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Lowering the Cost of Emission Reduction by Dr Michael Ridley investigates a novel way to reduce the cost of carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide emission reduction. This book asks whether allowing countries to substitute emission reduction undertaken abroad in lieu of emission reduction at home will reduce the cost of emission reduction and allow more rapid and acute falls in pollution. Analysing US Department of Energy data on US emission reduction projects undertaken in Eastern Europe and Central America, this book explains differences in the cost of emission reduction by method and by country. The book sets out the conditions that would allow a joint implementation system to evolve into a full-blown tradable permits system. Political and practical objections to joint implementation are aired and addressed. This book is targeted at the environmental policy community, government officials, academics, the NGO community, economists and financiers, members of large corporations and museum educators everywhere.
Agricultural pollution (with nitrates and pesticides) is one of the biggest threats to drinking water resources. At many places regional and local water authorities, together with the water supply industry, are involved in preventive action aimed at farming practices. Three national case studies (Germany, The Netherlands, and the United Kingdom) analyse these efforts within the context of problematical national agricultural policy and the need to implement EU directives on water quality. Additional case studies cover the role of the European Union, while the same problem in a different setting is analysed for the United States. The central question of how national and European governments can reinforce the control capacity of the actors at the regional and local level, is treated from the theoretical perspective of the policy network approach.
As we reach the end of the 20th century, the question of how to meet human needs and preferences while safeguarding the global environment is a major concern facing humanity. This book reflects the state of the art of thinking on the necessary concepts, tools and instruments that are likely to help producers, consumers and governments to adjust their policies and practices. It covers theories and concepts, practical approaches and visions of industry and government. The book has been written by a team of authors that includes the most forward thinking researchers and managers on the issue. It is a handbook for all those involved in decisions about product design and eco-efficiency, about environment and resource use policies. Moreover it can serve as a handbook for all those who are studying with the aim to become involved in such issues.
It is clear that our society must become a more sustainable one. To that end, we must change both our production and our consumption patterns. Some argue that this implies the abolition of democratic processes, and thus of citizens' participation in environmental policy. Others argue the opposite: the only way to avoid impending environmental disaster is by engaging in common deliberation and contemplation. Is participation, then, a negative force or not? This volume is one of the first coordinated attempts to study the relationship between democratic, participatory forms of decision making and the quality of environmental decisions. The central question is how can the normatively desirable practice of participatory decision making be combined with an effective approach to environmental issues? Guided by a theoretical introduction by the editors, the 15 chapters deal with topics ranging from the scale of environmental problems, local agenda 21, infrastructural decisions, strategic planning, to environmental policy in developing countries. Three chapters are devoted to each of these broad themes. Each presents either a theoretical or an empirical argument about the central research question, shedding light on such issues as the measurement of decision quality, participation techniques, and the link between participation and decision quality, drawing on experience gained in Europe, North and South America, Asia, and Africa. The introductions to the individual parts of the book have been collectively written by the contributors, who represent a range of professional disciplines, including political science, public policy and planning.
