride and metallic U-Zr and U-Pu-Zr fuels. Minor actinide (Np, Am, Cm) bearing fuels are also covered in this publication. The information compiled in this book will be a valuable resource for materials scientists and engineers involved in fuel development for fast reactors, in general, and SFRs, in particular.

Workforce Planning for New Nuclear Power Programmes

Workforce Planning for New Nuclear Power Programmes

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/03/2011

The nuclear power field, comprising industry, government authorities, regulators, research and development organizations, and educational institutions, relies for its continued success on a specialized, highly trained and motivated workforce. The aim of the present publication is to provide information on the use of integrated workforce planning as a tool to effectively develop these resources for the spectrum of organizations that have a stake in nuclear power programmes. It is based on the framework contained in the IAEA publication, Milestones in the Development of a National Infrastructure for Nuclear Power, and addresses the workforce requirements for each of the three phases, focusing on three main organizational entities (NEPIO, regulatory body and operating organization) and their responsibilities in relation to each of the 19 infrastructure issues. It also includes actual case studies to illustrate how other Member States have implemented or are implementing their first nuclear energy programme.

Power Uprate in Nuclear Power Plants

Power Uprate in Nuclear Power Plants

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 03/03/2011

The process of increasing the licensed power level of a commercial nuclear power plant is called `power uprate'. In most cases, this is an economic way of producing more electricity in a nuclear power plant, while maintaining adequate safety, design and operational margins. There are a number of options for uprating the power level and these are discussed in this publication. Furthermore, it provides information on current trends, licensing aspects, monitoring, lessons learned from many countries and verification technology.

Introduction to the Use of the INPRO Methodology in a Nuclear Energy System Assessment

Introduction to the Use of the INPRO Methodology in a Nuclear Energy System Assessment

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 28/02/2011

The International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO) helps to ensure that nuclear energy is available to contribute in a sustainable manner to meeting the energy needs of the 21st century. This publication was prepared to ease the application of the INPRO methodology, an IAEA tool that assists Member States in strategic planning and decision making on nuclear power programmes. It provides an overview of the methodology and recommendations on how to perform a nuclear energy system assessment using the methodology. Different users of the INPRO methodology are addressed: nuclear technology developers, experienced nuclear technology users and prospective first time users of nuclear power technology.

Radioelement Mapping

Radioelement Mapping

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2010

This publication is based on the coordinated work of international experts with the aim of developing a global radioelement map with comparable results from different States. It is intended to support the identification of prospective areas for uranium exploration and mining, and also for environmental actions associated with uranium production and other human activities. The utility of the publication is expected to motivate many States to standardize the status of their radioelement mapping based on the global development and experience.

Cost Aspects of the Research Reactor Fuel Cycle

Cost Aspects of the Research Reactor Fuel Cycle

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2010

Research reactors are expected to make important contributions in coming decades to the further development of peaceful uses of nuclear technology. However, they must be managed according to sound financial principles. The objective of this publication is to provide research reactor operators and associated institutions or organizations with information and an analytical approach for assessing and determining the cost structure of the fuel cycle related activities of their reactors. It serves as a useful guide in finding ways to achieve the lowest possible cost structure for fuel cycle related reactor operations, consistent with the operating needs and utilization requirements of a reactor. Case studies of sound management practice are provided.

Nuclear Energy Development in the 21st Century

Nuclear Energy Development in the 21st Century

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2010

This publication presents the results of an IAEA INPRO study. It includes a set of technical scenarios of nuclear deployment and consideration of their implications. It considers a global energy supply system composed of several reactor and fuel cycle types available today and of fast reactors that may be developed in the future, to illustrate a possible modelling approach to identify the potential role of interregional transfer of nuclear fuel resources in supporting the global growth of nuclear energy based on the availability of uranium resources in the 21st century. The study was performed with the participation of sixteen experts from nine Member States and includes a dynamic simulation of material flows in nuclear energy systems using available nuclear power development modelling tools.

Risk Informed In-service Inspection of Piping Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

Risk Informed In-service Inspection of Piping Systems of Nuclear Power Plants

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2010

The safety of nuclear power plants (NPPs), one of the most important conditions for their acceptance, is achieved by numerous methods and techniques during their design, manufacture and maintenance. Risk informed inspection is one strategy for improving the effectiveness of in-service inspection (ISI) and is based on a combination of independent assessments of the probability of failure of components and the consequences of these failures. This publication describes the general process of developing and implementing risk informed in-service inspections (RI-ISI) methodologies, the technological issues which lie behind the methodologies, application and status, and the current development activities. The information provided is primarily intended for managers, ISI supervisors, lead engineers of NPPs and technical support organizations, but will also be useful for regulatory staff reviewing RI-ISI programmes.

Technical Features to Enhance Proliferation Resistance of Nuclear Energy Systems

Technical Features to Enhance Proliferation Resistance of Nuclear Energy Systems

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2010

This publication provides a qualitative framework for examination of the proliferation resistance of the innovative nuclear fuel cycle options, focusing on the intrinsic features of proliferation resistance. It also includes a survey of a number of innovative nuclear energy systems and fuel cycles with respect to that framework. This survey does not attempt to perform a comparative assessment among the various nuclear energy systems, but identifies the possible impacts and the tradeoffs (if any) that should be carefully evaluated in deciding what technologies merit further consideration.

