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This collection provides a comprehensive overview of the historical evolution of the art and practice of insurgency and counter insurgency. This is a dimension of war whose significance has been contested but, since 9/11, many would argue has become the single most important challenge facing national military and security forces throughout the world. Although certain sources have argued that we are witnessing the birth of a new type of war which, primarily because of the effects of globalisation, represents a phenomenon that has no earlier precedent, others have looked to the past to see if any lessons can be learned and applied to the 'new wars' we face today. The Ashgate Research Companion to Insurgency and Counterinsurgency incorporates both aspects of this debate to provide the reader with an informed and balanced overview of insurgency and counter insurgency in the past, present and future. Given the scope and focus of the text the study works on the assumption that the history of insurgency and counter insurgency does offer insights and continuity between wars across time and space, but accepts that changes in recent insurgent strategies also makes incremental adaptation necessary. This volume is divided into a series of self contained epochs. - Each section introduction provides a broad overview of the drivers of conflict in this 'epoch'. It considers in general terms why groups opted for an insurgent strategy and it will then examine the counter response adopted by governments. - Each epoch is characterised or defined by a dominant mode of war based on the prevailing technological, economic and social and political conditions that existed in that time frame. - Each epoch explores the key theorists who dominated thinking on insurgency and counter insurgency at this time and the most important campaigns that shaped and defined the experience of insurgency and counter insurgency are explored. This comprehensive collection provides the reader with a wide survey of 'classic' insurgency and counter insurgency campaigns covering an expansive period of time. Each chapter can be used in its own right to inform a student about a campaign and provides further sources that can be consulted by those who want to learn more about that campaign. Moreover it supplies the reader with the context needed to understand the causes of insurgency; the nature of the actors involved; the key strengths and weaknesses of this strategy; and why it fails in one case but succeeds in another. The provision of these campaigns will also allow the reader to make a better judgement about the degree to which insurgency and counter insurgency today is fundamentally different from the past and the extent to which we need to think of new approaches.
In August 1914, on the outbreak of the First World War, there was enormous pressure on men to enlist in Kitchener's New Armies, supplementing the tiny regular army and Territorial Force. This pressure was intense, and posters, the entreaties of local worthies, and an apparently indiscriminate scattering of white feathers, all exacerbated masculine sensitivity. We are all familiar, if only through BBC TV's 'Dad's Army', with the Home Guard of the Second World War. Far less is known of their First World War equivalent: the Volunteer Training Corps (VTC). Like their counter-parts in WW2, the VTC comprised those who were too old, too young, too unfit or too indispensable to serve in the regular forces. They fought for the right to be armed, uniformed and trained; to be employed on meaningful duties; and at first, to exist at all. This book explores the origins, development and structure of the VTC, along with those who belonged to the many supporting medical, transport, police and youth organisations who kept the home fires burning or, in some cases, tried to put them out. The VTC arose from the need of those men who were forced to stay at home to be seen to be doing their bit. They saw the removal of the bulk of both the regular army and the Territorial Force to the Western Front as their opportunity to prepare to resist the expected German invasion of Britain, and as a way of countering accusations of shirking, or even cowardice.
America has been at war for years, but until now, it has not been clear with whom. According to the authors, the country has not been using its full resources to defeat the enemy or identified the main foe. In War Footing, Frank Gaffney and his colleagues make it clear who they believe the enemy is, how high the stakes are and then discuss how they believe the US can prevail. Their book contends that America is engaged in nothing less than an all-out War for the Free World - a fight to the death with Islamofascists who adhere to a political ideology bent on the country's destruction. The authors offer ten specific steps that Americans, as individuals and as communities, can take to maintain their way of life. These steps include recommendations about how to know the enemy, support our troops, provide for US energy security, stop investing in terror, equip the country for domestic war, counter an EMP attack, secure the country's borders against illegal immigration, wage political warfare, launch regional initiatives, and wield effective diplomacy. This definitive, highly readable owner's manual for the War for the Free World has been written by one of the most prominent national security experts of our time, FRANK J GAFFNEY and his extraordinary team of respected experts. Among them are R JAMES WOOLSEY, VICTOR DAVIS HANSON, GENERALS TOM McINERNEY, USAF (Ret.) and PAUL VALLELY, USA (Ret.); ALEX ALEXIEV, ANDREW McCARTHY, CLAUDIA ROSETT, MICHAEL RUBIN, DANIEL GOURE, CAROLINE GLICK, MICHAEL WALKER and others.
