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Book & CD-ROM. pace weather refers to variations in the space environment between the sun and Earth (and throughout the solar system) that can affect technologies in space and on Earth. Space weather can disrupt the technology that forms the backbone of this country's economic vitality and national security, including satellite and airline operations, communications networks, navigation systems, and the electric power grid. As the Nation becomes ever more dependent on these technologies, space weather poses an increasing risk to infrastructure and the economy. Further, the Strategic National Risk Assessment has identified space weather as a hazard that poses significant risk to the security of the Nation. Clearly, reducing vulnerability to space weather needs to be a national priority. The National Space Weather Strategy (Strategy) and the accompanying National Space Weather Action Plan (Action Plan) together seek to enhance the integration of existing national efforts and to add important capabilities to help meet growing demands for space-weather information. The Strategy and Action Plan build on recent efforts to reduce risks associated with natural hazards and improve resilience of essential facilities and systems, aiming to foster a collaborative environment in which government, industry, and the American people can better understand and prepare for the effects of space weather. The Nation must continue to leverage existing public and private networks of expertise and capabilities and pursue targeted enhancements to improve the ability to manage risks associated with space weather. This book outlines objectives for enhancing the Nation's space-weather readiness in three key areas: national preparedness, forecasting, and understanding. It also describes the study process, the study requirements and their relevance and importance, an assessment and accounting of current and planned space weather observing systems used or to be used for operations, an analysis of gaps between the observing systems' capabilities and their ability to meet documented requirements, and a summary of key findings.
Optical Payloads for Space Missions is a comprehensive collection of optical spacecraft payloads with contributions by leading international rocket-scientists and instrument builders. * Covers various applications, including earth observation, communications, navigation, weather, and science satellites and deep space exploration * Each chapter covers one or more specific optical payload * Contains a review chapter which provides readers with an overview on the background, current status, trends, and future prospects of the optical payloads * Provides information on the principles of the optical spacecraft payloads, missions background, motivation and challenges, as well as the scientific returns, benefits and applications
In November 2013, the International Space Station (ISS or Station) completed 15 years of continuous operation in low Earth orbit, marking a significant achievement in the history of human spaceflight. Two months later, the Administration announced its intent to extend Station operations until 2024. Originally designed and tested for a 15-year life span, the ISS may now operate for 26 years. NASA continues to utilise the ISS as a research platform to study and mitigate a variety of human health risks that will facilitate long-term exploration missions. However, a major portion of the Station's future success as a research platform hinges on the ability of the Center for the Advancement of Science in Space (CASIS) the group that manages non-NASA research on the portion of the ISS known as the ISS National Laboratory to attract sufficient interest and funding from private users and investors. This book examines the challenges facing NASA in extending ISS operations until 2024. Specifically, it assesses NASA's progress in certifying the Station's structure and hardware for a longer lifespan; cost and schedule estimates associated with the extension; and efforts to increase utilisation of the Station for exploration and other scientific research. Furthermore, this book examines the current level of Station research; CASIS's efforts to facilitate non-NASA research aboard the ISS; and transportation challenges that could hinder full research utilisation of the ISS.
The U.S. has spent almost $43 billion to develop, assemble, and operate the International Space Station (ISS) over the past two decades. The NASA Authorization Act of 2010 required NASA to enter into a cooperative agreement with a not-for-profit entity to manage the ISS National Laboratory and in 2011 did so with the Center for the Advancement of Science in Space (CASIS). CASIS is charged with maximising use of the ISS for scientific research by executing several required activities. Recently, questions have arisen about the progress being made to implement the required activities and the impact it has had on ISS's return on the investment. This book assesses the extent to which CASIS has implemented the required management activities; and NASA and CASIS measure and assess CASIS's performance. Furthermore, this book assesses the extent to which NASA has ensured essential spare parts are available and ISS structures and hardware are sound for continued ISS utilisation through 2020.
Since the retirement of the Space Shuttle Program in July 2011, the United States has lacked a domestic capability to transport crew and -- until recently -- cargo to and from the International Space Station (ISS or Station). Consequently, NASA has been relying on the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) for crew transportation. In anticipation of the Shuttle's retirement, Congress and the President directed NASA to foster the commercial spaceflight industry as a means of developing domestic cargo and crew transportation capabilities to the Station. In November 2005, NASA created the Commercial Crew and Cargo Program Office and in 2011, activated a separate Commercial Crew Program Office to reflect the increased funding and priority for commercial crew. In June 2013, the Office of Inspector General (OIG) issued a report examining NASA's efforts to foster a commercial market for cargo resupply missions to the ISS. The report discusses NASA's funding over the past 7 years of SpaceX and Orbital to further development of spaceflight capabilities and, on a separate track, the Agency's contracts with the companies for a combined 20 cargo resupply missions to the ISS. As a complement to that report, this book examines NASA's efforts to pursue commercial crew capabilities.
