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See below for a selection of the latest books from 20th century history: c 1900 to c 2000 category. Presented with a red border are the 20th century history: c 1900 to c 2000 books that have been lovingly read and reviewed by the experts at Lovereading. With expert reading recommendations made by people with a passion for books and some unique features Lovereading will help you find great 20th century history: c 1900 to c 2000 books and those from many more genres to read that will keep you inspired and entertained. And it's all free!
Mosaic Fictions is the first book-length critical analysis of Canadian Spanish Civil War literature. Treating published and archival writings, the book focuses on the extensive contributions of Jewish Canadian authors as they articulate the stakes of the Spanish Civil War (1936-39) in the language of a nascent North American multiculturalism. Placing Jewish Canadian writers within overlapping North American networks of Jewish, Black, immigrant, female, and queer writers challenges the national distinctions that dominate current critical approaches to Anglophone Spanish Civil War literature. Reframing the narrative of Spain's noble but tragic struggle against fascism in the Spanish Civil War, the book demonstrates how marginalized North American supporters of the Spanish Republic crafted narratives of inclusive citizenship amidst a national crisis not entirely their own. Mosaic Fictions examines texts composed between the war's outbreak and the present to illuminate the integral connections between Canada's developing national identity and global leftist action.
In the 1930s, the British public's emotional response to the atrocities of the Spanish Civil War, including the bombing of Guernica, shaped the mass-politics of the age. Similarly, alleged German atrocities in World War I against the Belgians and the French had led to campaigns in Britain for donations to support the victims. Why then, was the British public seemingly less concerned with the treatment of Jews in Hitler's Germany? Outlining a 'hierarchy of compassion', Russell Wallis seeks to show how and why the Holocaust met initially with such a muted response in Britain. Drawing on primary source material, Wallis shows why the Nuremberg laws were reported without great protest, along with Kristallnacht and the creation of the Prague Ghetto. Even after the reality of the 'Final Solution' was announced by Anthony Eden to the British Parliament in 1942, the Holocaust remained a footnote to the war effort. Britain, Germany and the Road to the Holocaust is a study of the British relationship with Germany in the period, and a dissection of British attitudes towards the genocide in Europe.
Under the growing shadow of the Cold War, President Eisenhower announced his 'Open Skies' initiative to Soviet, British and French delegations at the Geneva Summit in 1955. In a climate of intense fear and suspicion, this proposed system of mutual aerial inspection was dismissed by Khrushchev and the Soviet Union as nothing more than an 'espionage plot'. Nevertheless, Eisenhower campaigned for its implementation until the end of his presidency. Here, Helen Bury provides a new interpretation of Eisenhower's 'Open Skies' programme, arguing that it functioned as a corrective to John Foster Dulles' 'New Look' defence strategy - which relied on the threat of massive nuclear retaliation. A critic of the 'military-industrial' complex which was gaining power in American statecraft and which sought to expand military spending, Eisenhower aimed instead to safeguard the economic strength of America. Eisenhower and the Military-Industrial Complex is the first in-depth study of the Open Skies policy and essential reading for historians of the Cold War and the International Relations of the United States.
Soon after the guns in Belgium and France had signalled the commencement of what would become the world's single most destructive conflict to date, the British, Ottoman, German, Russian, Austro-Hungarian, French and Belgian Empires were at war. Empires in World War I marks a turn away from the pre-eminence of the Western Front in the current scholarship, and seeks to reconstitute our understanding of this war as a truly global struggle between competing empires. Based on primary research, this book opens up new debates on the effects of the Great War in colonial arenas. The book assesses the effects of the war on Native Americans in the United States for example, as well as on the relationship between India and Pakistan, the British justice system in Palestine and the 'imperial scramble' in the Asia-Pacific region. Empires in World War I will be essential reading for students and scholars of the twentieth century.