Integration of Analog and Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems in Hybrid Control Rooms

Integration of Analog and Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems in Hybrid Control Rooms

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2010

This publication is intended to assist nuclear utilities in planning control room and other human-system interface changes that make appropriate use of modern technologies, to manage ageing and obsolescence, and to facilitate improvements to plant performance and safety. It discusses the wide spectrum of such changes to the control room and highlights the importance of their proper planning, design and implementation. The publication describes a formal, well-planned approach to modernization, which involves all stakeholders from the utility, design organizations and regulatory authorities. It will be a valuable resource for nuclear power plant organizations, their suppliers/contractors and other technical support organizations in achieving the desired benefits.

Review of Fuel Failures in Water Cooled Reactors

Review of Fuel Failures in Water Cooled Reactors

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2010

This publication responds to the growing awareness of a need for open discussion and concerted actions to improve nuclear fuel reliability. It contains unique worldwide statistics on fuel failure rates, covering about 96% of water cooled reactor fuels. This gives the most representative picture of fuel reliability available in the open literature and presents a number of valuable conclusions. The publication also describes modern methods of detection and examination of fuel failures, analyses their mechanisms and root causes, and recommends failure prevention and mitigation measures. These data and information are important elements for closing the circle of the fuel quality management system through providing feedback information about fuel performance.

Best Practice in Environmental Management of Uranium Mining

Best Practice in Environmental Management of Uranium Mining

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 17/05/2010

This publication has been written to assist Member States in the development of their uranium mineral resources. It sets out the basic tenets of best practice in terms of environmental management of uranium mining and processing operations from the viewpoint of both operators and regulators, and is accompanied by a collection of case studies from leading representatives of the global mining industry.

Good Practices for Qualification of High Density Low Enriched Uranium Research Reactor Fuels

Good Practices for Qualification of High Density Low Enriched Uranium Research Reactor Fuels

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2009

The conversion of research and test reactors from the use of fuel containing highly enriched uranium (HEU) to fuel that employs low-enriched uranium (LEU) has become an important issue in many Member States. The IAEA has supported several projects and activities assisting in the reduction of the use of HEU. However, no comprehensive publication addressing the rationale of qualification of these fuels had yet been available. Developed in order to meet this need, the present publication provides good practices and points of reference for the type, quality and completeness of the information to be generated in order to ensure acceptable performance of high density LEU fuels to be used in research reactors. Furthermore, it elaborates on the development and qualification of high density fuels of the type used in most research and test reactors and assesses the different approaches to the qualification process.

Evaluation of the Status of National Nuclear Infrastructure Development

Evaluation of the Status of National Nuclear Infrastructure Development

Author: IAEA Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2009

This publication describes an evaluation approach to determine a Member State's status in developing and implementing the infrastructure areas necessary for a nuclear power plant (NPP) project. It has been written to be used by any interested Member State for self-evaluation as well as for external reviews with the participation of the IAEA and of independent external experts. Other organizations, such as donors, suppliers, nuclear energy agencies and operator organizations, may also use this publication to provide confidence that a Member State is adequately developing the infrastructure necessary to regulate, construct and safely operate an NPP.

Decommissioning of Small Medical, Industrial and Research Facilities

Decommissioning of Small Medical, Industrial and Research Facilities

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2003

Decommissioning activities for zero-power reactors, radiodiagnostic and radiotherapy hospital departments, and laboratories and factories using radioactive material may be erroneously perceived as trivial and of low priority. This publication provides practical information, experience and assistance aimed at a broad spectrum of practitioners who are faced with the decommissioning of such small nuclear facilities. Particular consideration is given to the financial and scientific resources, and early planning, which are all factors essential to efficient and effective decommissioning. This book is written as a simplified, stepwise guidance to nuclear operators who may have little or no experience in decommissioning. An accompanying CD-ROM contains practical information in two annexes, including descriptions of decommissioning project problems encountered, solutions and analyses, and lessons learned.

Lessons Learned from Deferred Dismantling of Nuclear Facilities

Lessons Learned from Deferred Dismantling of Nuclear Facilities

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2000

The publication discusses the issues that must be dealt with when preparing the facility for safe enclosure, or safely maintaining it for a long time. It provides details of lessons learned from deferred decommissioning of nuclear facilities following planned shutdown. These lessons have been learned from a variety of facilities, with a variety of hazards, configurations and decommissioning programmes. While some of the considerations addressed may apply to facilities involved in an operating incident or accident, they are not specifically addressed by this publication as the individual nature of their hazards and decommissioning challenges precludes their use as exemplars. The publication concerns the preparation for, and the steady state part of the safe enclosure phase; it should be understood that in a later part of that phase the on- and off-site requirements and arrangements will change as plans and infrastructure are prepared for the next phase, which is the final dismantling, remediation and site release.

Quality and reliability aspects in nuclear power reactor fuel engineering

Quality and reliability aspects in nuclear power reactor fuel engineering

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 01/01/2015

In order to decrease costs and increase competitiveness, nuclear utilities use more challenging operational conditions, longer fuel cycles and higher burnups, which require modifications in fuel designs and materials. Different aspects of quality assurance and control, as well as analysis of fuel performance have been considered in a number of specialized publications. The present publication provides a concise but comprehensive overview of all interconnected quality and reliability issues in fuel fabrication, design and operation. It jointly tackles technical, safety and organizational aspects, and contains examples of state of the art developments and good practices of coordinated work of fuel designers, vendors and reactor operators.

Nuclear fuel cycle objectives

Nuclear fuel cycle objectives

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2013

The IAEA's Nuclear Energy Basic Principles publication presents the basic principles on which nuclear energy systems should be based, to fulfil nuclear energy's potential to help meet growing global energy needs. This publication establishes the five sets of criteria - known collectively as the 'nuclear fuel cycle objectives' - that need to be fulfilled in order to satisfy the Nuclear Energy Basic Principles in the area of the nuclear fuel cycle. It covers the following topics: resources; fuel engineering and performance; spent fuel management and reprocessing; fuel cycles; and the nuclear fuel cycle of research reactors.