Scientists classify comets and asteroids that pass within 28 million miles of Earth's orbit as near-Earth objects (NEOs). Asteroids that collide and break into smaller fragments are the source of most NEOs, and the resulting fragments bombard the Earth at the rate of over 100 tons a day. Although the vast majority of NEOs that enter Earth's atmosphere disintegrate before reaching the surface, those larger than 100 meters (328 feet) may survive the descent and cause destruction in and around their impact sites. Furthermore, even smaller objects that disintegrate before reaching Earth's surface can cause significant damage. This book examines NASA's NEO Program and assesses the Agency's progress toward meeting statutory and other Program goals. Specifically, it reviews NASA's allocation and use of resources and plans for the future of the Program.
This atlas is based on the lunar global Digital Elevation Models (DEM) of Chang'E-1 (CE-1), and presents CCD stereo image data with digital photogrammetry. The spatial resolution of the DEM in this atlas is 500m, with horizontal accuracy of 192m and vertical accuracy of 120m. Color-shaded relief maps with contour lines are used to show the lunar topographical characteristics. The topographical data gathered by CE-1 can provide fundamental information for the study of lunar topographical, morphological and geological structures, as well as for lunar evolution research.
The space surrounding our planet is full of opportunities and resources. Ranging from a hundred to a few thousand kilometers around Earth, our space-neighborhood offers an excellent vantage point to the universe, and a great opportunity to push the frontiers of science and knowledge. Manned missions advance research on human biology, health, and life in microgravity conditions. Satellite technologies gather essential data to better understand and manage our home planet by monitoring Earth's environmental changes. Extraordinary developments in telecommunications and navigation are now indispensable to everyday life, and we cannot underestimate the emerging industry of space-tourism or the boom in projects to explore more distant planets such as Mars. But space also means risk. What is the real threat of meteorites? How much debris - from old rocket stages to mere flakes of paint - has been left there since space exploration began? How serious is this problem today? What is the risk of solar flares and particle bursts? How does our own Sun influence our climate? And what about the danger of cosmic radiation for humans and devices stationed beyond our atmosphere? By tackling a wide range of topics, this book aims to give a comprehensive overview of the opportunities and hazards in our immediate space environment. It also exposes the challenges that governments, space agencies, private companies, and human communities have to face in order to manage space together to create long-term and safe access to it, while protecting life on Earth.
Brave astronauts, flaring rockets, and majestic launches are only one side of the story of spaceflight. Any mission to space depends on years-if not decades-of work by thousands of dedicated individuals on the ground. These are the people whose voices offer a friendly link to Earth in the void of space, whose hands maneuver rovers across the face of planets, and whose skills guide astronauts home. This book is a long-overdue history of three major centers that have managed important missions since the dawn of the space age. In Mission Control, Michael Johnson explores the famous Johnson Space Center in Houston, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, and the European Space Operations Centre in Darmstadt, Germany-each a strategically designedmicro-environment responsible for the operation of spacecraft and the safety of passengers. Johnson explains the motivations behind the location of each center and their intricate design. He shows how the robotic spaceflight missions overseen in Pasadena and Darmstadt set these centers apart from Houston. He argues that the type of spacecraft and the missions they controlled-not the nations they represented-defined how the centers developed, yet they played vital national roles as space technology became a battleground for international power struggles in the Cold War years and even after.
Chinas position in the world has been evolving. It seeks increased influence and independence from foreign powers with the ultimate goal of preserving Chinas sovereignty, independence, territorial integrity, and political system. Over the long term, China seeks to transform the international system to better suit its interests, but seeks to integrate itself into the existing international system over the short term with the goal of reshaping the Asia-Pacific political environment into one in which its interests must be given greater attention. Chinas pursuit of space power is intended to support this strategy. China views the development of space power as a necessary move for a country that wants to strengthen its national power. Indeed, Chinas goal is to become a space power on par with the United States and to foster a space industry that is the equal of those in the United States, Europe, and Russia. This book begins with an elaborate discussion on China's progress in space technologies and examines the implications it has on the United States. Furthermore, this title reviews the evolution of Chinas military thinking and the changed role of space within that context. It briefly examines Chinas space capabilities and development before discussing its concepts for military space operations and concludes with future Chinese space operations.