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See below for a selection of the latest books from 20th century history: c 1900 to c 2000 category. Presented with a red border are the 20th century history: c 1900 to c 2000 books that have been lovingly read and reviewed by the experts at Lovereading. With expert reading recommendations made by people with a passion for books and some unique features Lovereading will help you find great 20th century history: c 1900 to c 2000 books and those from many more genres to read that will keep you inspired and entertained. And it's all free!
Founded in 1919 along with the League of Nations, the International Labour Organization (ILO) establishes labor standards and produces knowledge about the world of work, serving as a forum for nations, unions, and employer associations. Before WWII, it focused on enhancing conditions for male industrial workers in Western, often imperial, economies, while restricting the circumstances of women's labors. Over time, the ILO embraced non-discrimination and equal treatment. It now promotes fair globalization, standardized employment and decent work for women in the developing world. In Making the Woman Worker, Eileen Boris illuminates the ILO's transformation in the context of the long fight for social justice. Boris analyzes three ways in which the ILO has classified the division of labor: between women and men from 1919 to 1958; between women in the global south and the west from 1955 to 1996; and between the earning and care needs of all workers from 1990s to today. Before 1945, the ILO focused on distinguishing feminized labor from male workers, whom the organization prioritized. But when the world needed more women workers, the ILO (a UN agency after WWII) highlighted the global differences in women's work, began to combat sexism in the workplace, and declared care work essential to women's labor participation. Today, the ILO enters its second century with a mission to protect the interests of all workers in the face of increasingly globalized supply chains, the digitization of homework, and cross-border labor trafficking. As Boris shows, the ILO's treatment of women is a window into the modern history of labor. The historic relegation of feminized labor to the part-time, short-term, and low-waged prefigures the future organization of work. The labor force is increasingly self-employed and working as long as possible-a steep price for flexibility-with minimal governmental oversight. How we treat workers in the next century will inevitably build upon evolving ideas of the woman worker, shaped significantly through the ILO.
Beirut is the cultural, commercial and economic hub of Lebanon. But to what extent has the city affected and shaped the formation and perceptions of Lebanese national identity? Ghenwa Hayek here explores how anxieties over the past, present and future of Beirut have been articulated through a sense of dislocation present in Lebanese writing since the 1960s. Drawing on theories of cultural studies, geography and history, the author uses an interdisciplinary framework to explore the role that spaces - from rural to urban - have played and continue to play in the defining, and re-defining, of national identity in the seventy years since the creation of the Lebanese nation state. This theoretical perspective coupled with a close reading of little-explored contemporary writings lead Hayek to question the predominant assumption that Lebanese novelists only became engaged in discourses about place identity and individual and social belonging with the start of the fifteen-year civil war and the destruction of Beirut's city centre. Instead, the book shows that particular geographical imaginaries have been mobilized to describe, question and debate Lebanese identity since the 1960s and that some go back even further into the late nineteenth century. This re-reading calls for a re-evaluation of some of the most predominant assumptions about Lebanon and the processes of Lebanese identity formation across the country's modern history. Examining a wide range of modern and contemporary literature, Hayek charts the rise to cultural prominence of the city of Beirut as a significant player in shaping perceptions of Lebanese culture and identity.
This innovative study of memorial architecture investigates how design can translate memories of human loss into tangible structures, creating spaces for remembering. Using approaches from history, psychology, anthropology and sociology, Sabina Tanovic explores purposes behind creating contemporary memorials in a given location, their translation into architectural concepts, their materialisation in the face of social and political challenges, and their influence on the transmission of memory. Covering the period from the First World War to the present, she looks at memorials such as the Holocaust museums in Mechelen and Drancy, as well as memorials for the victims of terrorist attacks, to unravel the private and public role of memorial architecture and the possibilities of architecture as a form of agency in remembering and dealing with a difficult past. The result is a distinctive contribution to the literature on history and memory, and on architecture as a link to the past.