One of the most bitterly contested pieces of land in World War II was a strip of Italian seacoast fifteen miles long and seven miles deep --the Anzio beachhead. Fred Sheehan, a soldier who participated in the campaign, tells the story of this largely neglected battle, whose purpose was to open the road to Rome. The unopposed January 1944 landing of 40,000 Allied troops seemed to promise easy victory. Yet a month later, with their number increased to 120,000, the Allies were no nearer Rome and were desperately fighting to hold there own against the German forces of Field Marshal Albert Kesselring.
Forty-nine years old when the war began, Monash was given command of the 4th Infantry Brigade of the AIF. He brought to that appointment not just thirty years' service as a militia officer, but the hardening experience of a long struggle against great adversity to become a leading engineer and businessman. Monash's civil triumph was based on personal characteristics which are also essential for successful command on the battlefield. His creative imagination, his attention to minute detail, his unhesitating adoption of the ideas of others, whether British or German, and his willingness to use new technology, made him one of the most effective commanders in a war which is often regarded as the nadir of the art of command. Yet Monash was no infallible hero. For what he held were sound and practical reasons, he rarely visited his own front line. While taking every care to conserve his men, he could be ruthless when life had to be sacrificed for the larger objective. But he learned from experience and applied the lessons to his own situation. Thus the dreadful conditions at Gallipoli became an important yardstick against which to judge the exhaustion of the Australian corps, t
First published in 1958, Red River Campaign examines how partisan politics, economic needs and personal profit determined military policy and operations in Louisiana and Arkansas during the spring of 1864. In response to the demands of Free-Soil interests in Texas and the New England textiles manufacturers' need for cotton, Lincoln authorised an expedition to open the way to Texas. General Nathaniel Banks conducted a combined military and naval campaign up the Red River that lasted only from March 12th to May 20th, 1864, but which was one of the most destructive campaigns of the war.
A masterful analysis of events and beliefs that led up to the Peqout War . -- Boston Sunday Globe
From August 1942 until February 1943, two armies faced each other amid the malarial jungles and blistering heat of Guadalcanal Island. The Imperial Japanese forces needed to protect and maintain the air base that gave them the ability to interdict enemy supply routes. The Allies were desperate to halt the advance of a foe that so far had inflicted crippling losses on the U.S. fleet at Pearl Harbor, then seized the Philippines, Wake Island, the Dutch East Indies, Guam, and other Allied territory. After months of relentless battle, the U.S. troops forced back the determined Japanese, providing what many historians believe was the decisive turning point in the Pacific theater of operations. Stanley Coleman Jersey, a medical air evacuation specialist in the South Pacific during World War II, has spent countless hours combing Australian, Japanese, and U.S. documents and interviewing more than 200 veterans of the Guadalcanal campaign, both Allied and Japanese. Beginning with the events that preceded the battle for Guadalcanal during the Australian defense of the southern Solomon Islands in late 1941, Jersey details the military preparations made in response to intelligence describing the creation of an enemy air base within striking distance of American supply lines and recounts the civilian evacuation that followed the Japanese arrival in New Guinea. With the stage set, he turns to the campaign itself, with particular emphasis on the combat during the critical period of August to December 1942. While Guadalcanal is his primary focus, Jersey also covers the roles played by forces occupying the other Solomon Islands, including the plight of construction laborers, air crews, and ground units. This book, chock-full of gripping battlefield accounts and harrowing first-person narratives, draws together for the first time Allied and Japanese perspectives on the bloody contest. It is certain to become an indispensable asset to historians of World War II.
The Politics of Command reevaluates the continual controversy over strategy that occurred between Jefferson Davis and his high command, and within the command itself. Thomas Lawrence Connelly and Archer Jones illustrate how Davis' decisions were affected by officers in the field, politicians, the considerable clout of the western bloc and its network of informal associations, the input of Robert E. Lee, the pressure brought to bear by P.G.T. Beauregard, and Davis' own changing concept of the departmental command system. Connelly and Jones were the first to realize that any significant assessment of Davis' strategy must examine those who influenced him, for his key decisions were products of the politics of command.
