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This book is the eighth volume of the proceedings of the 4th GeoShanghai International Conference that was held on May 27 - 30, 2018. This book, entitled Ground Improvement and Geosynthetics , presents the latest information on the new technologies and practical applications in various geotechnical engineering projects and advancements on ground improvement and geosynethetics. This volume presents detailed design procedures and examples to demonstrate the applications of the latest ground improvement technologies and innovative geosynethetics in geotechnical engineering. Topics include pile/column technology as foundations, retaining structures, or embankment supports, physical and chemical technologies for soil stabilization and ground improvement, geosynthetic reinforcement for roads, slopes, retaining walls, and foundations. Each of the papers included in this book received at least two positive peer reviews. The editors would like to express their sincerest appreciation to all of the anonymous reviewers all over the world, for their diligent work.
This book offers a compact guide to geological core analysis, covering both theoretical and practical aspects of geological studies of reservoir cores. It equips the reader with the knowledge needed to precisely and accurately analyse cores. The book begins by providing a description of a coring plan, coring, and core sampling and continues with a sample preparation for geological analysis. It then goes on to explain how the samples are named, classified and integrated in order to understand the geological properties that dictate reservoir characteristics. Subsequently, porosity and permeability data derived from routine experiments are combined to define geological rock types and reduce reservoir heterogeneity. Sequence stratigraphy is introduced for reservoir zonation. Core log preparation is also covered, allowing reservoirs to be analysed even more accurately. As the study of core samples is the only way to accurately gauge reservoir properties, this book provides a useful guide for all geologists and engineers working with subsurface samples.
This second edition of the book Sustainable Development of Mountain Regions: Southeastern Europe integrates the scientific results and expertise of the researchers from the countries in Southeastern Europe. The book consists of updated information for the topics observed in first edition and several new chapters with analysis of some problems in the mountain regions of four new for the edition countries in Southeastern European space. The general themes in the book are related to Global problems and mountain regions; Nature resources and landuse in mountain regions; Social, economic and regional problems of mountain regions; Nature protection, conservation and monitoring and Networks and strategies for mountain regions. The key topics for discussion are: Natural recourses and land use in mountain regions. Sustainable social and economic development of the mountain regions. Natural disasters and risk prevention. Spatial modeling and planning. Nature protection, monitoring and conservation. Politics and sustainable practices for development of mountain regions. Transborder and regional cooperation. Mountain regions in Southeastern Europe are characterized by unique landscape and biological diversity and great economic potential. They have function as a living space and provide different groups of ecosystem and landscape services. In social and economic aspects these regions are one of the poorest in Southeastern European countries with unused potential. Human, ecological and economic problems arising in various mountain regions have the same basic characteristics irrespective of the country. Some mountain regions are subject to specific for the conditions of the mountain and country policy for planning, development and mountain population promotion. The general goal is development of whole economy and the efficient management of natural resources and prevention of natural and tec hnological disasters. The mountain regions are one of the most threatened landscape systems in Southeastern Europe. Understanding the importance of the mountain regions and conservation of the natural heritage require scientific and institutional cooperation at all levels.
This book provides the reader with a comprehensive understanding of the applications of chemostratigraphy. The first chapter of the book offers an introduction to the technique. This is followed by a chapter detailing sample preparation and analytical techniques. Chapter 3 focuses on the techniques utilised to establish the mineralogical affinities of elements, while the general principles of how to build a chemostratigraphic scheme are covered in Chapter 4. Chapters 5, 6 and 7 provide information on the applications of chemostratigraphy to clastic, carbonate and unconventional reservoirs respectively, and various case studies are presented. Wellsite applications, a discussion and conclusion section form the latter part of the book. The book will appeal to graduate and post graduate students of geology and professionals working in the hydrocarbon sector as a key reference text in chemostratigraphy.
This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. This book examines how China can increase the share of natural gas in its energy system. China's energy strategy has global ramifications and impact, and central to this strategy is the country's transition from coal to gas. The book presents the culmination of a two-year collaboration between the Development Research Center of the State Council (DRC) and Shell. With the Chinese government's strategic aim to increase the share of gas in the energy mix from 5.8% in 2014 to 10% and 15% in 2020 and 2030 respectively, the book outlines how China can achieve its gas targets. Providing both quantifiable metrics and policy measures for the transition, it is a much needed addition to the literature on Chinese energy policy. The research and the resulting recommendations of this study have fed directly into the Chinese government's 13th Five-Year Plan, and provide unique insights into the Chinese government and policy-making. Due to its global impact, the book is a valuable resource for policy makers in both China and the rest of the world.