A witty and impassioned book on Ulster, which has been thrust into the centre of British and European politics and which is likely to become Britain's frontier with the wider world. Very few citizens of the mainland UK know very much about Ulster, after 20 years of uneasy peace. Backstop Land investigates the murky network of ever-renewing tentacles of the IRA, and the lives of those who support and lead the DUP, who have held British politics to ransom for three years - a fundamentalist, embittered and irreconcilable minority with its sincere belief in religious truths that seem alien to the vast majority of secular Britons. Patterson is a brilliantly witty observer of his community, and as a liberal Protestant (and Unionist) married to a southern Catholic he can explore both worlds with equal ease. There are endless books about the legacy of the Troubles, but nothing like this.
This book is a catalogue of disaster - literally. Within its pages are the major man-made calamities that shocked the world throughout the twentieth century. It was a period during which the power and scale of industrialisation changed the planet, an unforeseen consequence being the creation of more human-created catastrophes than ever before experienced. The events recorded here include the needless carnage of history's worst air disaster when two jumbo jets collided on the island of Tenerife. We recall the horrors of Aberfan, the Welsh village in which schoolchildren were buried alive. The story of the explosion aboard the Challenger space shuttle reveals how warnings that were ignored led to the deaths of seven astronauts. And we report on the failings that caused the nuclear nightmare at Chernobyl, a poisonous blot on the face of the globe. These and the other misadventures in this book were all man-made and, it seems, just waiting to happen. A further link between these horrific events is that they were all caused by either folly or greed - or both. But despite the tales of monstrous misfortune, many also produced heart-lifting stories of human resilience, selflessness, sacrifice and heroism.
How the clash between the civil rights firebrand and the father of modern conservatism continues to illuminate America's racial divide On February 18, 1965, an overflowing crowd packed the Cambridge Union in Cambridge, England, to witness a historic televised debate between James Baldwin, the leading literary voice of the civil rights movement, and William F. Buckley Jr., a fierce critic of the movement and America's most influential conservative intellectual. The topic was the American dream is at the expense of the American Negro, and no one who has seen the debate can soon forget it. Nicholas Buccola's The Fire Is upon Us is the first book to tell the full story of the event, the radically different paths that led Baldwin and Buckley to it, the controversies that followed, and how the debate and the decades-long clash between the men continues to illuminate America's racial divide today. Born in New York City only fifteen months apart, the Harlem-raised Baldwin and the privileged Buckley could not have been more different, but they both rose to the height of American intellectual life during the civil rights movement. By the time they met in Cambridge, Buckley was determined to sound the alarm about a man he considered an eloquent menace. For his part, Baldwin viewed Buckley as a deluded reactionary whose popularity revealed the sickness of the American soul. The stage was set for an epic confrontation that pitted Baldwin's call for a moral revolution in race relations against Buckley's unabashed elitism and implicit commitment to white supremacy. A remarkable story of race and the American dream, The Fire Is upon Us reveals the deep roots and lasting legacy of a conflict that continues to haunt our politics.
The international community has not only acknowledged China's continuing rise as a world power but has also closely observed Beijing regain its place in the international community and grow to become a dominant player in the Far East. Despite the difficulty in obtaining relevant information, Harpia's Modern Chinese Warplanes series has filled an important void in recent years, focusing on the current situation, the structure of this growing force, its order of battle, and the latest types in service and under development. Now, and in order to commemorate the 70th anniversary of the People's Liberation Army Air Force on 11 November 2019, this new book turns its attention to the history since Mao's Communist Party took control of the country in 1949. Chinese Air Power in the 20th Century examines the different periods, explains the political events behind them and they connect to military developments, individual structure and capabilities. The title also includes an assessment of how the political climate influenced the design and development of the country's major military aircraft including the fighters, attack aircraft and bombers created by the Chinese aviation industry after World War II. This also includes a number of design proposals which, for various reasons, were rejected or abandoned. This comprehensive directory provides a lavishly illustrated, in-depth analysis and overview of the historical gestation of the PLAAF and its path to becoming the modern air arm we know today.
