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Earth sciences

See below for a selection of the latest books from Earth sciences category. Presented with a red border are the Earth sciences books that have been lovingly read and reviewed by the experts at Lovereading. With expert reading recommendations made by people with a passion for books and some unique features Lovereading will help you find great Earth sciences books and those from many more genres to read that will keep you inspired and entertained. And it's all free!

Subsurface Science and Engineering of Shale

Subsurface Science and Engineering of Shale

Author: Thomas Dewers Format: Hardback Release Date: 11/12/2019

Advances in theories, methods and applications for shale resource use Shale is the dominant rock in the sedimentary record. It is also the subject of increased interest because of the growing contribution of shale oil and gas to energy supplies, as well as the potential use of shale formations for carbon dioxide sequestration and nuclear waste storage. Shale: Subsurface Science and Engineering brings together geoscience and engineering to present the latest models, methods and applications for understanding and exploiting shale formations. Volume highlights include: Review of current knowledge on shale geology Latest shale engineering methods such as horizontal drilling Reservoir management practices for optimized oil and gas field development Examples of economically and environmentally viable methods of hydrocarbon extraction from shale Discussion of issues relating to hydraulic fracking, carbon sequestration, and nuclear waste storage

Geomagnetically Induced Currents from the Sun to the Power Grid

Geomagnetically Induced Currents from the Sun to the Power Grid

Author: Jennifer Gannon Format: Hardback Release Date: 11/12/2019

An introduction to geomagnetic storms and the hazards they pose at the Earth's surface Geomagnetic storms are a type of space weather event that can create Geomagnetically Induced Currents (GICs) which, once they reach Earth's surface, can interfere with power grids and transport infrastructure. Understanding the characteristics and impacts of GICs requires scientific insights from solar physics, magnetospheric physics, aeronomy, and ionospheric physics, as well as geophysics and power engineering. Geomagnetically Induced Currents from the Sun to the Power Grid is a practical introduction for researchers and practitioners that provides tools and techniques from across these disciplines. Volume highlights include: Analysis of causes of geomagnetic storms that create GICs Data and methods used to analyze and forecast GIC hazard GIC impacts on the infrastructure of the bulk power system Analysis techniques used in different areas of GIC research New methods to validate and predict GICs in transmission systems

Drivers of Landscape Change in the Northwest Boreal Region

Drivers of Landscape Change in the Northwest Boreal Region

Author: Carl Markon Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 15/11/2019

The northwest boreal region (NWB) of North America is a land of extremes. Extending more than 1.3 million square kilometers (330 million acres), it encompasses the entire spectrum between inundated wetlands below sea level to the tallest peak in North America. Permafrost gradients span from nearly continuous to absent. Boreal ecosystems are inherently dynamic and continually change over decades to millennia. The braided rivers that shape the valleys and wetlands continually change course, creating and removing vast wetlands and peatlands. Glacial melt, erosion, fires, permafrost dynamics, and wind-blown loess are among the shaping forces of the landscape. As a result, species interactions and ecosystem processes are shifting across time. The NWB is a data-poor region, and the intention of the NWB Landscape Conservation Cooperative is to determine what data are not available and what data are available. For instance, historical baseline data describing the economic and social relationships in association with the ecological condition of the NWB landscape are often lacking. Likewise, the size and remoteness of this region make it challenging to measure basic biological information, such as species population sizes or trends. The paucity of weather and climate monitoring stations also compound the ability to model future climate trends and impacts, which is part of the nature of working in the north. The purpose of this volume is to create a resource for regional land and resource managers and researchers by synthesizing the latest research on the historical and current status of landscape-scale drivers (including anthropogenic activities) and ecosystem processes, future projected changes of each, and the effects of changes on important resources. Generally, each chapter is coauthored by researchers and land and natural resource managers from the United States and Canada.

Coal Geology

Coal Geology

Author: Larry Thomas Format: Hardback Release Date: 08/11/2019

Static Conceptual Fracture Modeling Preparing for Simulation and Development

Static Conceptual Fracture Modeling Preparing for Simulation and Development

Author: Ronald A. Nelson Format: Hardback Release Date: 08/11/2019

Modelling of flow in naturally fractured reservoirs is quickly becoming mandatory in all phases of oil and gas exploration and production. Creation of a Static Conceptual Fracture Model (SCFM) is needed as input to create flow simulations for today and for prediction of flow into the future. Unfortunately, the computer modelers tasked with constructing the gridded fracture model are often not well versed in natural fracture characterization and are often forced to make quick decisions as to the input required by the software used to create these models. Static Conceptual Fracture Modelling: Preparing for Simulation and Development describes all the fracture and reservoir parameters needed to create the fracture database for effective modelling and how to generate the data and parameter distributions. The material covered in this volume highlights not only natural fracture system quantification and formatting, but also describes best practices for managing technical teams charged with creating the SCFM. This book will become a must on the shelf for all reservoir modelers.

