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I get by with a little help from my friends The Beatles: Sgt. Pepper This book should have been in Danish. Any decent person must be able to express himself in his mother's tongue, also when expounding scientific ideas and results. Had I stuck to this ideal, the book would have been read by very few people, and, indeed, appreciated by even fewer. Having it publ ished in English gives me a chance to fulfill one ambition: to be read and judged by the international scientific community. Another reason is that the majority of my professional friends are regrettably unread in Danish, just as I am in Hebrew, Finnish and even Italian. I want to deprive them of the most obvious excuse for not reading my opus. Like a man I admired, I will first of all thank my wife. In his autobiography, Meir Weisgal, then President of the Weizmann Insti tute of SCience, wrote about his wife: In addition to her natural endowments - which are considerable - she was a more than competent part-tim~ secretary. He wrote on, and so shall I. The book has been edited by my wife. So if the reader finds the layout pleasant as, in actual fact, I myself do, Birgit is to be praised. If there are blemishes, I am to be blamed for not having caught them.
At a time when computerized laboratory automation is producing a da ta explosion, chemists are turning to applied mathematics and statistics for the tools to extract useful chemical information from data. This rush to find applicable methods has lead to a somewhat confusing body of literature that represents a barrier to chemists wishing to learn more about chemometrics. The confusion results partly from the mixing of chemical notation and nomenclature with those of statistics, applied mathematics and engineering. Additionally, in the absence of collaboration with mathematicians, chemists have, at times, misused data analysis methodology and even reinvented methods that have seen years of service in other fields. The Chemometrics Society has worked hard to solve this problem since it was founded in 1974 with the goal of improving communications between the chemical sciences and applied mathe matics and statistics. The NATO Advanced Study Institute on Chemometrics is evidence of this fact as it was initiated in response to a call from its membership for advanced training in several areas of chemometrics. This Institute focused on current theory and application in the new field of Chemometrics: Use of mathematical and statistical methods, Ca) to design or select optimal measurement procedures and experiments; and Cb) to provide maximum chemical information by analyzing chemical data. The Institute had two formal themes and two informal themes.
Stereochemistry is the part of chemistry that relates observable prop erties of chemical compounds to the structure of their molecules, i. e. the relative spatial arrangement of their constituent atoms. In classical stereochemistry, the spatial arrangements relevant for interpreting and predicting a given chemical property are customarily described by geometric features/ symmetries in some suitably chosen rigid model of the molecule The solution of stereochemical problems involving single molecular species is the danain of the geometry based approaches, such as the methods of classical stereochemistry, molecular mechanics and quantum chemistry. The molecules of a pure chemical compound form generally an ensemble of molecular individuals that differ in geometry and energy. Thus it is generally impossible to represent a chemical compund adequately by the geo metry of a rigid molecular model. In modern stereochemistry it is often necessary to analyze molecular relation within ensembles and families of stereoisomers and permutation isomers, including molecules whose geometric features are changing with time. Accordingly, there is definitely a need for new types of ideas, concepts, theories and techniques that are usable beyond the scope of customary methodology. This is why the present text was written.
That there have been remarkable advances in the field of molecular electronic structure during the last decade is clear not only to those working in the field but also to anyone else who has used quantum chemical results to guide their own investiga tions. The progress in calculating the electronic structures of molecules has occurred through the truly ingenious theoretical and methodological developments that have made computationally tractable the underlying physics of electron distributions around a collection of nuclei. At the same time there has been consider able benefit from the great advances in computer technology. The growing sophistication, declining costs and increasing accessibi lity of computers have let theorists apply their methods to prob lems in virtually all areas of molecular science. Consequently, each year witnesses calculations on larger molecules than in the year before and calculations with greater accuracy and more com plete information on molecular properties. We can surely anticipate continued methodological develop ments of real consequence, and we can also see that the advance in computational capability is not about to slow down. The recent introduction of array processors, mUltiple processors and vector machines has yielded a tremendous acceleration of many types of computation, including operations typically performed in quantum chemical studies. Utilizing such new computing power to the ut most has required some new ideas and some reformulations of existing methods.