Weak rocks encountered in open pit mines cover a wide variety of materials, with properties ranging between soil and rock. As such, they can provide a significant challenge for the slope designer. For these materials, the mass strength can be the primary control in the design of the pit slopes, although structures can also play an important role. Because of the typically weak nature of the materials, groundwater and surface water can also have a controlling influence on stability. Guidelines for Open Pit Slope Design in Weak Rocks is a companion to Guidelines for Open Pit Slope Design, which was published in 2009 and dealt primarily with strong rocks. Both books were commissioned under the Large Open Pit (LOP) project, which is sponsored by major mining companies. These books provide summaries of the current state of practice for the design, implementation and assessment of slopes in open pits, with a view to meeting the requirements of safety, as well as the recovery of anticipated ore reserves. This book, which follows the general cycle of the slope design process for open pits, contains 12 chapters. These chapters were compiled and written by industry experts and contain a large number of case histories. The initial chapters address field data collection, the critical aspects of determining the strength of weak rocks, the role of groundwater in weak rock slope stability and slope design considerations, which can differ somewhat from those applied to strong rock. The subsequent chapters address the principal weak rock types that are encountered in open pit mines, including cemented colluvial sediments, weak sedimentary mudstone rocks, soft coals and chalk, weak limestone, saprolite, soft iron ores and other leached rocks, and hydrothermally altered rocks. A final chapter deals with design implementation aspects, including mine planning, design implementation, monitoring, surface water control and closure of weak rock slopes. Key Features: Illustration of the best practice in modern open pit mines State of the art approaches for challenging designs Use of numerous case histories written by large-open pit operators to illustrate state of practice Individual chapters/sections written by leaders in the industry As with the other books in this series, Guidelines for Open Pit Slope Design in Weak Rocks provides guidance to practitioners involved in the design and implementation of open pit slopes, particularly geotechnical engineers, mining engineers, geologists and other personnel working at operating mines.
This book describes the second phase of the Qinghai-Tibetan railway construction project and is the first technological book discussing the geological routing of the Qinghai-Tibetan railway project on the roof of the world. Based on practical experience of railway construction work, it provides a substantial number of examples with detailed descriptions and conclusions. The complex geological environment of the Qinghai-Tibetan railway as well as the selection and optimization of the route are illustrated vividly and clearly with quotes, figures, photos, and tables. Connecting Golmud and Lhasa, it has a total length of 1142 km and at the Tanggula Pass has an altitude of 5072m-higher than any other in the world. A 960 km section is on a plateau at altitudes above 4000 m, and 550 km are in the permafrost region, making it the world's longest and highest railway in the permafrost plateau region. The book is a model for the integration of theory and practice, making it a valuable reference source for civil engineering professionals working in geological routing in permafrost plateau regions, active fault zones, meizoseismal areas, nature reserves, and regions with geohazards such as steep slopes, sand and snow drifts and geothermal hazards.
You hold in your hands the most original guide to understanding the oil and gas world - from exploration and production to the related economics and geopolitics. Tim Daley has spent years travelling the world and living as an expatriate in a quest to secure resources and meet humanity's energy demands. After several decades in the hydrocarbon business, he was keen to write a book about his experiences in an easily accessible language, enabling everyone to grasp the technicalities involved in evaluating the resources that lie beneath our feet. If you want to learn how hydrocarbons are discovered and produced, Tim's explanations have the added colour of vivid descriptions of the sites discussed and allow you to meet some of the most important characters in the industry, and to gain new insights into this global industry. In addition, the depictions of key events and locations add an element of national politics and travelogue feel. This book is intended for all members of the general public interested in how hydrocarbon resources are discovered, providing a concise account of how oil geologists view the subsurface, and illustrated by the author's personal experiences in countries around the world. The book will also be of interest to ex-oil industry workers, allow geologists to compare the author's experiences to their own, and provide non-geologists essential insights into how the oil is won. Written in an informal style, it makes for a relaxing yet informative reading experience.