Chemistry of Environmental Systems Fundamental Principles and Analytical Methods

Chemistry of Environmental Systems Fundamental Principles and Analytical Methods

Author: Jeffrey S. Gaffney, Nancy A. Marley Format: Hardback Release Date: 25/10/2019

A modern guide to environmental chemistry Chemistry of Environmental Systems: Fundamental Principles and Analytical Methods offers a comprehensive and authoritative review of modern environmental chemistry, discussing the chemistry and interconnections between the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere and biosphere. Written by internationally recognized experts, the textbook explores the chemistries of the natural environmental systems and demonstrates how these chemical processes change when anthropogenic emissions are introduced into the whole earth system. This important text: Combines the key areas of environmental chemistry needed to understand the sources, fates, and impacts of contaminants in the environment Describes a range of environmental analytical methodologies Explores the basic environmental effects of energy sources, including nuclear energy Encourages a proactive approach to environmental chemistry, with a focus on preventing future environmental problems Includes study questions at the end of each chapter Written for students of environmental chemistry, environmental science, environmental engineering, geoscience, earth and atmospheric sciences, Chemistry of Environmental Systems: Fundamental Principles and Analytical Methods covers the key aspects and mechanisms of currently identified environmental issues, which can be used to address both current and future environmental problems.

Environmental and Low Temperature Geochemistry

Environmental and Low Temperature Geochemistry

Author: Peter Ryan Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 18/10/2019

Environmental and Low-Temperature Geochemistry presents conceptual and quantitative principles of geochemistry in order to foster understanding of natural processes at and near the earth's surface, as well as anthropogenic impacts and remediation strategies. It provides the reader with principles that allow prediction of concentration, speciation, mobility and reactivity of elements and compounds in soils, waters, sediments and air, drawing attention to both thermodynamic and kinetic controls. The scope includes atmosphere, terrestrial waters, marine waters, soils, sediments and rocks in the shallow crust; the temporal scale is present to Precambrian, and the spatial scale is nanometers to local, regional and global. This second edition of Environmental and Low-Temperature Geochemistry provides the most up-to-date status of the carbon cycle and global warming, including carbon sources, sinks, fluxes and consequences, as well as emerging evidence for (and effects of) ocean acidification. Understanding environmental problems like this requires knowledge based in fundamental principles of equilibrium, kinetics, basic laws of chemistry and physics, empirical evidence, examples from the geological record, and identification of system fluxes and reservoirs that allow us to conceptualize and understand. This edition aims to do that with clear explanations of fundamental principles of geochemistry as well as information and approaches that provide the student or researcher with knowledge to address pressing questions in environmental and geological sciences. New content in this edition includes: Focus Boxes - one every two or three pages - providing case study examples (e.g. methyl isocyanate in Bhopal, origins and health effects of asbestiform minerals), concise explanations of fundamental concepts (e.g. balancing chemical equations, isotopic fractionation, using the Keq to predict reactivity), and useful information (e.g. units of concentration, titrating to determine alkalinity, measuring redox potential of natural waters); Sections on emerging contaminants for which knowledge is rapidly increasing (e.g. perfluorinated compounds, pharmaceuticals and other domestic and industrial chemicals); Greater attention to interrelationships of inorganic, organic and biotic phases and processes; Descriptions, theoretical frameworks and examples of emerging methodologies in geochemistry research, e.g. clumped C-O isotopes to assess seawater temperature over geological time, metal stable isotopes to assess source and transport processes, X-ray absorption spectroscopy to study oxidation state and valence configuration of atoms and molecules; Additional end-of-chapter problems, including more quantitatively based questions. Two detailed case studies that examine fate and transport of organic contaminants (VOCs, PFCs), with data and interpretations presented separately. These examples consider the chemical and mineralogical composition of rocks, soils and waters in the affected system; microbial influence on the decomposition of organic compounds; the effect of reduction-oxidation on transport of Fe, As and Mn; stable isotopes and synthetic compounds as tracers of flow; geological factors that influence flow; and implications for remediation. The interdisciplinary approach and range of topics - including environmental contamination of air, water and soil as well as the processes that affect both natural and anthropogenic systems - make it well-suited for environmental geochemistry courses at universities as well as liberal arts colleges.

