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See below for a selection of the latest books from Petrology category. Presented with a red border are the Petrology books that have been lovingly read and reviewed by the experts at Lovereading. With expert reading recommendations made by people with a passion for books and some unique features Lovereading will help you find great Petrology books and those from many more genres to read that will keep you inspired and entertained. And it's all free!
Conferenee on Industrialization, made the This study ex amines the faetors which affeet the loeation of mineral proeessing in developing following points: eountries. These ean be divided into two broad National industrialization policies should eategories. The first of these eneompasses stress the objeetive of inereasing the extern al eeonomic and teehnieal elements affeeting the autonomy of the developing regions and countries, 1 basic vi ability of a projeet. These include eapital, with special attention to the promotion of skilled labour, raw materials, eomplementary exports ...(and) also seek to inerease the value inputs, energy, eeonomies of seale, teehnological added to raw materials being proeessed and ehange, growth in demand, proximity to export exported. markets and transport eosts. The seeond eonsists In the light of the foregoing, it is proposed that of struetural elements including sourees of finanee national industrialization policies should: (a) prp- and teehnology, trade and investment and mote integrated industrialization based on the taxation policies.
This book is for senior undergraduate or postgraduate students who want an insight into some modern approaches to metamorphic petrology. Its aims are to explain, in reasonably simple, informal terms, the processes underlying (i) metamorphic reactions and (ii) the production of micro structures in metamorphic rocks, these currently being the things that interest me most, geologically. The first aim requires discussion of equilibrium factors, reaction kinetics and reaction mechanisms, empha sising both the complexity of realistic reactions and the need to combine the chemical and microstructural approaches to them. The second aim requires discussion of deformation, recovery, recrystallisation and grain growth processes, with emphasis on experiments on silicate minerals. The book concludes with a general attempt to relate chemical and physical processes in metamorphism, although it will be clear from reading earlier chapters (especially Chapter 4) that the two aspects can rarely be separated completely in detailed metamorphic studies. Petrological and experimental investigations of metamorphic reactions and microstructural development are advancing so rapidly these days that students are faced with an ever-increasing volume of information and a relatively rapid obsolescence of data. So, in this book I do not try to be comprehensive, or to present much so-called 'factual' information. Instead, I deal more with basic principles, in the hope that these will guide the student in his or her encounters with the details of specific metamorphic problems.
The origin, dispersal, deposition and burial of natural sediment grains is the central concern of sedimentology. The subject is truly inter disciplinary, commands the attention of Earth scientists, is of consider able interest to fluid dynamicists and civil engineers, and it finds widespread practical applications in industry. Sedimentology may be approached from two viewpoints: a descrip tive approach, as exemplified by traditional petrography and facies analysis, and a quantitative approach through the physical and chemical sciences. Both approaches are complementary and must be used in tandem if the recent remarkable progress in the field is to be sustained. This text aims to introduce such a combined approach to senior undergraduate students, graduate students and to interested professional Earth scientists. Thus the many descriptive diagrams in the text are counterbalanced by the use of basic physical and chemical reasoning through equations. I have tried to construct a text that follows logically on from the origin of sediment grains through fluid flow, transport, deposition and diagenesis (the change from sediment to rock). The text has been written assuming that some basic previous instruction has been given in the Earth sciences and in general physics and chemistry. Certain important derivations are given in appendices. I have avoided advanced mathematical treatment since it is my opinion that recogni tion of the basic physical or chemical basis to a problem is more important to the student than the formal mathematical reduction of poorly gathered data. As T. H.
This book is about metamorphic rocks: the processes involved in their formation and the reasons why they occur at particular places on the continents. It has been written to serve as an elementary text on the subjects of metamorphism and mountain building for non-specialist stu dents of geology. It will be equally useful where geology is either the main or subsidiary subject and could be used by students intending to advance further in geology (the list of advanced texts in the further reading section would be more appropriate to such students). My inten tion in writing this book has been to try to dispel the notion that metamorphism comprises the 'haunted wing' of geology. Admittedly, there are rather a large number of technical terms in the book, but I hope that after working through it you will not find metamorphism an unduly difficult or obscure aspect of geology. Throughout, I have emphasised the strong links between mountain building, plate tectonics and metamorphic processes. The book introduces metamorphic rocks by considering their textures and field relations, then moves on to deal with the factors controlling metamorphism. Case studies of areas of metamorphic rocks are then presented in the context of modern theories of the Earth's activity, and the place of metamorphic rocks in the formation of ancient and young mountain belts is analysed. New technical terms and concepts are explained in context as they are introduced, important terms being emphasised in bold print.