Advances in airborne and ground geophysical methods for Uranium exploration

Advances in airborne and ground geophysical methods for Uranium exploration

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 20/04/2013

Due to growing global energy demand, many countries have seen a rise in uranium exploration activities in the past few years, and newly designed geophysical instruments and their application in uranium exploration are contributing to an increased probability of successful discoveries. This publication highlights advances in airborne and ground geophysical techniques and methods for uranium exploration, succinctly describing modern geophysical methods and demonstrating their application with examples.

Structural materials for liquid metal cooled fast reactor fuel assemblies

Structural materials for liquid metal cooled fast reactor fuel assemblies

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2012

This publication summarizes the findings of several IAEA meetings on fast reactor materials and provides a review of historically available and new information on properties, fabrication technologies and irradiation behaviour of stainless steel structural materials for liquid metal cooled fast reactor (LMFR) fuel assemblies. It identifies different varieties of austenitic, ferritic-martensitic, oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels and nickel-base alloys used or planned to be used as fuel cladding and structural components of fast reactor fuel assemblies, describes manufacturing processes of LMFR fuel cladding tubes and in-core components, and overviews the operational behaviour of these materials in fast reactors. Particular focus is given to ODS steels as the promising path forward to achieving higher fuel burnup in fast reactors.

Milestones in the development of a national infrastructure for nuclear power

Milestones in the development of a national infrastructure for nuclear power

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 01/07/2015

The development and implementation of an appropriate infrastructure to support the successful introduction of nuclear power and its safe, secure, peaceful and sustainable application is an issue of central concern, especially for countries that are considering and planning their first nuclear power plant. In preparing the necessary nuclear infrastructure, there are several activities that need to be completed. These activities can be split into three progressive phases of development. This publication provides a description of the conditions expected to be achieved by the end of each phase to assist with the best use of resources. 'Milestones' refer to the conditions necessary to demonstrate that the phase has been successfully completed.

Managing organizational change in nuclear organizations

Managing organizational change in nuclear organizations

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2014

It is widely recognized that engineering changes, if not properly considered and controlled, can have potentially major safety implications; however, organisational changes can also have potentially major safety implications. This publication is intended to assist the management of nuclear organizations in identifying, planning and implementing organisational change. The driving force for the change may be internal or external. Based on the assumption that any change made within a facility applying nuclear technology has the potential to impact safety and effectiveness, the publication provides a description of the basic principles for managing and implementing the organisational change effectively while remaining focused on safe and reliable operation. The guidance contained in the publication is relevant to all organisational changes within nuclear organisations.

Development and implementation of a process based management system

Development and implementation of a process based management system

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2015

The implementation of a process based management system is challenging for many organisations accustomed to traditional, non-integrated, non-process based approaches to management systems. This publication provides practical guidance to nuclear organisations that are planning to implement a management system to comply with IAEA Safety Standards Series No.GS-R-3. It will also be beneficial for newcomer countries, since a vendor-provided management system delivered with a nuclear power plant to ensure safe operation is often a quality management system for operations and maintenance, which may integrate aspects related to safety and environmental protection. These quality assurance systems have to undergo a transition to a process based management system to ensure that the processes of the owner/operator will be tailored to achieve the goals and objectives for safe operation.

Design features and operating experience of experimental fast reactors

Design features and operating experience of experimental fast reactors

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2013

Growing energy needs and concern for the environment drive the demand for large scale and low impact energy sources. Therefore, national and international research on fast reactor technology is increasing. As a part of the IAEA efforts for knowledge preservation and data retrieval, this publication compiles and documents significant aspects of fast reactor engineering development and experience. Its focus is on research and developing activities, experience with experimental facilities and properties, and criteria for comparison and choice of liquid metal coolants. The introductory part includes the history, the state of the art and an overview of fast reactor cooling, heat transport and heat conversion systems development. This is followed by basic information on liquid metal coolants and design features. The publication concludes with a summary which identifies the progress achieved and issues to be resolved in sodium and heavy metal coolant technology.

Managing human performance to improve nuclear facility operation

Managing human performance to improve nuclear facility operation

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 17/02/2014

The contribution of human performance to the occurrence of significant events and consequently to overall performance improvement in the nuclear field has been well documented. Nuclear industry experience shows that within nuclear power plants, 80% of significant events can be attributed to human error. Monitoring and continually improving human performance has now become one of the key challenges in the management of human resources for a nuclear facility. This publication provides practical guidance in this area and will assist Member States to review and improve the systems and process for improving human performance as a major contribution to sustaining and improving the performance of nuclear facilities.

INPRO methodology for sustainability assessment of nuclear energy systems

INPRO methodology for sustainability assessment of nuclear energy systems

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 01/08/2014

This publication is an update of the guidance given in the area of infrastructure in Volume 3 of IAEA-TECDOC-1575 Rev.1 (2008), Guidance for the Application of an Assessment Methodology for Innovative Nuclear Energy Systems. It is based on recommendations presented by Member States participating in INPRO, IAEA experts and the IAEA INPRO group. The publication provides guidance on assessing a nuclear energy system (NES) in the area of nuclear infrastructure. Within the INPRO methodology, a nuclear infrastructure can be defined as the collection of necessary capabilities of national institutions to achieve long term sustainability of a nuclear power programme. Several aspects are discussed in detail in this publication, in particular the importance of public acceptance of a nuclear power programme and the necessary human resources to establish and operate such a programme. Additionally, INPRO methodology defines measures that a designer and the State should take to reduce the necessary effort to establish and maintain a nuclear infrastructure.