Basic Environmental Data Analysis for Scientists and Engineers

Basic Environmental Data Analysis for Scientists and Engineers

Author: Ralph R.B. Von Frese Format: Hardback Release Date: 17/10/2019

Classroom tested and the result of over 30 years of teaching and research, this textbook is an invaluable tool for undergraduate and graduate data analysis courses in environmental sciences and engineering. It is also a useful reference on modern digital data analysis for the extensive and growing community of Earth scientists and engineers. Basic Environmental Data Analysis for Scientists and Engineers introduces practical concepts of modern digital data analysis and graphics, including numerical/graphical calculus, measurement units and dimensional analysis, error propagation and statistics, and least squares data modeling. It emphasizes array-based or matrix inversion and spectral analysis using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) that dominates modern data analysis. Divided into two parts, this comprehensive hands-on textbook is excellent for exploring data analysis principles and practice using MATLAB (R), Mathematica, Mathcad, and other modern equation solving software. Part I, for beginning undergraduate students, introduces the basic approaches for quantifying data variations in terms of environmental parameters. These approaches emphasize uses of the data array or matrix, which is the fundamental data and mathematical processing format of modern electronic computing. Part II, for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students, extends the inverse problem to least squares solutions involving more than two unknowns. Features: Offers a uniquely practical guide for making students proficient in modern electronic data analysis and graphics Includes topics that are not explained in any existing textbook on environmental data analysis Data analysis topics very well organized into a two-semester course that meets general education curriculum requirements in science and engineering Facilitates learning by beginning each chapter with an `Overview' section highlighting the topics covered, and ending it with a `Key Concepts' section summarizing the main technical details that the reader should have acquired Indexes many numerical examples for ready access in the classroom or other venues serviced by electronic equation solvers like MATLAB (R), Mathematica, Mathcad, etc. Offers supplemental exercises and materials to enhance understanding the principles and practice of modern data analysis

Exploring the Earth System with Imaging Spectroscopy

Exploring the Earth System with Imaging Spectroscopy

Author: Saskia Foerster Format: Hardback Release Date: 12/10/2019

This volume presents a broad overview of the requirements, capabilities, challenges and future directions of spaceborne imaging spectroscopy to explore the Earth's surface for a range of application domains. These include mine exploration, soil mapping, vegetation monitoring, mapping of pollution and hazardous materials, inland and coastal water monitoring, urban applications and others. Imaging spectroscopy, also often termed hyperspectral remote sensing, for terrestrial Earth observation dates back to the 1980s, when the first spectrometers observing in the visible to shortwave infrared wavelength range were deployed on airborne platforms. From the end of the 1990s onwards, spaceborne hyperspectral missions have demonstrated the capability to provide information on the composition and biochemical and physical characteristics of the Earth's surface. Today, several hyperspectral spaceborne missions are under development to be launched within the next few years. It can be expected that future global and frequent coverage of the Earth's surface with spaceborne imaging spectroscopy data will bring a major advance in the information depth that future Earth system models and monitoring service developments can be based on. Previously published in Surveys in Geophysics, Volume 40, Issue 3, 2019 The chapters Imaging Spectrometry of Inland and Coastal Waters: State of the Art, Achievements and Perspectives , Imaging Spectroscopy for the Detection, Assessment and Monitoring of Natural and Anthropogenic Hazards , Assessing Vegetation Function with Imaging Spectroscopy , Spaceborne Imaging Spectroscopy for Sustainable Agriculture: Contributions and Challenges are available as open access articles under a CC BY 4.0 license at link.springer.com.

Breakthroughs in Geology Ideas that transformed earth science

Breakthroughs in Geology Ideas that transformed earth science

Author: Graham Park Format: Hardback Release Date: 10/10/2019

Cowen's History of Life

Cowen's History of Life

Author: Michael J. Benton Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 04/10/2019

A newly revised and fully updated edition of the market-leading introduction to paleontology Designed for students and anyone else with an interest in the history of life on our planet, the new edition of this classic text describes the biological evolution of Earth's organisms, and reconstructs their adaptations and the ecology and environments in which they functioned. Cowen's History of Life, 6th Edition includes major updates, including substantial rewrites to chapters on the origins of eukaryotes, the Cambrian explosion, the terrestrialization of plants and animals, the Triassic recovery of life, the origin of birds, the end-Cretaceous mass extinction, and human evolution. It also features new chapters on plants, soils and transformation of the land; the Mesozoic marine revolution; and the evolution of oceans and climates. Beginning with the origin of the Earth and the earliest life on earth, the book goes on to offer insightful contributions covering: the evolution of Metazoans; the early vertebrates; life of vertebrates on land; and early amniotes and thermoregulation. The book also looks at: dinosaur diversity, as well as their demise; early mammals; the rise of modern mammals; the Neogene Savannas; primates; life in the ice ages; and more. Covers the breadth of the subject in a concise yet specific way for undergrads with no academic background in the topic Reorganizes all chapters to reflect the geological series of events, enabling a new focus on big events Updated with three brand new chapters and numerous revised ones Put together by a new editorial team internationally recognized as the global leaders in paleontology Filled with illustrations and photographs throughout Includes diagrams to show internal structures of organisms, cladograms, time scales and events, and paleogeographic maps Supplemented with a dedicated website that explores additional enriching information and discussion, and which features images for use in visual presentations Cowen's History of Life, 6th Edition is an ideal book for undergraduate students taking courses in introductory paleontology, as well those on global change and earth systems.