The fundamental principles of tephrochronology were de- veloped in Iceland through the classic research of Professor Sigurdur Thorarinsson in the 1940's and 1950's. By his studies on the volcanic ash layers (tephra) produced by the historic explosive eruptions of the volcano Hekla, he established that individual tephra layers could be correlated over large areas of Iceland. As the deposition of such layers was essentially instantaneous on a geological time-scale, the tephra layers provided a distinctive and widespread isochronous stratigraphic marker. Since Thorarinsson's pioneering work, the study of tephra has become a powerful and increasingly important research tool in many branches of the geological sciences and related disciplines. In response to the recent rapid growth and diversifica- tion of tephra studies we decided to coordinate a NATO Advanced Studies Institute under the auspices of the INQUA Commission on Tephra. The ASI, entitled Tephra Studies as a Tool in Quaternary Research, was held from June 18th to June 29th, 1980, at Laugarvatn in Iceland. This book represents the proceedings of that Institute and is the first book dedicated to tephra studies, its many uses and applications. The subject matter combines disciplines as diverse as Quaternary strati- graphy, isotope geochronology, petrology, deep-sea geology, volcanology, volcanic hazards mapping, archaeology and ecology in one volume, and illustrates both present uses and future potential of tephra research.
Diagenesis refers to changes taking place in sediments after deposition. In a theoretical treatment of early diagenesis, Robert Berner shows how a rigorous development of the mathematical modeling of diagenetic processes can be useful to the understanding and interpretation of both experimental and field observations. His book is unique in that the models are based on quantitative rate expressions, in contrast to the qualitative descriptions that have dominated the field. In the opening chapters, the author develops the mathematical theory of early diagenesis, introducing a general diagenetic equation and discussing it in terms of each major diagenetic process. Included are the derivations of basic rate equations for diffusion, compaction, pore-water flow, burial advection, bioturbation, adsorption, radioactive decay, and especially chemical and biochemical reactions. Drawing on examples from the recent literature on continental-margin, pelagic, and non-marine sediments, he then illustrates the power of these diagenetic models in the study of such deposits. The book is intended not only for earth scientists studying sediments and sedimentary rocks, but also for researchers in fields such as radioactive waste disposal, petroleum and economic geology, environmental pollution, and sea-floor engineering.
Our aim in writing this book is to try to show how igneous rocks can be persuaded to reveal some ofthe secrets of their origins. The data of igneous rocks consist of field relations, texture, mineralogy, and geochemistry. Additionally, experimental petrology tells us how igneous systems might be expected to behave. Working on this material we attempt to show how hypotheses concerning the origins and evolution of magmas are proposed and tested, and thus illuminate the interesting and fundamental problems of petrogenesis. The book assumes a modest knowledge of basic petro graphy, mineralogy, classification, and regional igneous geology. It has a role complementary to various established texts, several of which are descriptively good and give wide coverage and evaluation of petrogenetic ideas in various degrees of detail. Existing texts do not on the whole, however, deal with methodology, though this is one of the more important aspects of the subject. At first sight it may appear that the current work is a guidebook for the prospective research worker and thus has little relevance for the non-specialist student of geology. We hope this will prove to be far from the case. The methodological approach has an inherent interest because it can provide the reader with problems he can solve for himself, and as an almost incidental consequence he will acquire a satisfying understanding.
My book Metamorphic Rocks and Metamorphic Belts (in Japanese) was published by Iwanami Shoten, Publishers, in Tokyo in 1965. A few years later, Mr D. Lynch-Blosse of George Allen & Unwin Ltd contacted me to explore the possibility of translating it into English. Thus, translation accompanied by rewriting of substantial parts of the book was made in subsequent years, resulting in the present book Metamorphism and Metamorphic Belts. This title was chosen to emphasize the tectonic Significance of metamorphic belts. Metamorphic geology has a long history. The microscopic description and classification of metamorphic rocks began in the late nineteenth century. The theory of equilibrium mineral assemblages began in the first half of the twentieth century. Detailed mineralogical studies and the experimental determination of the pressure-temperature conditions of metamorphism began in the 1950s. The importance of metamorphic petrology in our understanding of the tectonic processes has been realized only in the past decade. This book is intended to synthesize the mineralogic, petrologic and tectonic aspects of metamorphism. Advanced treatment of the thermodynamic and structural aspects is not intended.
N this book the task of summarising modern petrology I from the genetic standpoint has been attempted. The scale of the work is small as compared with the magni- tude of its subject, but it is nevertheless believed that the field has been reasonably covered. In conformity with the genetic viewpoint petrology, as contrasted with petrography, has been emphasised throughout; and purely descriptive mineralogical and petrographical detail has been omitted. Every petrologist who reads this book will recognise the author's indebtedness to Dr. A. Harker and Dr. A. Holmes, among British workers; to Prof. R. A. Daly, Dr. H. S. Washington, and Dr. N. L. Bowen, among American petrologists; and to Prof. J. H. L. Vogt, Prof. V. M. Goldschmidt, Prof. A. Lacroix, and Prof. P. Niggli. among European investigators. The emphasis laid on modern views, and the relative poverty of references to the works of the older generation of petrologists, does not imply any disrespect of the latter. It is due to recognition of the desirability of affording the petrological student a newer and wider range of reading references than is usually supplied in this class of work; for refer- ences tend to become stereotyped as well as text and illustrations. Furthermore it is believed that all that is good and living in the older work has been incorporated, consciously or unconsciously, in the newer.