Having learned a number of crucial lessons regarding airborne early warning during the Vietnam War, and considering a giant leap forward in the related technologies of the late 1960s, the US Air Force (USAF) embarked on a project of developing the ultimate `airborne early warning and control system' (AWACS). The type that emerged from the related work became the Boeing E-3A Sentry. Following protracted research and development, the E-3 first entered service with three wings of the USAF. Before long, aircraft from all three units saw action within frame of the Cold War - foremost over northern, but also over central Europe. Meanwhile, the E-3 was offered to a number of carefully selected customers. Although paying for much of the developmental costs, Iran cancelled its order following the `Islamic Revolution' that toppled the government of the Shah Reza Pahlavi in 1979. Thus, it fell upon the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) to introduce the type to service in Europe. The first of 18 custom-tailored E-3As arrived in Europe in 1982: crewed by US, German, Canadian, Italian, Belgian, Danish, Greek, Norwegian, Portuguese, Turkish, and staff from Luxemburg, they entered service with the NATO Airborne Early Warning& Control Force, and represent the core of the NATO's strategy of aerial warfare. After cancelling its Nimrod AEW.Mk 3, in 1986 Great Britain followed with an order for six, later seven, E-3s the first of which was delivered in 1990. Almost simultaneously, the third and final customer for E-3 became France, which placed an order in 1987, and pressed the type into service three years later. Ironically, the E-3 Sentries of NATO and its partners were never to see combat against their original nemesis from the times of the Cold War - military forces of the Warsaw Pact. However, in the 1990s, the US, NATO, British, and French E-3s saw extensive action in support of operations during diverse conflicts in the former Yugoslavia, proving the value of not only their original concept, but also decades of massive involvement and training, beyond any doubt. Richly illustrated by often rare photography, and spiced by a host of data never published before, `Sentries over Europe' is the story of E-3s in operations over Europe of the 1980s and 1990s.
They were the stuff of legends and, indeed, their exploits throughout the simmering Caribbean region of the late 1940s have gained a life of their own over the intervening years. They were a mix of the finest and brightest - true patriots - with a seasoning of ambitious politicians, soldiers of fortune and blatant arms merchants. But through it all, their often-splintered leadership recognized the pivotal value of air power, and so they organized one of the very first extra-national air forces - non-traditional in the extreme. This in-depth examination goes beyond the politics and noble aspirations of the participants, whether patriot or despot, and reveals for the first time the lengths that the Legionaries went to in assembling an air strike force the likes of which the world had not yet witnessed. From B-24 Liberators to P-38 Lightnings, and down to non-lethal Vultee BT-13s and lumbering transports, the Legion's Air Force could well have been the pointy end of a political transformation that would shake entrenched dictators to the core. Well-illustrated and documented by a team of award-winning aero historians, this latest addition to the excellent Helion Latin America @War series is a must for those seeking the rest of the story.