Legal and institutional issues of transportable nuclear power plants

Legal and institutional issues of transportable nuclear power plants

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2013

A transportable nuclear power plant (TNPP) is a factory-manufactured, movable nuclear power plant, which when fuelled is capable of producing final energy products such as electricity and heat. Transportable nuclear power plants are not designed to operate during transportation. This publication highlights the potential benefits of TNPPs, describes the legal and institutional issues for their deployment in countries other than the country of origin, reveals challenges that might be faced in their deployment, and outlines pathways for resolution of the identified issues and challenges in the short and long terms. It is addressed to senior legal, regulatory and technical officers in Member States planning to embark on a nuclear power programme or to expand an existing one by considering the introduction of a TNPP.

Approaches for assessing the economic competitiveness of small and medium sized reactors

Approaches for assessing the economic competitiveness of small and medium sized reactors

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2013

This report was prepared with the following objectives: (i) to assist existing and potential stakeholders in Member States in understanding the economic competitiveness of small and medium sized reactor (SMR) technologies compared to other energy sources and large reactors (LRs); (ii) to inform available approaches and frameworks to assess the economic competitiveness of advanced SMRs and LRs under specific conditions of their application; and (iii) to share knowledge on positive experiences of several Member States that have introduced SMRs into their energy mix. To make SMRs attractive and competitive, it is necessary to reduce the risk of investment by verifying the technology itself, and by enhancing and incorporating the accumulated experience associated with the implementation of this technology. To satisfy these criteria, it may be necessary to offer those SMR technologies that are currently implemented widely, and already have a track record of success and a developed industrial infrastructure. Newer SMR technologies may need to be deployed first to niche markets in the nuclear power plant supplier countries in order to establish a technological base and related infrastructure prior to offering them to developing countries.

Managing siting activities for nuclear power plants

Managing siting activities for nuclear power plants

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 19/06/2012

This publication provides the information necessary to organise, guide and realise the activities related to the selection and assessment of a site through defining the factors for consideration and methodologies for site investigation. Other factors that could have an impact on the final selection, such as national or international politicsare not addressed. This publication also discusses communication with and involvement of stakeholders as this hasa strong influence on the process of selecting a site for a nuclear power plant. This report is intended for use by Member States initiating, restarting or expanding their nuclear power programmes. It gives guidance on the complex organisational, engineering, socio-economic, and environmental issues of siting. It aims to enable States to develop detailed country-specific processes for implementation of siting activities or to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the siting process. This publication may be used by utilities assessing the possibilities for building and operating a nuclear power plant as well as by contractors in the nuclear power industry.

Electric grid reliability and interface with nuclear power plants

Electric grid reliability and interface with nuclear power plants

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 18/05/2012

This publication describes the characteristics of the electrical grid system that are required for the connection and successful operation of a nuclear power plant, as well as the characteristics of a nuclear power plant that are significant for the design and operation of the electrical grid system. It addresses the issues to be considered when a nuclear power plant is being planned and describes the information exchange necessary between the developer of a nuclear power plant and the organization responsible for the electrical grid. The particular issue of a large nuclear unit connected with a small system is also discussed. A new topic introduced in this publication is the need for cyber security of the grid system near the nuclear power plant. Several case studies of Member States' experience in developing new nuclear units and about grid events during operation are included

Invitation and evaluation of bids for nuclear power plants

Invitation and evaluation of bids for nuclear power plants

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2011

This publication emphasizes the integrity and interdependence of various activities related to the bid invitation, technical and economic evaluation and contracting, it updates information included in the existing IAEA documents in order to better reflect the developments in the nuclear and energy industry, compiles a more compact and user friendly guidebook integrating the existing IAEA documents on the subject. It provides the necessary information to organize, guide and realize the activities related to the invitation, the technical and economic evaluation of bids, and contracting as an integrated process. Furthermore, this publication indicates how and to what degree the activities preceding the preparation of the bid invitation specification, the evaluation of bids and contracting could influence the process.

INPRO methodology for sustainability assessment of nuclear energy systems

INPRO methodology for sustainability assessment of nuclear energy systems

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 01/08/2014

As part of the INPRO methodology this manual provides guidance on assessing a nuclear energy system in the area of economics. This is an independent assessment of the economic competitiveness of nuclear power, compared with available alternatives. The publication starts with a short description of the goals and output of an energy system planning study, followed by general background information on performing an INPRO economic assessment and presents a discussion of the basic principle, the associated user requirements and criteria. In the appendices I-IV, additional background information on economic terms and support tools is provided.

Indicators for nuclear power development

Indicators for nuclear power development

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2015

The publication provides a comprehensive set of indicators that cover the key aspects of nuclear power development. Methodology sheets are provided to help users in data collection, quantification and interpretation of the indicators. The methodology sheets adopt the well established and proven templates developed for the publication Energy Indicators for Sustainable Development, published by the IAEA in 2005. The application of the indicators is flexible. Users can select a subset of indicators that are most relevant for the questions they wish to explore in a given exploratory study or decision making process.

Nuclear reactor technology assessment for near term deployment

Nuclear reactor technology assessment for near term deployment

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2013

Given the increasing interest in the near term deployment of new nuclear power plants, IAEA Member States have requested guidance on the process of evaluating and selecting available technology options. Reactor technology assessment enables the evaluation, selection, and deployment of the best technology to meet the objectives of a nuclear power programme. This publication demonstrates how reactor technology assessment is performed and how the process and results of this work enable decision making in nuclear power planning. The approach also provides decision makers with the documentation necessary to support their conclusions.