Despite the extensive analysis of the historical, political and legal background of many Balkan conflicts in recent years, little attention has been paid to the tragedy of the Cham ethnic community. In 1913 the commission entrusted by the London Conference of Ambassadors to define the southern borders of the newly created state of Albania ended its proceedings with the Protocol of Florence, which provided that the territories inhabited by almost half of the Albanian population were exempted from the boundaries of the new state. While nearly 800,000 inhabitants found themselves within the new state of Albania, the territories inhabited by the remaining 700,000 ethnic Albanians became constituent parts of Serbia and Greece - the winners of the Balkan Wars. The land of the Chams, a coastal area between southern Albania and north-west Greece known as 'Chameria', was entirely incorporated into Greece. Since that time, the predominantly Muslim Chams have faced severe persecution and forced expulsion from their homes in Greece, particularly under the Metaxas regime, when the Chams were prohibited from using their own language outside of their home, and also during World War II, when Chams were persecuted in retaliation for their collaboration with the Axis powers. In the aftermath of World War II, the continued persecution of the Chams forced many to return to Albania, or to seek refuge in Turkey or the United States with the result that, after the war, only just over 100 Muslim Cham Albanians were left in Greece. In recent years, following the collapse of communism in Albania, when foreign travel again became possible, many have sought to return to their homelands in Greece and to regain their property. The documents gathered together in this book consist of records of the League of Nations and the British Mission, as well as documents assembled by other diplomatic missions between 1913 and the 1960s. Together, they address all of the periods of forced expulsions of the Cham population from Greece. The publication of these documents provides an unparalleled historical record of the Cham story. This book will be essential reading for scholars of Balkan history, politics and human rights. It will provide a fascinating insight into one of the forgotten tragedies of the twentieth century.
The Blitz- the period of Nazi bombing campaigns on civilian Britain during World War II- was a formative period for British national identity. In this groundbreaking book, David Clampin looks at the images, campaigns and slogans which helped to form the fabled 'Blitz spirit'- powerfully echoed in Winston Churchill's speeches. Because advertisers attempted to capitalise on war-time patriotism, Clampin's unique focus on advertising provides a visually rich seam of new information on the everyday war, and makes an enormous contribution to the debate on people's experiences of war and nationalism. Using a remarkable and hitherto unseen range of primary source material-advertisements in the press, slogans and posters-this work will reshape the contested meanings of the 'Home Front', opening up cultural history discourses on gender and nationalism. Advertising and Propaganda in World War II is essential reading for historians of World War II as well as students and scholars of Media Studies and Communication Studies.
The Ottoman Empire - the great power which had ruled much of southeastern Europe and the Middle East for over five centuries - was manifestly in decline by 1912. Its decline had been gradual, but by the early years of the twentieth century, the collapse of the mighty world that had once stretched to the gates of Vienna seemed increasingly inevitable. New Balkan states - Serbia, Bulgaria, Montenegro and Greece - combined forces in the First Balkan War (1912-1913) to bring about its downfall. But with victory in their grasp, they were soon at one another's throats. This book contains 83 selected and edited consular dispatches and reports sent to the Foreign Office in London focusing on events in Macedonia during the Balkan Wars of 1912-1914. They reveal the extent of human suffering in the southern Balkan region in this period and provide much insight into the realities of the Balkan conflagration as it affected Macedonia and its environs. As a first-hand, on-the-spot account, this is an invaluable source for historians of twentieth-century Europe, the lead-up to World War I and the decline of the Ottoman Empire.
The firebombing of Dresden marks the terrible apex of the European bombing war. In just over two days in February 1945, over 1,300 heavy bombers from the RAF and the USAAF dropped nearly 4,000 tonnes of explosives on Dresden's civilian centre.Since the end of World War II, both the death toll and the motivation for the attack have become fierce historical battlegrounds, as German feelings of victimhood complete with those of guilt and loss. The Dresden bombing was used by East Germany as a propaganda tool, and has been re-appropriated by the neo-Nazi far right. Meanwhile the rebuilding of the Frauenkirche- the city's sumptuous eighteenth-century church destroyed in the raid-became central to German identity, while in London, a statue of the Commander-in-Chief of RAF Bomber Command, Sir Arthur Harris, has attracted protests. In this book, Tony Joel focuses on the historical battle to re-appropriate Dresden, and on how World War II continues to shape British and German identity today.
