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# Mathematical logic

See below for a selection of the latest books from Mathematical logic category. Presented with a red border are the Mathematical logic books that have been lovingly read and reviewed by the experts at Lovereading. With expert reading recommendations made by people with a passion for books and some unique features Lovereading will help you find great Mathematical logic books and those from many more genres to read that will keep you inspired and entertained. And it's all free!

## How to Prove It A Structured Approach

Proofs play a central role in advanced mathematics and theoretical computer science, yet many students struggle the first time they take a course in which proofs play a significant role. This bestselling text's third edition helps students transition from solving problems to proving theorems by teaching them the techniques needed to read and write proofs. Featuring over 150 new exercises and a new chapter on number theory, this new edition introduces students to the world of advanced mathematics through the mastery of proofs. The book begins with the basic concepts of logic and set theory to familiarize students with the language of mathematics and how it is interpreted. These concepts are used as the basis for an analysis of techniques that can be used to build up complex proofs step by step, using detailed 'scratch work' sections to expose the machinery of proofs about numbers, sets, relations, and functions. Assuming no background beyond standard high school mathematics, this book will be useful to anyone interested in logic and proofs: computer scientists, philosophers, linguists, and, of course, mathematicians.

## Hausdorff on Ordered Sets

Georg Cantor, the founder of set theory, published his last paper on sets in 1897. In 1900, David Hilbert made Cantor's Continuum Problem and the challenge of well-ordering the real numbers the first problem of his famous lecture at the International Congress in Paris. Thus, as the nineteenth century came to a close and the twentieth century began, Cantor's work was finally receiving its due and Hilbert had made one of Cantor's most important conjectures his number one problem.It was time for the second generation of Cantorians to emerge. Foremost among this group were Ernst Zermelo and Felix Hausdorff. Zermelo isolated the Choice Principle, proved that every set could be well-ordered, and axiomatized the concept of set. He became the father of abstract set theory. Hausdorff eschewed foundations and developed set theory as a branch of mathematics worthy of study in its own right, capable of supporting both general topology and measure theory. He is recognized as the era's leading Cantorian. Hausdorff published seven articles in set theory during the period 1901-1909, mostly about ordered sets.This volume contains translations of these papers with accompanying introductory essays. They are highly accessible, historically significant works, important not only for set theory, but also for model theory, analysis and algebra. This book is suitable for graduate students and researchers interested in set theory and the history of mathematics. Also available from the AMS by Felix Hausdorff are the classic works, Grundzuge der Mengenlehre (Volume 61) and Set Theory (Volume 119), in the AMS Chelsea Publishing series.

## Consequences of the Axiom of Choice

Format: Hardback Release Date: 15/01/2020

This book, Consequences of the Axiom of Choice , is a comprehensive listing of statements that have been proved in the last 100 years using the axiom of choice. Each consequence, also referred to as a form of the axiom of choice, is assigned a number. Part I is a listing of the forms by number. In this part each form is given together with a listing of all statements known to be equivalent to it (equivalent in set theory without the axiom of choice). In Part II the forms are arranged by topic. In Part III we describe the models of set theory which are used to show non-implications between forms. Part IV, the notes section, contains definitions, summaries of important sub-areas and proofs that are not readily available elsewhere. Part V gives references for the relationships between forms and Part VI is the bibliography. Part VII is contained on the floppy disk which is enclosed in the book. It contains a table with form numbers as row and column headings.The entry in the table in row \$n\$, column \$k\$ gives the status of the implication 'form \$n\$ implies form \$k\$'. Software for easily extracting information from the table is also provided. It features a complete summary of all the work done in the last 100 years on statements that are weaker than the axiom of choice software provided. It gives complete, convenient access to information about relationships between the various consequences of the axiom of choice and about the models of set theory; descriptions of more than 100 models used in the study of the axiom of choice, and an extensive bibliography.About the software: Tables 1 and 2 are accessible on the PC-compatible software included with the book. In addition, the program maketex.c in the software package will create TeX files containing copies of Table 1 and Table 2 which may then be printed. (Tables 1 and 2 are also available at the authors' Web sites. Detailed instructions for setting up and using the software are included in the book's Introduction, and technical support is available directly from the authors.

## Two Applications of Logic to Mathematics

Using set theory in the first part of his book, and proof theory in the second, Gaisi Takeuti gives us two examples of how mathematical logic can be used to obtain results previously derived in less elegant fashion by other mathematical techniques, especially analysis. In Part One, he applies Scott- Solovay's Boolean-valued models of set theory to analysis by means of complete Boolean algebras of projections. In Part Two, he develops classical analysis including complex analysis in Peano's arithmetic, showing that any arithmetical theorem proved in analytic number theory is a theorem in Peano's arithmetic. In doing so, the author applies Gentzen's cut elimination theorem. Although the results of Part One may be regarded as straightforward consequences of the spectral theorem in function analysis, the use of Boolean- valued models makes explicit and precise analogies used by analysts to lift results from ordinary analysis to operators on a Hilbert space. Essentially expository in nature, Part Two yields a general method for showing that analytic proofs of theorems in number theory can be replaced by elementary proofs. Originally published in 1978. The Princeton Legacy Library uses the latest print-on-demand technology to again make available previously out-of-print books from the distinguished backlist of Princeton University Press. These editions preserve the original texts of these important books while presenting them in durable paperback and hardcover editions. The goal of the Princeton Legacy Library is to vastly increase access to the rich scholarly heritage found in the thousands of books published by Princeton University Press since its founding in 1905.

