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Scientific standards

See below for a selection of the latest books from Scientific standards category. Presented with a red border are the Scientific standards books that have been lovingly read and reviewed by the experts at Lovereading. With expert reading recommendations made by people with a passion for books and some unique features Lovereading will help you find great Scientific standards books and those from many more genres to read that will keep you inspired and entertained. And it's all free!

Pixel Detectors From Fundamentals to Applications

Pixel Detectors From Fundamentals to Applications

Author: Leonardo Rossi, Peter Fischer, Tilman Rohe, Norbert Wermes Format: Hardback Release Date: 18/01/2006

Pixel detectors are a particularly important class of particle and radiation detection devices. They have an extremely broad spectrum of applications, ranging from high-energy physics to the photo cameras of everyday life. This book is a general purpose introduction into the fundamental principles of pixel detector technology and semiconductor-based hybrid pixel devices. Although these devices were developed for high-energy ionizing particles and radiation beyond visible light, they are finding new applications in many other areas. This book will therefore benefit all scientists and engineers working in any laboratory involved in developing or using particle detection.

An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories Fiscal Years 2004-2005

An Assessment of the National Institute of Standards and Technology Measurement and Standards Laboratories Fiscal Years 2004-2005

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Measurements and Standards Laboratories (MSL) provide technical leadership for the nationaEURO (TM)s measurement and standards infrastructure and assure the availability of essential reference data and measurement capabilities. At NISTaEURO (TM)s request the National Research Council (NRC) carries out a biennial assessment of the seven MSL. The assessment focuses on each laboratoryaEURO (TM)s technical quality and merit; and effectiveness. It also examines the relevance of the NIST programs and how well laboratory facilities, equipment, and personnel are able to fulfill the MSL mission. This report presents an overall assessment of the MSL followed by detailed assessments of each of the seven laboratories.

Science Rules A Historical Introduction to Scientific Methods

Science Rules A Historical Introduction to Scientific Methods

Author: Peter Achinstein Format: Hardback Release Date: 24/09/2004

Is there a universal set of rules for discovering and testing scientific hypotheses? Since the birth of modern science, philosophers, scientists, and other thinkers have wrestled with this fundamental question of scientific practice. Efforts to devise rigorous methods for obtaining scientific knowledge include the twenty-one rules Descartes proposed in his Rules for the Direction of the Mind and the four rules of reasoning that begin the third book of Newton's Principia, and continue today in debates over the very possibility of such rules. Bringing together key primary sources spanning almost four centuries, Science Rules introduces readers to scientific methods that have played a prominent role in the history of scientific practice. Editor Peter Achinstein includes works by scientists and philosophers of science to offer a new perspective on the nature of scientific reasoning. For each of the methods discussed, he presents the original formulation of the method; selections written by a proponent of the method together with an application to a particular scientific example; and a critical analysis of the method that draws on historical and contemporary sources. The methods included in this volume are Cartesian rationalism with an application to Descartes' laws of motion; Newton's inductivism and the law of gravity; two versions of hypothetico-deductivism-those of William Whewell and Karl Popper-and the nineteenth-century wave theory of light; Paul Feyerabend's principle of proliferation and Thomas Kuhn's views on scientific values, both of which deny that there are universal rules of method, with an application to Galileo's tower argument. Included also is a famous nineteenth-century debate about scientific reasoning between the hypothetico-deductivist William Whewell and the inductivist John Stuart Mill; and an account of the realism-antirealism dispute about unobservables in science, with a consideration of Perrin's argument for the existence of molecules in the early twentieth century.

Science Rules A Historical Introduction to Scientific Methods

Science Rules A Historical Introduction to Scientific Methods

Author: Peter Achinstein Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 24/09/2004

Is there a universal set of rules for discovering and testing scientific hypotheses? Since the birth of modern science, philosophers, scientists, and other thinkers have wrestled with this fundamental question of scientific practice. Efforts to devise rigorous methods for obtaining scientific knowledge include the twenty-one rules Descartes proposed in his Rules for the Direction of the Mind and the four rules of reasoning that begin the third book of Newton's Principia, and continue today in debates over the very possibility of such rules. Bringing together key primary sources spanning almost four centuries, Science Rules introduces readers to scientific methods that have played a prominent role in the history of scientific practice. Editor Peter Achinstein includes works by scientists and philosophers of science to offer a new perspective on the nature of scientific reasoning. For each of the methods discussed, he presents the original formulation of the method; selections written by a proponent of the method together with an application to a particular scientific example; and a critical analysis of the method that draws on historical and contemporary sources. The methods included in this volume are Cartesian rationalism with an application to Descartes' laws of motion; Newton's inductivism and the law of gravity; two versions of hypothetico-deductivism-those of William Whewell and Karl Popper-and the nineteenth-century wave theory of light; Paul Feyerabend's principle of proliferation and Thomas Kuhn's views on scientific values, both of which deny that there are universal rules of method, with an application to Galileo's tower argument. Included also is a famous nineteenth-century debate about scientific reasoning between the hypothetico-deductivist William Whewell and the inductivist John Stuart Mill; and an account of the realism-antirealism dispute about unobservables in science, with a consideration of Perrin's argument for the existence of molecules in the early twentieth century.

