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International institutions and agencies from the Global North are no longer the sole initiators of development norms and best practices. The proliferation of exports and imports of social, economic and policy management models have called for a rethinking of South-South relations. To date, most studies have focused on the drivers and strategies of international initiatives made by emerging powers; none have analysed the impact of these initiatives on the receiving country's institutions, and on the structures of international organisations. In this book, Carolina Milhorance examines the content, process and consequences of the internationalisation of Brazil's rural public policy instruments. Brazil earned wide international recognition in the early 2000s for its agricultural modernisation and social policies; its increasing influence illustrated the specific political interests of coalitions that are embedded in domestic and international struggles. Drawing on extensive field research - including more than 280 interviews - conducted in Brazil, Mozambique, South Africa, Malawi, France and Italy, Milhorance analyses the effects of the internationalisation of Brazilian policy solutions on national and local political systems in recipient countries, highlighting specifically the case of Mozambique. Relying on a new theoretical approach to International Relations - one based on public policy analysis and international political sociology - she moves beyond a debate about conventional notions of international power. New Geographies of Global Policy-Making will be of interest to scholars and researchers of international relations, public policy analysis, political sociology, comparative politics, and Latin American studies.
This publication describes how pasture, fodder and livestock production have been integrated into conservation agriculture systems in Brazil's tropical zones. Vast areas of forest have been cleared in the tropical areas of Brazil for establishment of pastures that become unproductive once the native fertility of the soil is exhausted; this leads to yet more forest clearing. Integrated crop-livestock zero tillage systems allow for the sustainable production of high-yielding pasture without further deforestation; in this system, grazing livestock convert both pastures and crop residues into cash. The ability of pasture to build up the fertility and biological activity of the topsoil is well known. The economies of the system are discussed and its very positive ecological effects are described at lengths. This publication is geared towards agronomists, advanced farmers, extension workers and agricultural decision-makers throughout the tropics and sub-tropics.
This publication provides step-by-step guidance on developing grids for soil carbon stocks. It covers preparation of local soil data, compilation and pre-processing of ancillary spatial data sets, upscaling methodologies, and uncertainty assessments. Guidance is mainly specific to soil organic carbon (SOC) data, but also contains generic sections on soil grid development, which is relevant for other soil properties. This second edition of the guide provides methodologies and technical steps to produce SOC maps and has been updated with knowledge and practical experience gained during the implementation process of GSOCmap V1.0 in 2017.
This book presents the outcome of an interdisciplinary and international workshop supported by the Volkswagen Stiftung (funding line 'Knowledge for Tomorrow') on the topic of 'Natural Resources, Socio-Ecological Sensitivity and Climate Change in the Volta-Oti Basin, West Africa'. The conference was jointly organised by Goethe-University Frankfurt (Germany) and the University of Kara (Togo) held from March 6 to 8, 2019 in northern Togo. It aimed to strengthen capacities of junior scientists from the sub-region, exchange and mobilise theoretical and methodological background from various scientific fields (Botany, Construction, Geology, Geography, Infrastructure, Politics, Remote Sensing, Sociology and Urban Planning). One goal was to deliver reliable elements for ongoing and profound environmental analyses that lie outside the common questions of the academic and civil society stakeholders. Ecosystem fragmentation and deforestation in West Africa are mainly triggered by humans such as agriculture and small-scale forest disturbances for charcoal and firewood production. Increasing population pressure, declining of carrying capacity and demand for agricultural land caused the reduction of land conservation capacities, even in protected areas. The complexity of interactions between environmental and socio-ecological systems and subsequent effects (sensitivity) has raised ongoing international awareness in light of ongoing climate change. By the example of natural resources, land use and stakeholders' perceptions within the Volta-Oti Basin the book's proceedings present, discuss and distribute new findings that will sustainably stimulate the international debate. The workshop also intended to overcome national borders and language barriers between the Anglophone (Ghana) and the Francophone (Benin, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Togo) research communities, and supported better West African cooperation and networking. The young as well as the established partners formed new collaborations, and the event at the University of Kara (Togo) was a truly unique opportunity for all involved, not only to discuss science, but also to assess applied and best future management practices for the Oti-Volta Basin in West Africa.