## Approximation of Functions

Format: Hardback Release Date: 12/01/2020

This is an easily accessible book on the approximation of functions - simple and without unnecessary details, but complete enough to include the main results of the theory. Except for a few sections, only functions of a real variable are treated. This work can be used as a textbook for graduate or advanced undergraduate courses or for self-study. Included in the volume are Notes at the end of each chapter, Problems, and a selected Bibliography.

## Computability Theory

What can we compute--even with unlimited resources? Is everything within reach? Or are computations necessarily drastically limited, not just in practice, but theoretically? These questions are at the heart of computability theory. The goal of this book is to give the reader a firm grounding in the fundamentals of computability theory and an overview of currently active areas of research, such as reverse mathematics and algorithmic randomness. Turing machines and partial recursive functions are explored in detail, and vital tools and concepts including coding, uniformity, and diagonalization are described explicitly. From there the material continues with universal machines, the halting problem, parametrization and the recursion theorem, and thence to computability for sets, enumerability, and Turing reduction and degrees. A few more advanced topics round out the book before the chapter on areas of research. The text is designed to be self-contained, with an entire chapter of preliminary material including relations, recursion, induction, and logical and set notation and operators. That background, along with ample explanation, examples, exercises, and suggestions for further reading, make this book ideal for independent study or courses with few prerequisites.

## Arabic Logic from al-Farabi to Averroes A Study of the Early Arabic Categorical, Modal, and Hypothetical Syllogistics

This monograph explores the logical systems of early logicians in the Arabic tradition from a theoretical perspective, providing a complete panorama of early Arabic logic and centering it within an expansive historical context. By thoroughly examining the writings of the first Arabic logicians, al-Farabi, Avicenna and Averroes, the author analyzes their respective theories, discusses their relationship to the syllogistics of Aristotle and his followers, and measures their influence on later logical systems. Beginning with an introduction to the writings of the most prominent Arabic logicians, the author scrutinizes these works to determine their categorical logic, as well as their modal and hypothetical logics. Where most other studies written on this subject focus on the Arabic logicians' epistemology, metaphysics, and theology, this volume takes a unique approach by focusing on the actual technical aspects and features of their logics. The author then moves on to examine the original texts as closely as possible and employs the symbolism of modern propositional, predicate, and modal logics, rendering the arguments of each logician clearly and precisely while clarifying the theories themselves in order to determine the differences between the Arabic logicians' systems and those of Aristotle. By providing a detailed examination of theories that are still not very well-known in Western countries, the author is able to assess the improvements that can be found in the Arabic writings, and to situate Arabic logic within the breadth of the history of logic. This unique study will appeal mainly to historians of logic, logicians, and philosophers who seek a better understanding of the Arabic tradition. It also will be of interest to modern logicians who wish to delve into the historical aspects and progression of their discipline. Furthermore, this book will serve as a valuable resource for graduate students who wish to complement their general knowledge of Arabic culture, logic, and sciences.

## Functional Interpretations: From The Dialectica Interpretation To Functional Interpretations Of Analysis And Set Theory

This book gives a detailed treatment of functional interpretations of arithmetic, analysis, and set theory. The subject goes back to Goedel's Dialectica interpretation of Heyting arithmetic which replaces nested quantification by higher type operations and thus reduces the consistency problem for arithmetic to the problem of computability of primitive recursive functionals of finite types. Regular functional interpretations, in particular the Dialectica interpretation and its generalization to finite types, the Diller-Nahm interpretation, are studied on Heyting as well as Peano arithmetic in finite types and extended to functional interpretations of constructive as well as classical systems of analysis and set theory. Kreisel's modified realization and Troelstra's hybrids of it are presented as interpretations of Heyting arithmetic and extended to constructive set theory, both in finite types. They serve as background for the construction of hybrids of the Diller-Nahm interpretation of Heyting arithmetic and constructive set theory, again in finite types. All these functional interpretations yield relative consistency results and closure under relevant rules of the theories in question as well as axiomatic characterizations of the functional translations.

## An Introduction to Many-valued Logics

Originally published in 1967. An introduction to the literature of nonstandard logic, in particular to those nonstandard logics known as many-valued logics. Part I expounds and discusses implicational calculi, modal logics and many-valued logics and their associated calculi. Part II considers the detailed development of various many-valued calculi, and some of the important metathereoms which have been proved for them. Applications of the calculi to problems in the philosophy are also surveyed. This work combines criticism with exposition to form a comprehensive but concise survey of the field.