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This book presents the most important thermochemical and physical techniques of boriding. The formation and characterization of different boride layers or boride coatings are compared in this book. The author analyzes the technological aspects of boriding processes, presenting the advantages and disadvantages of each method. The effect of the boriding techniques on the microstructure of borided materials are also indicated. The mechanism of formation of active boron atoms or ions and the phenomena during re-melting of alloying material together with the substrate are described. Special attention is devoted to powder-pack boriding, electrochemical boriding in borax, gas boriding, plasma gas or paste boriding and laser or plasma surface alloying with boron, acknowledged as the most important current methods in boriding. The thermodynamics of gas boriding is also analyzed.
This book is intended to serve as core text or handy reference on two key areas of metallic materials: (i) mechanical behavior and properties evaluated by mechanical testing; and (ii) different types of metal working or forming operations to produce useful shapes. The book consists of 16 chapters which are divided into two parts. The first part contains nine chapters which describe tension (including elastic stress - strain relation, relevant theory of plasticity, and strengthening methods), compression, hardness, bending, torsion - pure shear, impact loading, creep and stress rupture, fatigue, and fracture. The second part is composed of seven chapters and covers fundamentals of mechanical working, forging, rolling, extrusion, drawing of flat strip, round bar, and tube, deep drawing, and high-energy rate forming. The book comprises an exhaustive description of mechanical properties evaluated by testing of metals and metal working in sufficient depth and with reasonably wide coverage. The book is written in an easy-to-understand manner and includes many solved problems. More than 150 numerical problems and many multiple choice questions as exercise along with their answers have also been provided. The mathematical analyses are well elaborated without skipping any intermediate steps. Slab method of analysis or free-body equilibrium approach is used for the analytical treatment of mechanical working processes. For hot working processes, different frictional conditions (sliding, sticking and mixed sticking-sliding) have been considered to estimate the deformation loads. In addition to the slab method of analysis, this book also contains slip-line field theory, its application to the static system, and the steady state motion, Further, this book includes upper-bound theorem, and upper-bound solutions for indentation, compression, extrusion and strip drawing. The book can be used to teach graduate and undergraduate courses offered to students of mechanical, aerospace, production, manufacturing and metallurgical engineering disciplines. The book can also be used for metallurgists and practicing engineers in industry and development courses in the metallurgy and metallic manufacturing industries.
This technical meeting will focus on Alloy 718 and Superalloys in this class relative to alloy and process development, production, product applications, trends and the development of advanced modeling tools. The symposium provides an opportunity for authors to present technical advancements relative to a broad spectrum of areas while assessing their impact on related fields associated with this critical alloy group. There are continuing innovations relative to these alloys as well as novel processing techniques which continue to extend applications in very challenging environments ranging from corrosion resistance in the deep sea to high-stressed space applications.
The International Symposium for Testing and Failure Analysis (ISTFA) 2018 was co-located with the International Test Conference (ITC) 2018 and held October 28 to November 1 in Phoenix, Arizona, USA at the Phoenix Convention Center. The theme for the November 2018 conference was Failures Worth Analyzing. While technology advances fast and the market demands the latest and the greatest, successful companies strive to stay competitive and remain profitable.
This book provides background and guidance on the use of the structural hot-spot stress approach to fatigue analysis. The book also offers Design S-N curves for use with the structural hot-spot stress for a range of weld details, and presents parametric formulas for calculating stress increases due to misalignment and structural discontinuities. Highlighting the extension to structures fabricated from plates and non-tubular sections. The structural hot-spot stress approach focuses on cases of potential fatigue cracking from the weld toe and it has been in use for many years in tubular joints. Following an explanation of the structural hot-spot stress, its definition and its relevance to fatigue, the book describes methods for its determination. It considers stress determination from both finite element analysis and strain gauge measurements, and emphasizes the use of finite element stress analysis, providing guidance on the choice of element type and size for use with either solid or shell elements. Lastly, it illustrates the use of the recommendations in four case studies involving the fatigue assessment of welded structures using the structural hot-spot stress
This book is intended as a text for upper undergraduate and graduate courses on kinetics of metallurgical processes for students of materials science, metallurgical engineering, and chemical engineering. Focusing on basic and essential topics, selected from the authors' teaching and research, it serves as a comprehensive guide to metallurgical kinetics. Chapters 1-10 discuss the logic of various kinetics processes, while Chapter 11 explores the systematic analysis of raw rate data generated from controlled experiments. The final chapters illustrate how the fundamental concept of thermal activation is used to describe the kinetics of rate-dependent plastic deformation and creep fracture. With numerous examples, illustrations, and step-by-step tutorials, it is ideally suited for both self-study and classroom use. The examples were selected from research papers to highlight how the topics discussed can be, and are, used to solve real-world technological problems. Providing a comprehensive list of resources for further study, and end-of-chapter review questions to help students test their knowledge, it can be used for university coursework or as a text for professional development courses.