During the late 1980s, the former Socialist Federal Republic of Jugoslavia (SFRJ) - a country dominating the Balkans - experienced a period of major crisis. Led by the Communist Party, the nation's leadership failed to understand the depth of political changes all over Eastern Europe, and then split along ethic lines. In 1988-1989, ethnic Albanians in the autonomous province of Kosovo began demanding independence: the authorities of the SFRJ reacted by suppressing the resulting demonstrations. In the Federal Republic of Serbia, public opinion slid into nationalism, which the local communist leadership exploited to maintain itself in power. By 1990, nationalistic leaders rose to power in Slovenia and Croatia, and publicly announced their intention to secede these federal republics. Under the heavy shadow of growing war-mongering, politicians from all three sides met to reach settlements on the division of their and their emerging nation's interests. The last few influential supporters of the preservation of a federal state were quickly pushed aside, and the powerful military of the SRFJ - the Yugoslav Popular Army (Jugoslovenska Narodna Armija, JNA) - became an instrument of political games. The Slovenian and Croatian proclamations of independence, in June 1991, proved to be the drop that over spilled the barrel. Already split by deep rifts within their top political and military leaders, the federal authorities launched a rather confused attempt to recover control over the external borders of the SRFJ. The nascent Slovenian military resisted, causing a series of bloody clashes with the JNA. Tasked with the transport and protection of federal employees, the Yugoslav Air Force and Air Defence (JRViPVO) found itself in the thick of combat from day one of this conflict, when the Slovenes shot down two of its helicopters. In return, the JRViPVO began flying attack sorties, which ended only through a political agreement of 2 July 1991, and the decision for Yugoslav authorities to withdraw from Slovenia. Hard on the heels of this drama, the conflict between Croats and Serbs in Croatia reached boiling point, in the summer of 1991. Slowly at first, a major war erupted, which caught the JRViPVO in a paradoxical situation as part of it was still undergoing training, while another part had to fly shows of power, and undertake reconnaissance, transport and then the first combat operations. By September 1991, the conflict turned into an ugly slugging match: Croatian forces had blocked numerous military bases and major storage depots while the JNA received orders to lift the sieges of its surrounded units. Amid the following civil war, the JRViPVO often found itself forced to take drastic decisions, like when one of its units was relocated from the Federal Republic of Macedonia to Pula in Croatia, to fly combat sorties over the local battlefields. For the JRViPVO, the war in Croatia ended through a political settlement and a cease-fire of 3 January 1992. However, only weeks later the force was to see its final action in Bosnia and Herzegovina, where it flew combat operations against local separatists. While another political agreement resulted in a withdrawal of all federal forces from this part of the former Yugoslavia on 19 Mary 1992, and the loss (and destruction) of the major air base outside Bihac, this was also the swan song of the once proud Yugoslav air force. Based on the author's unique approach to local archives and first-hand sources, and illustrated by over 120 photographs and colour profiles, the `JRVIPVO in Yugoslav War' is the first ever authoritative account of combat operations of the former Yugoslav Air Force in the conflict that shaped the modern-day southern Europe, and an indispensable source of reference on contemporary military history of this part of the World.
The Isokon building, also know as Lawn Road Flats, in London was the haunt of some of the most prominent Soviet agents working against Britain in the 1930s and 40s, among them Arnold Deutsch, the controller of the group of Cambridge spies who came to be known as the Magnificent Five after the Western movie The Magnificent Seven; the photographer Edith Tudor-Hart; and Melita Norwood, the longest-serving Soviet spy in British espionage history (and inspiration for Judi Dench's character in Red Joan). However, it wasn't only spies who were attracted to the Lawn Road Flats. The crime writer Agatha Christie wrote her only spy novel N or M? in the Flats, and a number of other artists, architects and writers were also drawn there, among them the Bauhaus exiles Walter Gropius, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy and Marcel Breuer; the sculptors and painters Henry Moore and Barbara Hepworth; the novelist Nicholas Monsarrat; the writer and founder of The Good Food Guide Raymond Postgate; and the poet (and Bletchley Park intelligence officer) Charles Brasch. The Isokon building boasted its own restaurant and dining club, where many of the Flats' most famous residents rubbed shoulders with some of the most dangerous communist spies ever to operate in Britain. Agatha Christie often said that she invented her characters from what she observed going on around her. With the Kuczynskis - probably the most successful family of spies in the history of espionage - in residence, she would have had plenty of material. This book tells the story of a remarkable Modernist building and its even more extraordinary cast of characters. DAVID BURKE is a historian of intelligence and international relations and author of The Spy Who Came In From the Co-op: Melita Norwood and the Ending of Cold War Espionage and Russia and the British Left: From the 1848 Revolutions to the General Strike.