Weights and Measures of Scotland A European Perspective

Weights and Measures of Scotland A European Perspective

Author: R. D. Connor, A.D.C. Simpson, A. Morrison-Low Format: Hardback Release Date: 13/09/2004

This the first book to describe the system of weights and measures used in medieval Scotland and to explain its evolution into modern times, and also the first to provide secure and accurate figures for the sizes of the units. The book's radical approach includes an emphasis on the physical evidence from surviving measurement standards, and it demonstrates that Scotland's meteorology was sophisticated and was closely involved with those of her trading partners. The book will appeal to a specialist market that includes social, economic and science historians; Scottish historians; weight and scale collectors; museums; and science and technology libraries.

Pill Politics Drugs and the Fda

Pill Politics Drugs and the Fda

Author: Stephen J. Ceccoli Format: Hardback Release Date: 31/10/2003

Criticism that the FDA's approach failed to meet public need and impeded commerce led to a political compromise regarding its mission. The author of this study attempts to show that the drug approval process, whilst redressing complaints, also creates new, more complex problems.

Radiation Protection A Guide for Scientists, Regulators, and Physicians, Fourth Edition

Radiation Protection A Guide for Scientists, Regulators, and Physicians, Fourth Edition

Author: Jacob Shapiro Format: Hardback Release Date: 08/07/2002

This highly successful manual has served for nearly three decades as the definitive guide to the safe use of radioactive materials. Completely revised and updated, the fourth edition presents a new dimension by adding coverage of nonionizing radiation, and is thus concerned with the entire field of radiation protection. The author takes the novel approach of introducing the whole range of energies possessed by particles and electromagnetic waves at the beginning of the text, thus integrating coverage of ionizing and nonionizing radiation rather than considering them as two separate disciplines. He goes on to cover the entire spectrum of radiation sources, including radionuclides, x-ray machines, accelerators, nuclear reactors, power lines, microwave towers, and cellular phones. With its expanded coverage, including a broader focus on public health issues, this new volume will serve as an important training and reference resource, not only for research scientists, physicians, and engineers, but for regulatory officials, attorneys, engineers, and environmental health and safety professionals. The breadth of citations alone makes this resource invaluable.

Evaluating the Measurement Uncertainty Fundamentals and Practical Guidance

Evaluating the Measurement Uncertainty Fundamentals and Practical Guidance

Author: Ignacio Lira Format: Hardback Release Date: 09/04/2002

It is now widely recognized that measurement data should be properly analyzed to include an assessment of their associated uncertainty. Since this parameter allows for a meaningful comparison of the measurement results and for an evaluation of their reliability, its expression is important not only in the specialized field of scientific metrology, but also in industry, trade, and commerce. General rules for evaluating and expressing the uncertainty are given in the internationally accepted ISO Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement, generally known as the GUM. Evaluating the Measurement Uncertainty details the theoretical framework on which the GUM is based and provides additional material on more advanced topics such as least-squares adjustment and Bayesian statistics. The book does not require previous knowledge other than elementary calculus and can be read as a complement to the GUM or as a stand-alone reference source. It stresses fundamental principles and illustrates their applications through numerous examples taken from many different fields of metrology. The book includes practical guidance as well as theoretical aspects, resulting in an invaluable resource for metrologists, engineers, physicists, and graduate students involved with measurements in academia and industry.

Valid Analytical Methods and Procedures A Best Practice Approach to Method Selection

Valid Analytical Methods and Procedures A Best Practice Approach to Method Selection

Author: Chris Burgess Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 01/10/2000

The Analytical Methods Committee of the Royal Society of Chemistry has for many years been involved in national and international efforts to establish a comprehensive framework for achieving appropriate quality in chemical measurement. This handbook attempts to select or define robust procedures that ensure the best use of resources and enable laboratories to generate consistent, reliable data. Written in concise, easy-to-read language and illustrated with worked examples, it is a guide to current best practice and establishes a control framework for the development and validation of laboratory-based analytical methods. Topics include samples and sampling, method selection, equipment calibration and qualification, method development and validation, evaluation of data and statistical approaches for method performance and comparison. Valid Analytical Methods and Procedures will be welcomed by many organisations throughout the world who are required to prove that the validity of their analytical results can be established beyond reasonable doubt.

Weights, Money and Other Measures Used by Our Ancestors

Weights, Money and Other Measures Used by Our Ancestors

Author: Colin R. Chapman Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 31/12/1996

Simplified Irrigation Design

Simplified Irrigation Design

Author: Pete Melby Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 15/05/1995

The Second Edition of this best-selling academic guide to irrigation design has been completely rewritten so you can understand it easily. Created for the irrigation designer and installer, as well as students, Simplified Irrigation Design clearly explains irrigation design and related hydraulics, without the need for interpretation by teachers. Each chapter builds on the other, presenting all the fundamentals of irrigation design before getting into the more complicated aspects of irrigation, such as: basic hydraulics pipe sizing friction loss calculations determining water pressure. Photos and illustrations show exactly how every concept and piece of equipment works. In addition, you'll learn how to estimate costs and write specifications. Pipe sizes are described according to ASTM to help you fully understand the limits of irrigation pipe use. The expanded Second Edition of this popular guide to landscape irrigation includes all the latest equipment and techniques. Just a few of the new features include: Methods of conserving water to help you anticipate your clients' environmental concerns Computerized methods for managing labor and irrigation systems that will help you save money on labor and water costs Metric values for every Imperial (U.S.) measurement, enabling you to meet federal metric guidelines and better communicate with an international audience. Another bonus: the author has combed the minds of irrigation designers, contractors, and equipment manufacturers to help you avoid costly mistakes that even veterans make. Whether you're just learning or brushing up on the latest technology, you'll want to read the Second Edition of Simplified Irrigation Design from cover to cover.