Options to enhance proliferation resistance of innovative small and medium sized reactors

Options to enhance proliferation resistance of innovative small and medium sized reactors

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 25/06/2014

This publication addresses specific considerations for proliferation resistance and safeguards for small and medium sized reactors (SMRs). It describes the framework analysis through comparing and harmonising the Generation IV International Forum and the International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles methodologies, defines the proliferation resistance assessment and safeguards by design approach and presents the current implementation of proliferation resistance measures in innovative SMRs. The appendices include information on the example of a procedure to support a facility's analysis of the safeguarding situation in support of safeguards by design, and a template listing required proliferation resistance related design information. An overview of SMR design and development activities and countries' national perspectives is given in the annexes.

Technical challenges in the application and licensing of digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants

Technical challenges in the application and licensing of digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2015

With the modernization of existing analogue instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in nuclear power plants through digital I&C technology, and the implementation of digital I&C systems in new plants, the industry is faced with significant challenges. These challenges appear in the form of difficulties in managing the necessarily incremental transition, highly integrated (and interdependent) architectures, the flexible configurability enabled by digital technology, and uncertainty and inconsistency in licensing digital I&C systems and equipment in the different Member States. This publication discusses 17 major issues utilities developers, suppliers and regulatory stakeholders, so that the industry can capture and benefit from shared experience, recent technological developments, and emerging best practices.

Framework for assessing dynamic nuclear energy systems for sustainability

Framework for assessing dynamic nuclear energy systems for sustainability

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2013

As an integral part of the International project on innovative nuclear reactors and fuel cycles (INPRO), several collaborative projects were established by its members. The collaborative project on global architectures of innovative nuclear energy systems based on thermal and fast reactors including a closed fuel cycle was one of them. This publication presents the study, its results and the conclusions drawn. A major achievement of the project is the development of a unique heterogeneous world model considering specific nuclear energy strategies of various countries. This model simulates important realities of the global nuclear energy system thus enabling the assessment of resource, financial, and proliferation risks and identification of areas for beneficial multilateral cooperation. It shows that innovative nuclear technologies serve as a driving force for enhancing the sustainability features of nuclear energy supply, while a multilateral approach amplifies the positive effects of the technological innovations.

Management of disused sealed radioactive sources

Management of disused sealed radioactive sources

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2014

This publication summarizes the reviewed information distributed in previous IAEA publications and provides an up to date, overall picture of the management of disused sealed radioactive sources (DSRS) based upon the current status and trends in this field. It incorporates the most recent experience in source management, including newly developed techniques used for DSRS conditioning and storage. Problems encountered and lessons learned are also highlighted in the publication in order to help avoid the mistakes commonly made in the past in managing disused sources.

Liquid metal coolants for fast reactors cooled by sodium, lead, and lead-bismuth eutectic

Liquid metal coolants for fast reactors cooled by sodium, lead, and lead-bismuth eutectic

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2012

This publication provides a comprehensive summary of the status of liquid coolant technology development for fast reactors with regard to basic data, main technological challenges and the various fast reactor concepts and designs that are being investigated, with a special emphasis on the choice of coolant. The chapters are divided as follows: (1) Introduction; (2) Short History of Nuclear Power Development; (3) Physical and Chemical Properties of Coolants (Sodium, Lead and Lead-Bismuth Alloy); (4) Comparison of Different Sodium and Lead Coolant Technologies; (5) Thermohydraulics of Reactor Core; (6) Coolant Radioactivity; (7) Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Reactor Technology Development; (8) Modular Lead-Bismuth Cooled Small Size Fast Reactors; (9) Liquid Lead Cooled Fast Reactors

Cost estimation for research reactor decommissioning

Cost estimation for research reactor decommissioning

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 27/01/2014

The main aim of this publication is to disseminate experience in and guidance on cost estimates for research reactor decommissioning projects. It presents the principles and background for a costing methodology based on the International Structure for Decommissioning Costing of Nuclear Installations. The methodology presented implements actual experience in decommissioning costing and is in line with IAEA efforts promoting harmonization in this field. The IAEA has contributed to the development of software called CERREX (Cost Estimate for Research Reactors in Excel), a simpler version suitable for preliminary costing stages, which is included on the attached CD-ROM, together with a user manual. Several practical examples of software implementation and clarification of some details of available methodologies and models are also provided.

Efficient water management in water cooled reactors

Efficient water management in water cooled reactors

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2012

In an effort to illustrate the sustainability of nuclear power, this publication discusses current practices on water requirements in nuclear power plants, possible future trends in design of water cooled reactors and the technologies employed. It analyses best practices and strategies for lower water withdrawal rates and presents the trade-off between production of electricity and water use and consumption, hence types of cooling systems to be selected. The book thus aims at enhancing the understanding of the issues related to water use, consumption, and management in a big picture.

Experiences and lessons learned worldwide in the cleanup and decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the aftermath of accidents

Experiences and lessons learned worldwide in the cleanup and decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the aftermath of accidents

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/09/2014

This publication reviews experiences in IAEA Member States relevant to the cleanup and decommissioning of nuclear facilities in the aftermath of accidents and provides an overview of lessons learned worldwide. It also updates information from earlier publications on this topic, according to the different phases of activity after the accident has been declared ended (site stabilization, post-accident cleanup, safe enclosure) and, in the longer term, final decommissioning and site remediation.