The present Volume of Lecture Notes in Chemistry fulfils one of the stated aims of the Series, that of disseminating results discussed and evaluated at recent scientific international conferences; in our case a Satellite Meeting of the well-known Conference Series on the Physics of Electronic and Atomic a:ollisions, the XIIIth ICPEAC, which took place in Castelgandolfo, near Rome, from 23 to 25 July 1983. Since the Satellite Meeting attracted a widely international and in- terdisciplina~y audience whose general consensus was one of warm appro- val for the scie'ntific level achieved during it, we hope that the pre- sent collection of essays will be met by similar success, thus warran- ting our having asked the participants to work still further for us. Before turning to their efforts, however, it is only just to thank the Italian National Research Council (Chemistry Committee and Physics Committee), the University of Rome, the C.N.R. Tnstitute H.A.I. of the Rome Research Area (Montelibretti) and the E.N.E.A. Organisation for their financial aid, which made the Castelgandolfo Meeting possible. We warmly acknowledge the professional expertise of the staff at Villa Montecucco and for their collaboration we are grateful to: Rita Abbasciano, Catherine Cajone, Lucilla Crescentini, .Roberta Fantoni, An- tonio Montani, Amedeo Palma, Rosario Platania, Maurizio Venanzi.
The NATO Advanced Study Institute on Quantum Chemistry of Polymers; Solid State Aspects lIIas held at the MARITIM Congress Hotel Braunlage/Harz in the Federal Republic of Germany from July 25 - August 5, 1983. We lIIish to express our deep gratitude to the NATO Scientific Affairs Division, the main sponsor of the Institute, and to the National Foundation for Cancer Research, Bethesda, Maryland for their substantial support. We sincerely thank Dr. Craig Sinclair, Director of the NATO Advanced Study Institutes program as lIIell as the IIIhole Advanced Study Institute/Advanced Research Workshop Advisory Board of the NATO Scientific Affairs Division, IIIho have honored us by holding their external annual meeting during this School in Braunlage. We are very much indebted also to Dr. Mario Di Lullo, Director of the Advanced Research Workshop program of the NATO Scientific Affairs Division IIIho together lIIith Dr. Sinclair has given a very informative lecture about the NATO ASI/ARW programs. Special thanks are due to Mr. Franklin Salisbury, Executive Director of the National Foundation for Cancer Research, to Mrs. Tamara Salisbury, Deputy Director of the National Foundation for Cancer Research and to Dr. Mary Hennen Aldridge, President of the National Foundation for Cancer Research, IIIho also honored the School lIIith their presence.
In 1965 a book by P. Bartlett appeared under the title The Nonclassical Ions 1). The book is a collection of papers reprinted from various journals. The many reviews that have appeared since 2-22) are either antiquated (the book published in 1972 12) covers the literature mainly before 1968) or relatively biased (e.g., 3.4,10 on brief 2, 7,11). This review attempts to discuss the various points of view on the nonclassical carbocations. The main point is to establish the relative role of nonclassical and classical ions in various chemical processes. The author has followed P. Bartlett's advice 1) that when setting forth the achievements of the human mind one should see how we came to the modern understanding of a given problem ( ... how we know what we know ). The theory of nonclassical ions offers an explanation of many unique chemical, stereochemical and kinetic peculiarities of bicyclic compounds. It has expanded our knowledge on chemical bonds in carbocations by introducing electron-deficient bonds (as in boron hydrides). It has accounted for many rearrangements of stable cations. As a side result our knowledge has been extended about ionization processes in a solution, as well as about stereochemical methods. 2 Main Terms of Nonclassical Carbocations In 1939 Hevell, Salas and Wilson 23) assumed an intermediate, bridge ion 2 to be formed when camphene hydrochloride 1 is rearranged into isobornyl chloride 3. This happened 17 years after Meerwein first postulated the intermediate formation of carbonium ions in chemical reactions.
The bond diagrammatic representation of molecules is the foundation of MOVB theory. To a certain extent, this kind of representation is analogous to the one on which resonance theory is based and this fact can be projected by a comparison of the various ways in which MOVB theory depicts a species made up of three core and two ligand MO's which define two subsystems containing a total of six electrons and the ways in which resonance theory (i. e. , qualitative VB theory) depicts a six-electron-six-AO species such as the pi system of CH =CH-CH=CH-CH=O. The 2 different pictorial representations are shown in Scheme 1 so that the analogies are made evident. First of all, the total MOVB diagrammatic representation of the 6/5 species is obtained by a linear combination of three complete bond diagrams, as in Al, which describe the optimal linear combination of!l! MOVB Configuration Wavefunctions (CW's). By the same token, a total VB diagrammatic representation of the 6/6 species can be obtained by writing a dot structure , as in Bl, and taking this to mean the optimal linear combination of all VB CW's. Next, we can approxi mate the MOVB wavefunction of the 6/5 species by one complete (or detailed) bond dia gram (A2). No simple VB representation analogy can be given in this case. Alterna tively, we can approximate the MOVB wavefunction by a linear combination of compact bond diagrams, as in A3, in the way described before.