This book presents operational modal analysis (OMA), employing a coherent and comprehensive Bayesian framework for modal identification and covering stochastic modeling, theoretical formulations, computational algorithms, and practical applications. Mathematical similarities and philosophical differences between Bayesian and classical statistical approaches to system identification are discussed, allowing their mathematical tools to be shared and their results correctly interpreted. The authors provide their data freely in the web at https://doi.org/10.7910/DVN/7EVTXG Many chapters can be used as lecture notes for the general topic they cover beyond the OMA context. After an introductory chapter (1), Chapters 2-7 present the general theory of stochastic modeling and analysis of ambient vibrations. Readers are first introduced to the spectral analysis of deterministic time series (2) and structural dynamics (3), which do not require the use of probability concepts. The concepts and techniques in these chapters are subsequently extended to a probabilistic context in Chapter 4 (on stochastic processes) and in Chapter 5 (on stochastic structural dynamics). In turn, Chapter 6 introduces the basics of ambient vibration instrumentation and data characteristics, while Chapter 7 discusses the analysis and simulation of OMA data, covering different types of data encountered in practice. Bayesian and classical statistical approaches to system identification are introduced in a general context in Chapters 8 and 9, respectively. Chapter 10 provides an overview of different Bayesian OMA formulations, followed by a general discussion of computational issues in Chapter 11. Efficient algorithms for different contexts are discussed in Chapters 12-14 (single mode, multi-mode, and multi-setup). Intended for readers with a minimal background in mathematics, Chapter 15 presents the 'uncertainty laws' in OMA, one of the latest advances that establish the achievable precision limit of OMA and provide a scientific basis for planning ambient vibration tests. Lastly Chapter 16 discusses the mathematical theory behind the results in Chapter 15, addressing the needs of researchers interested in learning the techniques for further development. Three appendix chapters round out the coverage. This book is primarily intended for graduate/senior undergraduate students and researchers, although practitioners will also find the book a useful reference guide. It covers materials from introductory to advanced level, which are classified accordingly to ensure easy access. Readers with an undergraduate-level background in probability and statistics will find the book an invaluable resource, regardless of whether they are Bayesian or non-Bayesian.
Oil and gas still power the bulk of our world, from automobiles and the power plants that supply electricity to our homes and businesses, to jet fuel, plastics, and many other products that enrich our lives. With the relatively recent development of hydraulic fracturing ( fracking ), multilateral, directional, and underbalanced drilling, and enhanced oil recovery, oil and gas production is more important and efficient than ever before. Along with these advancements, as with any new engineering process or technology, come challenges, many of them environmental. More than just a text that outlines the environmental challenges of oil and gas production that have always been there, such as gas migration and corrosion, this groundbreaking new volume takes on the most up-to-date processes and technologies involved in this field. Filled with dozens of case studies and examples, the authors, two of the most well-known and respected petroleum engineers in the world, have outlined all of the major environmental aspects of oil and gas production and how to navigate them, achieving a more efficient, effective, and profitable operation. This groundbreaking volume is a must-have for any petroleum engineer working in the field, and for students and faculty in petroleum engineering departments worldwide.
Permo-Triassic Salt Provinces of Europe, North Africa and the Atlantic Margins: Tectonics and Hydrocarbon Potential deals with the evolution and tectonic significance of the Triassic evaporite rocks in the Alpine orogenic system and the Neogene basins in the Iberian Peninsula, North Africa, and the western Mediterranean. As the nature of the Triassic evaporite sequences, the varied diapiric structures they feed, and the occurrence of hydrocarbons suggest that the Triassic evaporites represent an efficient system to trap hydrocarbons, this book explores the topic with a wide swath, also devoting content to a relatively unexplored topic, the mobilization and deformation of the Triassic salt in the western and northern Tethys (from Iberia and North Africa, Pyrenees and Alps, Adriatic and Ionian) during the subsequent Alpine orogenic processes. The book includes chapters updating varied topics, like the Permian and Triassic chronostratigraphic scales, palaeogeographic reconstructions of the western Tethys since the Late Permian, the petroleum systems associated with Permo-Triassic salt, allochthonous salt tectonics, and a latest revision of salt tectonic processes in the Permian Zechstein Basin, the Atlantic Margins (from Barents Sea, Scotia, Portugal, Morocco, and Mauritania), the Alpine folded belts in Europe, and the various Triassic salt provinces in North Africa. The book is the go-to guide for salt tectonic researchers and those working in the hydrocarbon exploration industry.