International safeguards in nuclear facility design and construction

International safeguards in nuclear facility design and construction

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 29/04/2013

This IAEA publication is the first in a new safeguards-by-design group of publications that provides guidance on the inclusion of safeguards considerations in nuclear facility design and construction. This initial volume introduces the basic principles of safeguards by design (SBD) and discusses the goals, the costs and rewards, and places the information into the context of nuclear facility design and construction. Benefits and opportunities for all stakeholders are emphasized. The guidance is aimed at enhancing the understanding of nuclear facility vendors and designers regarding the safeguards obligations of both the State and the IAEA, at improving the cooperation between all stakeholders in safeguards implementation, and in minimizing the cost of implementation for all stakeholders.

International safeguards in the design of nuclear reactors

International safeguards in the design of nuclear reactors

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2014

This publication is the second in a series from the IAEA that provide guidance on the inclusion of safeguards in nuclear facility design and construction. It is principally intended for designers and operators of nuclear reactor facilities; however, vendors, national authorities and financial backers can also benefit from the information provided. It is introductory rather than comprehensive in nature, complementing the guidance for Implementing comprehensive Safeguards agreements and Additional Protocols, IAEA Services Series No. 21, and other publications in that series. The publication complements the general considerations addressed in International Safeguards in Nuclear Facility Design and Construction, Nuclear Energy Series No. NP-T-2.8.

Managing environmental impact assessment for construction and operation in new nuclear power programmes

Managing environmental impact assessment for construction and operation in new nuclear power programmes

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 07/08/2020

This publication provides a holistic approach to environmental protection in new nuclear power programmes. It describes the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) process, the subsequent utilization of the EIA, and the necessary infrastructure for such processes. The presumption is that a Member State embarking on such a programme already has an environmental regulatory framework in place, which may not be developed for nuclear power but for industrial projects, therefore the emphasis is on the environmental aspects that are unique to a nuclear power plant project. The publication is addressed to senior managers, project managers or coordinators and technical specialists of government authorities and agencies, including the regulatory body, operating organizations and supporting industries and other organizations involved in environmental issues.

Core knowledge of instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants

Core knowledge of instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2011

This publication is intended to present a basic overview of instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs) and to serve as a reference guide on the subject. Furthermore, it provides an explanation of the significant role I&C systems have in maintaining and improving safety, plant performance and economic returns. Numerous publications have been prepared to address these issues; the present publication places those technical publications within the context of a global view of NPP I&C systems and their life cycles.

Advanced surveillance, diagnostic and prognostic techniques in monitoring structures, systems and components in nuclear power plants

Advanced surveillance, diagnostic and prognostic techniques in monitoring structures, systems and components in nuclear power plants

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2013

This publication reports on the work and findings of an IAEA coordinated research project. The technologies discussed in this project are intended to establish the state of the art in surveillance, diagnostic and prognostic (SDP) technologies for equipment and process health monitoring in nuclear facilities. The participants also identified technology gaps and research needs of the nuclear industry in the SDP area. The publication describes conventional SDP technologies as well as the latest tools, algorithms and techniques that have emerged over the past few years. These new tools have made it possible to identify problems earlier and with better resolution. The target audience of this publication is utility engineers, end users, researchers, managers and executives making decisions on implementation of the subject technologies in nuclear facilities, or determining the future direction of research and development in this area.

Accident monitoring systems for nuclear power plants

Accident monitoring systems for nuclear power plants

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 24/03/2015

In the Fukushima Daiichi accident, the instrumentation provided for accident monitoring proved to be ineffective for a combination of reasons. The accident has highlighted the need to re-examine criteria for accident monitoring instrumentation. This publication covers all relevant aspects of accident monitoring in NPPs. The critical issues discussed reflect the lessons learned from the Fukushima Daiichi accident, involve accident management and accident monitoring strategies for nuclear power plants, selection of plant parameters for monitoring plant status, establishment of performance, design, qualification, display, and quality assurance criteria for designated accident monitoring instrumentation, and design and implementation considerations. Technology needs and techniques for accident monitoring instrumentation are also addressed.

Plant life management models for long term operation of nuclear power plants

Plant life management models for long term operation of nuclear power plants

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 07/08/2020

When nuclear power plants reach the end of their nominal design life, they undergo a special safety review and an ageing assessment of their essential structures, systems and components for the purpose of validating or renewing their licence to operate for terms beyond the service period originally intended. Three different plant life management models have been used to qualify these nuclear power plants to operate beyond their original design life. This publication presents a collection of sample licensing practices for long term operation among IAEA Member States. The various plant life management models used to obtain long term operation authorizations are described and comparisons drawn against the standard periodic safety review model. Lessons learned and warnings about possible complications and pitfalls are also described to minimize the licensing risk during operation and future long term operation applications. The main intention of this publication is to support nuclear power plant owners and operators planning an extension of plant operation beyond its original design life, but it also serves as a useful guide for those interested in procuring from the beginning, the necessary tools to implement ageing management in their future plant with long term operation in mind.

Nuclear engineering education

Nuclear engineering education

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2014

Maintaining nuclear competencies in the nuclear industry is a one of the most critical challenges in the near future. With the development of a number of nuclear engineering educational programmes in several States, this publication provides guidance to decision makers in Member States on a competence based approach to curricula development, presenting the established practices and associated requirements for educational programmes in this field. It is a consolidation of best practices that will ensure sustainable, effective nuclear engineering programmes, contributing to the safe, efficient and economic operation of nuclear power plants. The information presented is drawn from a variety of recognized nuclear engineering programmes around the world and contributes to the main areas that are needed to ensure a viable and robust nuclear industry.