This collection is organized around the central theme of Martensite by Design. Contributions include design, microstructure, properties, advanced processing and manufacturing, performance, phase transformations, and characterization.
This book serves as a comprehensive resource on metals and materials selection for the petrochemical industrial sector. The petrochemical industry involves large scale investments, and to maintain profitability the plants are to be operated with minimum downtime and failure of equipment, which can also cause safety hazards. To achieve this objective proper selection of materials, corrosion control, and good engineering practices must be followed in both the design and the operation of plants. Engineers and professional of different disciplines involved in these activities are required to have some basic understanding of metallurgy and corrosion. This book is written with the objective of servings as a one-stop shop for these engineering professionals. The book first covers different metallic materials and their properties, metal forming processes, welding, and corrosion and corrosion control measures. This is followed by considerations in material selection and corrosion control in three major industrial sectors, oil & gas production, oil refinery, and fertilizers. The importance of pressure vessel codes as well as inspection and maintenance repair practices have also been highlighted. The book will be useful for technicians and entry level engineers in these industrial sectors. Additionally, the book may also be used as primary or secondary reading for graduate and professional coursework.
This book introduces readers to titanium matrix composites (TMCs) with novel network microstructures. The bottleneck problem of extreme brittleness and low strengthening effect surrounding TMCs fabricated by means of powder metallurgy has recently been solved by designing network microstructures, which yield both high strength and superior ductility. As such, network structured TMCs will increasingly offer materials characterized by low weight, high strength, high temperature resistance and superior deformability. The book systematically addresses the design, fabrication, microstructure, properties, modification, and toughening mechanisms of these composites, which will help us find innovative solutions to a range of current and future engineering problems.
Bonding Theory for Metals and Alloys, 2e builds on the success of the first edition by introducing new experimental data to each chapter that support the breakthrough Covalon Conduction Theory developed by Dr. Wang. Through the recognition of the covalent bond in coexistence with the 'free' electron band, the book describes and demonstrates how the many experimental observations on metals and alloys can all be reconciled. Subsequently, it shows how the individual view of metals and alloys by physicists, chemists and metallurgists can be unified. This book covers such phenomena as the Miscibility Gap between two liquid metals, phase equilibrium, superconductivity, superplasticity, liquid metal embrittlement, and corrosion. The author also introduces a new theory based on 'Covalon' conduction, which forms the basis for a new approach to the theory of superconductivity. Bonding Theory for Metals and Alloys, 2e is of interest to physical and theoretical chemists alongside engineers working in research and industry, as well as materials scientists, physicists, and students at the upper undergraduate and graduate level in these fields.
ASM Handbook, Volume 2A is intended for users of aluminum alloys seeking information on the processes, capabilities, and variables in producing and fabricating aluminum products. Beginning with the classification and underlying physical metallurgy of aluminum alloys, this new handbook is a significant update and expansion of coverage on the technologies of aluminum casting, metalworking, composite processing, heat treating, surface treatment and joining. Updates address ongoing advances in high-integrity die castings, expanded coverage on surface treatment technologies, and contributions from experts in a wide variety of technological areas. New articles address aluminum recycling, melt processing, solidification and castability of aluminum alloys, extrusion, forging design, aluminum foams, semisolid casting, powder and additive technologies, quenching, laser machining, anodizing, organic coating, conversion coating, and laser welding. Significant updates are included on brazing, extrusion, anodizing, welding, and shape casting. Volume 2A provides a detailed and broad-based reference that can give readers insights and solutions on the factors that influence process selection, product quality, performance, and serviceability of aluminum products.
This edited volume examines metallurgical technologies and their place in society throughout the centuries. The authors discuss metal alloys and the use of raw mineral resources as well as fabrication of engineered alloys for a variety of applications. The applications covered in depth include financial, mining and smelting, bridges, armor, aircraft, and power generation. The authors detail the multiple levels and scales of impact that metallurgical advances have had and continue to have on society. They include case studies with guidance for future research design and innovation of metallic materials relevant to societal needs. Includes case studies written by industry professionals with guidance for future research design and innovation; Demonstrates metal materials design that reflects relevant societal needs; Covers a broad range of applied materials used in aircraft, armor, bridges, and power generation, among others.