`Europe is sometimes credited with a `polis,' but not a `demos'. Political integration and economic globalisation cannot diminish local identity and social memories. This fascinating collection of national case studies shows why there will always be a local `demos' located in ecology, economy, and society. But there will never be a transnational `demos', precisely because locality is the basis for meaningful sustainability. Long may it triumph.' Tim O'Riordan, CSERGE, University of East Anglia 'The book offers a refreshing perspective on the diversity of Europe and at the same time, on the interdependence of the policies, economies, and societies of European countries. Going beyond the dichotomies of `good and bad' and `leaders and laggards' in environmental matters, the authors contribute to a different understanding of the North-South divide in the process of European integration.' Angela Liberatore, European Commission, Directorate General for Research `This is a self-consciously revisionist volume, whose findings are theoretically significant, policy-relevant, and timely. Its insistence on `bringing society back in,' its debunking of the notion of a `Mediterranean syndrome,' its emphasis on developmental `leapfrogging' capacity of late-comers to emerge as leaders in contexts of late modernity, and its systematic attempt to reconceptualize the politics of Europeanization should be carefully listed to students and policy-makers concerned with collective action, Southern Europe, European integration, and environmental politics.' P. Nikiforos Diamandouros, University of Athens
Although this is a handbook for policy and regulation, the major part of it is filled with data on the three heavy metals that served as examples: mercury, cadmium and lead. Their stocks, productions, prices, trade flows, uses and applications, recovery and recycling, as well as their (eco)toxicological characteristics have been collected and presented to their fullest extent. In addition, they are thoroughly analysed for consistency, future developments and trends and, of course, their consequences for sustainable development and future policy and regulation. The second part, on policy and regulation, begins with an extensive and fundamental consideration on the characteristics of a sustainable heavy metals policy, whereby innovative policy tools are developed. In many aspects, these considerations are also valid for other metals and even non-metallic persistent substances. Addressing the European Union in particular, its policy-making structure and practice are critically analysed, in order to develop feasible and viable guidelines for long-, medium- and short-term EU policy measures. The results of this exercise are then applied to the three heavy metals. In each of these three chapters, all existing EU measures are presented in detail and confronted with better practices elsewhere, resulting in many suggestions and recommendations for the future. In the last chapter, the main conclusions and recommendations are carefully summarised. Together with a very extended table of contents, this makes the book easily accessible, in spite of its volume. This Handbook is a must for policy-makers and administrators at all levels, as well as for their counterparts in a wide variety of industries. In addition, it is well-suited for environmental science courses at academic or higher professional level.
Although economists have long advocated the use of economic instruments in the implementation of environmental policy, they have only recently gained acceptance. There is a growing consensus within the European Union that both Member States and the environment would benefit from the use of such incentive-based economic instruments. Environment, Incentives and the Common Market has been written by members of the Study Group on the Environment and Economics of the National Environmental Forum, which includes economists and social scientists from all the major Dutch universities and research institutes. The book covers a wide range of topics on the use of taxation and tradeable permits in a variety of abatement policies. It concludes with comments on political feasibility.
The long-term governance of radioactive waste continues to be a major complex and unresolved socio-technical issue. Previous technocratic approaches have so far failed. This empirically based study provides a novel approach to complementing technical expertise and economic/political power with stakeholder involvement. Inclusive participation is shown to be an asset that strengthens the processes, enhances robustness and facilitates sustainable decision making, thus adding value for all involved.
Research results discussed in this book demonstrate that effective water management tools and decision-making practices are needed to support interventions to increase availability and manage demand for scarce water supplies. Furthermore, the book bridges the gap between ideas and actions endorsed in the research-oriented environmental debate and their translation into policymaking structures and programs in developed and developing countries.
This book makes a case for a multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary approach to energy research-one that brings more of the social sciences to bear. Featuring eight studies from across the spectrum of the social sciences, each applying multiple disciplines to one or more energy-related problems, the book demonstrates the strong analytical and policy-making potential of such a broadened perspective. Case studies include: energy transitions of households in developing countries, the 'curse of oil', politics and visions for renewables, economics and ethics in emissions trading, and carbon capture and storage.
This collection of contributions from a diverse group of prominent international scientists and policy makers brings together their in-depth analyses and innovative ideas about how to resolve the 'energy for development' predicament. It includes studies quantifying the role of energy in socioeconomic development, analysis of the interplay between supranational and national institutions in policy implementation, the energy implications of demographic trends such as urbanisation, and exploration of supply-side issues such as the potential role of nuclear energy and 'cleaning' fossil fuel energy generation through carbon capture.
This book covers the entire Nile Basin and reflects the latest findings. It provides unique and cutting-edge insights into the region's agriculture, water resources, governance, poverty, productivity, upstream-downstream linkages, innovations, future plans and their implications. Many international summits and conferences have declared that there is an urgent need to save agriculture from its demise. Most international agencies now recognize that something must be done, but what? Beyond policy changes, the restructuring of global governance and institutional reforms are called for. Commitments must be translated into concrete actions leading to a renewed interest in agriculture and a return to the basic objective of achieving food security.