Preparation of a feasibility study for new nuclear power projects

Preparation of a feasibility study for new nuclear power projects

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2014

A feasibility study represents an important step in the development of a new build nuclear power plant project. It is a complex but necessary step to determine whether a business opportunity is possible, practical and viable. Technical, economical, financial, regulatory, social, environmental aspects of a nuclear power plant programme need to be considered to allow authorities to make informed decisions regarding the possible implementation of the project This publication assists Member States in developing a feasibility study for nuclear power projects and provides guidance to users who are planning to perform such a study, with consideration of both the technical and process areas. These guidelines condense the experience of individuals involved in previous feasibility study efforts and provide industry best practices in order to maximize the usefulness of any results.

Lessons learned from environmental remediation programmes

Lessons learned from environmental remediation programmes

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 22/05/2014

Environmental remediation, in the context of legacy sites, is being carried out in IAEA Member States at different paces. There is already significant experience and expertise present from around the world as nuclear and associated facilities are closed and move through the decommissioning and environmental remediation phases. Methodological approaches and remediation technologies have been developed to deal with different remediation situations and subsequently adapted to site specific conditions. They have also been further fine tuned as they have been rolled out either on relatively small or large scale projects. This publication is intended to capture part of this experience and make it available to IAEA Member States, so that they can benefit from the existing knowledge when planning and implementing their remediation programmes.

Assessing and managing cable ageing in nuclear power plants

Assessing and managing cable ageing in nuclear power plants

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 28/06/2012

Cable ageing and the need for condition monitoring is one of the most important aspects of plant life extension when it comes to instrumentation and control systems. Cables, especially their insulation and jacket material, are vulnerable to ageing degradation during normal operation, and means must be established to ensure that cable ageing does not lead to unsafe operation. This publication addresses all relevant issues related to cable ageing and contains introductory level materials that present a summary of key issues in cable ageing in nuclear power plants. In particular, it provides guidelines for cable qualification and cable ageing management in nuclear facilities, reflecting the technical advances of the past 15 years.

Hydrogen production using nuclear energy

Hydrogen production using nuclear energy

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2012

A future energy economy will be strongly dependent on the necessity of replacing oil and reducing greenhouse gas emissions for climate protection. Hydrogen has the potential to play an important role as a sustainable and environmentally acceptable source of energy in the 21st century. Yet, there are technical challenges in nuclear hydrogen processes, which need to be addressed through a comprehensive research and development effort. This publication presents the state of the art in the nuclear production of hydrogen and describes the areas of research to be undertaken for establishing a hydrogen economy regime. It includes highlights of international programme and research efforts on nuclear hydrogen production as well as information on hydrogen uses and infrastructure, and provides an introduction to the economic analysis of hydrogen production.

Specific considerations and milestones for a research reactor project

Specific considerations and milestones for a research reactor project

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 25/06/2012

A research reactor is an extraordinary tool that can contribute to a country's scientific resources, improve health care, and help to increase industrial and agricultural productivity, if it is appropriately conceived, managed and supported. This requires a strong policy and technical infrastructure, and management of long term financial liabilities. This publication sets out the four phases for a research reactor project with their associated milestones; starting with a careful assessment of the need for the research reactor, the issues it raises and the measures to address them. The publication provides a framework for self-assessment of readiness for a research reactor project and the resource requirements that it will impose. The guidance provided in this publication, will be helpful for decision makers from governments, operating organizations and regulatory bodies as well as project sponsors and planners.

Applications of research reactors

Applications of research reactors

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 18/03/2014

This publication is a comprehensive study that reviews the current situation in a great number of applications of research reactors. It revises the contents of IAEA TECDOC-1234, The Applications of Research Reactors, giving detailed updates on each field of research reactor uses worldwide. Reactors of all sizes and capabilities can benefit from the sharing of current practices and research enabled via this updated version, which describes the requirements for practicing methods as diverse as neutron activation analysis, education and training, neutron scattering and neutron imaging, silicon doping and radioisotope production, material/fuel irradiation and testing, and some others. Many underutilised research reactors can learn how to diversify their technical capabilities, staff and potential commercial partners and users seeking research reactor services and products. The content of the publication has also been strengthened in terms of current issues facing the vast majority of research reactors by including sections describing user and customer relations as well as strategic planning considerations.

Non-HEU production technologies for Molybdenum-99 and Technetium-99m

Non-HEU production technologies for Molybdenum-99 and Technetium-99m

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 31/01/2013

Technetium-99m (99mTc) is used in approximately 85% of diagnostic imaging procedures in nuclear medicine worldwide. Interruptions in the supply of Molybdenum (99Mo), which is used to produce 99mTc, prompted governments and international agencies to step up efforts to identify both short- and long-term solutions to supply shortages. These calls for actions resulted in economic and technology studies on the 99Mo supply chain. The present publication supports global efforts to eliminate the civilian use of highly enriched uranium in 99Mo/99Tc production and proposes several alternative/supplementary technologies.

Technical requirements in the bidding process for a new research reactor

Technical requirements in the bidding process for a new research reactor

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2014

Interest in developing research reactor programmes has grown significantly in recent years. Currently, a significant number of Member States are in different stages of new research reactor projects. The majority of them are building their first research reactor as as a key national installation for the development of their nuclear science and technology programmes. In this context, this publication has been developed to assist Member States in the preparation of the technical requirements for the bidding process of a new research reactor. The publication addresses the preparation phase of the bidding process and discusses criteria that may be used in the evaluation of the bids. The guidance applies to all reactor types and technologies and it does not recommend a specific reactor type or technology or a specific design. However, it is assumed that the publication will be used by a Member State that has made a commitment to build a safe, sustainable, robust design and easy maintainable research reactor. The guidance provided in the publication is primarily oriented to Member States building their first research reactor; however, such guidance could also be useful for the bidding process of subsequent reactors.