During World War II, more than twelve million American men served their country in combat and behind the lines. Although their numbers are fewer, and none were drafted, 300,000 American women also felt an overwhelming call of duty to help rid the world of the Nazi threat. As veterans age, many are recording their experiences for posterity. In this evocative memoir, we have the rare record of a woman soldier. Montana-born Grace Porter was teaching school in Iowa when, in 1942, she turned twenty-one and became eligible for service in the U.S. armed forces. Patriotic and adventurous, she volunteered to join the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps, later the Women's Army Corps (WAC). A tough basic-training course in which she underwent most of the same hardships as the men, including long marches and latrine duty, strengthened her for future experiences. When the opportunity arose during the blitz and buzz-bomb days, Porter volunteered to go overseas. She and thirty-nine other WACs, along with thousands of male soldiers, crossed the North Atlantic on the Queen Mary in February 1944. Stationed in London, Porter served as a cryptographic technician during the campaigns of Normandy, Northern France, Rhineland, Central Europe, and Air Offensive Europe. Soon after the battle of the Bulge began, she was sent to Belgium, where she continued to work in cryptographics near- and once, accidently, across- the front lines of combat. As Grace Porter Miller demonstrates in Call of Duty, being in the WAC during World War II afforded her many thrilling experiences. She encountered fascinating people, traveled throughout the United States and Europe, and participated in a dramatic chapter of history. But the price she paid to serve her country was high. Like many other military women, she endured prejudice and harassment, witnessed the vast suffering of European refugees, withstood the constant threat of danger, and long after returning home suffered from serious health problems and nightmares. Despite their outstanding qualifications and record of service, the girls of World War II continued to be treated like second-class soldiers after the war. Now, fifty years later, one of their number urges us to recognize the sacrifices and contributions these unsung heroes made for our country. After the war, Grace Porter Miller taught Navajo children in New Mexico, worked as an extension agent on the Fort Belknap reservation in northern Montana, and served as an editor for the Havre Daily News. A widow, she lives in Prescott, Arizona, near several of her children.
An account of the Vietnam War, as seen by the American PFCs, sergeants and platoon leaders in the rivers and jungles and trenches. Into their stories, Lehrack has woven a narrative that explains the events they describe and places them into both a historical and a political context. The book tells the story of teenagers leading squads of men into the jungle on night missions, the story of boredom, confusion, and equipment shortages, of friends suddenly blown away, of disappointing homecomings. It is also the story of young men placed under unbearable strain and asked to do the impossible, who somehow stretched to meet the demands placed upon them.
Since the earliest days of warfare, military operations have followed a predictable formula: after a decisive battle, an army must pursue the enemy and destroy its organization in order to achieve a victorious campaign. But by the mid-nineteenth century, the emergence of massive armies and advanced weaponry--and the concomitant decline in the effectiveness of cavalry--had diminished the practicality of pursuit, producing campaigns that bogged down short of decisive victory. Great battles had become curiously indecisive, decisive campaigns virtually impossible. At the beginning of the twentieth century, the inability to achieve decisive victories in warfare had become the single greatest military problem facing modern armies. Robert Citino now tells how European military leaders analyzed and eventually overcame this problem by restoring pursuit to its rightful place in combat and resurrecting the possibility of decisive warfare on the operational level. Quest for Decisive Victory chronicles the evolution of European warfare during the first half of the twentieth century. A study of war at the operational level, it demonstrates the interplay and tension between technology and doctrine in warfare and reveals how problems surrounding mobility--including such factors as supply lines, command and control, and prewar campaign planning--forced armies to find new ways of fighting. Citino focuses on key campaigns of both major and minor conflicts. Minor wars before 1914 (Boer, Russo-Japanese, and the Balkan Wars of 1912-13) featured instructive examples of operational maneuver; the First World War witnessed the collapse of operations and the rise of attrition warfare; the Italo-Ethiopian and Spanish Civil Wars held some promise for breaking out of stalemate by incorporating such innovations as air and tank warfare. Ultimately, it was Germany's opening blitzkrieg of World War II that resurrected the decisive campaign as an operational possibility. By grafting new technologies--tanks, aircraft, and radio--onto a long tradition of maneuver warfare, the Wehrmacht won decisive victories in the first year of the war and in the process transformed modern military doctrine. Citino's study is important for shifting the focus from military theory and doctrine to detailed operational analyses of actual campaigns that formed the basis for the revival of military doctrine. Quest for Decisive Victory gives scholars of military history a better grasp of that elusive concept and a more complete understanding of modern warfare.