This book develops and applies an integrated socio-economic assessment of multi-use offshore platforms in European marine locations. The sites assessed regard infrastructures in the North Sea, the Baltic Sea, the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic coast. The assessment uses the results from the natural and engineering sciences as inputs, boundaries and constraints to the socio-economic analysis. The content of the book develops in a step-by-step, coherent and integrated manner. The presentation and the discussion on the methodology are followed by the detailed assessment of specific multi-use offshore platforms. A detailed risk analysis follows in which the results of the socio-economic assessment are integrated. This is complemented with sensitivity analysis. The book, offers insights that result from a multi-disciplinary approach which combines a broad range of expertise in hydraulics, wind engineering, aquaculture, renewable energy, marine environment, project management, socio-economics and governance. The analysis follows views and assessment of world experts from all relevant disciplines from academia, big companies and potential investors that have joined forces in the MERMAID project (vliz.be/projects/mermaidproject). The book is a valuable reading for academics, technicians, policy-makers and relevant stakeholders.
Major international, interdisciplinary research programmes are now underway to increase our understanding of how the Earth System operates and how it is changing through the effects of human activities. Although understanding and predictive capacity are still limited, scientists already agree that significant global changes must be expected in the next 50 years that will affect the capacity of the Earth to sustain life. Governments, business and industry have, therefore, come to recognize that scientific knowledge about the changing global environment - as yet incomplete but rapidly evolving - is becoming indispensable for wise long-term policy making, the goal being to design preventive, adaptive and remedial measures. Thus global change science and policy making are engaged in a process of forming a new partnership that is taking shape as further insights evolve. Effective continuous interactions between the partners requires mutual understanding: decision-makers need to understand the unique potential but also the limitations of the results of scientific research in progress while scientists must take into account the priorities and constraints of policy-makers in designing and implementing policies that will promote long-term sustainability of life on this planet. This book contributes in a unique manner to this mutual understanding: It gives an overview of the ongoing relevant research focusing on the two major international programmes, the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme and the World Climate Research Programme. These are described in terms understandable to the interested lay reader. The results of the latest review of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) are included. This is followed by an analysis of the response process that is in progress with respect to governments - singly and multilaterally - by business and industry and by public interest groups. This process is leading to interactive structures, assessment procedures and legislation, nationally and internationally. Business and industry are changing from mere watchfulness to recognition of new opportunities for products and processes. Six interviews with prominent figures from business and government circles in the Netherlands provide a vivid illustration of the questions at issue. The appendices provide overviews of methods for incorporating the results of global change science into policy-making and development of long lasting projects. Adaptation to climate change serves as an example. Thus, for the first time, one book describes both ongoing research work in global change and the response processes that the research results are evoking. It is of interest to all stake-holders in the scientific community as well as to decision-makers in industry, business and government.
Will major global environmental change take place in the 21st century? How much is known about the change? Can we find out more? Must we take it seriously? Should we do something now, or can we wait a decade or so? This book seeks to answer these questions. Scientists are reaching consensus that rates of change in many of the environmental indicators are already increasing in some cases, and are likely to increase even more rapidly in the 21st century. Although there are still uncertainties, the case is made that the consequences of not taking action are too great to take a chance that the scientists' expectations are wrong. The book leads to the admonition - Think long term, act now! Signs of Change (Chapter 1) Chapter 1 provides a definition of global change and some examples of changes already taking place in the driving forces (demographics, energy consumption, deforestation, 'mining of groundwater', etc. ) and in some of the environmental variables (increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations, depletion of stratospheric ozone, desert ification, decreasing biodiversity, etc. ) The chapter raises some important questions for science and society, and concludes that global environmental change is both a scientific and a political issue.
Product Policy in Europe: New Environmental Perspectives presents an overview and assessment of a relatively new area of environmental policy in Europe. Whereas the more `traditional' environment policy mainly deals with individual emissions, waste and substances, product policy is a more comprehensive approach addressing the environmental impacts of products during their whole life cycle. The study reviews the current state of affairs and the prospects for product policy in the EU and Switzerland. It shows the relationship with other areas of environmental policy and the potential role of new instruments and approaches. Four case studies (on paint, batteries, public procurement and eco-labelling) illustrate the barriers and opportunities of product policy. Environmental policy makers and policy analysts will find useful information and recommendations in this book. It is also written for those who have a professional interest in reducing the environmental impact of products, including marketing managers, product developers, procurement officers and staff members of environmental and consumer organisations, standardisation and certification institutions, etc.