Policies and strategies for the decommissioning of nuclear and radiological facilities

Policies and strategies for the decommissioning of nuclear and radiological facilities

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2011

This publication presents the main elements of policies and strategies for decommissioning activities of nuclear and radiological facilities. It is intended to help in facilitating proper and systematic planning, and safe, timely and cost effective implementation of all decommissioning activities. The policy establishes the principles for decommissioning and the strategy contains the approaches for the implementation of the policy. The publication will be a useful guide for strategic planners, waste managers, operators of facilities under decommissioning, regulators and other stakeholders.

Policy and strategies for environmental remediation

Policy and strategies for environmental remediation

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 17/03/2015

To assure the safe, technically optimal and cost effective management of remediation situations, appropriate policies and strategies are required. This publication describes the goals, time scales, efforts necessary for implementation, cost allocation and the different interests of concerned parties with regard to environmental remediation works. It clarifies the differences between a policy and a strategy, and provides advice to Member States on the typical composition and formulation of such documents. Along with previously published IAEA safety publications on environmental remediation, this publication will help national authorities to recognize the necessity for including environmental remediation as a required component in the planning and execution of nuclear related initiatives. Recent events have shown that the existence of an established policy and strategies on environmental remediation prior to nuclear and/or radiological accidents can be of fundamental importance, as it will among other things facilitate the dialogue to be established with different affected parties.

Options for management of spent fuel and radioactive waste for countries developing new nuclear power programmes

Options for management of spent fuel and radioactive waste for countries developing new nuclear power programmes

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2013

Countries embarking upon a nuclear power programme need to understand the importance of establishing an adequate radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel management infrastructure. To assist in overcoming any challenges this might represent, this publication provides an overview of management practices in use in mature nuclear power programmes. Primarily addressing decision makers, it provides them with the level of strategic and technical information needed to understand overarching management issues of the various waste streams and spent fuel generated in nuclear power production. In addition, it examines the political, legal, societal, economic and technical challenges associated with each of the strategic options considered.

Modular design of processing and storage facilities for small volumes of low an intermediate level radioactive waste including disused sealed sources

Modular design of processing and storage facilities for small volumes of low an intermediate level radioactive waste including disused sealed sources

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 01/06/2014

This publication presents a modular approach to the design of waste processing and storage facilities to address the needs of such Member States with a cost effective and flexible solution that allows easy adjustment to changing needs in terms of capacity and variety of waste streams. The key feature of the publication is the provision of practical guidance to enable the users to determine their waste processing and storage requirements, specify those requirements to allow the procurement of the appropriate processing and storage modules and install and eventually operate those modules.

Mobile processing systems for radioactive waste management

Mobile processing systems for radioactive waste management

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 10/06/2014

In recent years, mobile systems have increasingly been deployed for the processing of different types of radioactive waste. Such systems offer flexibility in selection and application of the optimum technology for a specific waste stream by bringing the process to the point where the waste is generated, with the additional benefit that there can be equipment sharing among multiple generating sites. This publication provides the basic information on utilization of mobile systems for waste processing and introduces a methodology for the assessment required to determine the viability of mobile systems for specific applications. In addition, it informs the reader on the accurate assessment of mobile systems that employ one or more technologies. The target audience is professionals involved in the planning, selection, design, deployment and regulation of radioactive waste processing facilities.

Decommissioning of pools in nuclear facilities

Decommissioning of pools in nuclear facilities

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2015

Pools or ponds are usually an integrated part of a more complex nuclear facility, but in some particular cases pools may be considered as a separate nuclear facility with a specific license. A number of nuclear installations utilize pools for the cooling of spent fuel, or the shielding of research reactor cores or irradiator sources. Over a service lifetime that can span decades, nuclear pools may become contaminated as a result of the deposition of radioactive substances. Relevant aspects of pool decommissioning covered in this publication include project planning and management, health and safety, and the management of resulting waste.

Overcoming barriers in the implementation of environmental remediation projects

Overcoming barriers in the implementation of environmental remediation projects

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 30/06/2013

Environmental remediation has been in existence for decades, and a tremendous body of practical and scientific knowledge has been developed in many areas. Responding to the needs of Member States, the IAEA has initiated an environmental remediation project to address radioactive contamination found in soils and waters. This publication discusses the drivers on environmental remediation as well as the major obstacles confronted by any remediation operation and how to overcome those obstacles. It includes a number of potential strategies that may provide effective remediation outcomes and that have been deemed to be cost effective by Member States. Implementers of an environmental remediation programme as well as regulators will benefit from the information and guidance provided in this publication.

Communication and stakeholder involvement in environmental remediation projects

Communication and stakeholder involvement in environmental remediation projects

Author: International Atomic Energy Agency Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 10/06/2014

This publication has been developed with the aim of translating the complex technical terminology and approaches embodied in the planning and implementation of environmental remediation programmes into a more accessible language. The objective is to help environmental remediation implementers and regulators to engage and sustain dialogue with different stakeholders while developing a decision making process regarding the implementation of environmental remediation programmes. The publication deals with the technical and non-technical dimensions of environmental remediation and makes available experiences on how to proceed with communication and stakeholder engagement in environmental remediation programmes.