The invasion of Czechoslovakia by Nazi Germany in March 1939 helped to precipitate Europe's descent into World War II sis months later. The move, supposedly to protect the Sudeten Germans, shocked many in Europe, who saw it as a clear statement of intent by Hitler. Here, Patrick Crowhurst argues that occupation of the Sudetenland and the Czech lands was also crucial to the Nazi war machine. The armaments, factories and raw materials that Hitler seized accelerated Germany's capabilities; Czech tanks would prove crucial in the Ardennes and, as the Wehrmacht fought at Stalingrad, Armaments Minister Albert Speer was corralling Czech industrial machinery to produce engines, aircraft and equipment in support. In addition, new Slovakian and Czech primary material are used to give a new in-depth account of the German reaction to the assassination of Reinhardt Heydrich on the streets of Prague in June 1942. The recriminations were brutal, and dovetailed with Hitler's plans for the genocide of Czech Jewry. This is a new side of the History of Nazi Europe, and argues for the centrality of the Czech occupation in the overall narrative of World War II.
A spellbinding portrait of the Hampstead Modernists, threading together the lives, loves, rivalries and ambitions of a group of artists at the heart of an international avant-garde. Hampstead in the 1930s. In this peaceful, verdant London suburb, Barbara Hepworth and Ben Nicholson have embarked on a love affair - a passion which will launch an era-defining art movement. In her chronicle of the exhilarating rise and fall of British Modernism, Caroline Maclean captures the dazzling circle drawn into Hepworth and Nicholson's wake: among them Henry Moore, Paul Nash, Herbert Read, and famed emigres Walter Gropius, founder of the Bauhaus, and Piet Mondrian, blown in on the winds of change sweeping across Europe. Living and working within a few streets of their Park Hill Road studios, the artists form Unit One, a cornerstone of the Modernist movement which would bring them international renown. Drawing on previously unpublished archive material, Caroline Maclean's electrifying Circles and Squares brings the work, loves and rivalries of the Hampstead Modernists to life as never before, capturing a brief moment in time when a new way of living seemed possible. United in their belief in art's power to change the world, her cast of trailblazers radiate hope and ambition during one of the darkest chapters of the twentieth century.
Today it often appears as though the European Union has entered existential crisis after decades of success, condemned by its adversaries as a bureaucratic monster eroding national sovereignty: at best wasteful, at worst dangerous. How did we reach this point and how has European integration impacted on ordinary people's lives - not just in the member states, but also beyond? Did the predecessors of today's EU really create peace after World War II, as is often argued? How about its contribution to creating prosperity? What was the role of citizens in this process, and can the EU justifiably claim to be a 'community of values'? Kiran Klaus Patel's bracing look back at the myths and realities of integration challenges conventional wisdoms of Europhiles and Eurosceptics alike and shows that the future of Project Europe will depend on the lessons that Europeans derive from its past.
The wartime period in Britain is now seen as an extremely fertile period of British creativity in music, film and art. Often, these projects were funded and supported by the government, who saw its role as a custodian of British culture, and by extension, of British values, at a time when those values seemed under great threat. In the late thirties the Nazi Party had stressed the superiority of Germanic culture and the promotion of Richard Wagner and Carl Orff was central to Hitler's cultural program. In Britain, the War Office under Winston Churchill chose to promote Edward Elgar and Hubert Parry, but also to appropriate and 'de-Nazify' Ludwig van Beethoven- whose Fifth Symphony was used extensively in wartime broadcasts and has since become synonymous with VE Day. Meanwhile, the work of Ralph Vaughn Williams, whose music was commissioned by Powell and Pressburger for use in 49th Parallel, reclaimed a particularly English past stretching back to the Tudors. While artists such as John Piper, Eric Ravillious and Evelyn Dunbar produced works specifically commissioned by the state which were intended to commemorate and glorify Britain, the British Council and the BBC played an active role in commissioning and broadcasting their musical equivalents. In film, Humphrey Jenning's documentaries were designed to further push the wartime agenda, along with films produced by Ealing Studios. Here, John Morris assesses the history of this body of work, shedding new light on the period. A cultural history of music in wartime based on detailed archival research, Culture and Propaganda in World War II is essential reading for historians of the period, musicians, film scholars and propaganda analysts.