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See below for a selection of the latest books from Modern history to 20th century: c 1700 to c 1900 category. Presented with a red border are the Modern history to 20th century: c 1700 to c 1900 books that have been lovingly read and reviewed by the experts at Lovereading. With expert reading recommendations made by people with a passion for books and some unique features Lovereading will help you find great Modern history to 20th century: c 1700 to c 1900 books and those from many more genres to read that will keep you inspired and entertained. And it's all free!
First published in 1997, Carabott creates a volume exploring the struggle between the forces of modernity and those who resisted and denied it, providing the underlying theme of this volume. Using a wide array of sources, and drawing parallels with processes elsewhere in Europe, the contributors focus on such topics as secularization and the church, education and irredentism, shifts in the language of political contention, the feminist awareness in prose. Historical writing on Greece in this era has tended to concentrate on facts and on the roles of individuals and foreign powers. The papers here, which derive from research presented to a conference at King's College London in 1995, aim rather to look at the potency of social forces and groupings, and offer a critical and often revisionist account of the fundamental changes in society that marked the period from the 1860s to the start of the present century.
This book tells the little known story of the Army's regimental and garrison schools established in 1812 to provide schooling for soldiers' children and subsequently for enlisted men, some almost 30 years before public money was first provided for elementary schools in England and Wales. This is the first published work on the Army's schools during the 19th century for almost 50 years and the author takes a fresh approach, placing the narrative within the context of contemporary opinion about the need for educated soldiers and the schooling appropriate for the lowers classes ( from which the Army predominately drew its recruits), whilst also explaining the hitherto neglected, but crucial part played by the responsible ministers at the War Office in establishing and ensuring the survival of the schools. There were no published government reports on these regimental schools until 1859 and previous literature has been largely silent on the workings of the schools during the early years, when they were conducted by untrained schoolmaster-sergeants selected by their commanding officers from within the ranks of their regiments. This book breaks new ground by drawing on the archives of more than 40 regiments of infantry and cavalry preserved in their regimental museum and county records offices, including standing orders, digests of service and personal diaries, together with and other contemporary material from a larger number of regiments in the UK National Archives, in order to construct an unprecedented account of the workings of the schools during the years. The book explains the difficulties faced by COs in securing sufficient literate men from within the ranks suitable for appointment and explains the challenges faced by even the most competent schoolmasters in keeping open the schools as their regiments marched between barracks in the United Kingdom and set out on long journeys by land and sea to stations across the Empire. The author builds on the previous literature in explaining the significance of the reforms in the Army's schools that were introduced during the 1840s, including establishing the 'Normal school' at the Royal Military Asylum Chelsea to train a new class of army schoolmasters to replace the schoolmaster- sergeants, and theappointment of an Inspector to oversee the work of the schools. The approach taken in this book however differs from the previous works in a number of respects. Whilst acknowledging the important part played by Rev George Gleig, the Army's Principal Chaplain and first Inspector of Military Schools, this book aims to provide a balanced narrative, which also recognises the decisive part played of Sidney Herbert and Lord Panmure (Fox Maule) as the responsible ministers at the War Office. Their work in securing support within their governments for the additional expenditure required and in overcoming the suspicions and potential opposition of the Dukes of Wellington and Cambridge as Commanders in Chiefs at the Horse Guards were essential to the success of the reforms. The author explains that the reforms were not always well received in all parts of the Army and argues that the changes introduced by the War Office in 1846 were only the start of a long process of creating a professional structure for the Army's schools that extended well into the 1860s. The chapters describing the difficulties faced by Sydney Herbert and Lord Palmore in implementing the reforms provide some interesting examples of the manoeuvring for authority within the Army by the Secretary of State for War and the Commander in Chief at the Horse Guards during these years. Throughout the century a large part of the British Army was stationed overseas and a significate proportion was in India. The previous literature has little to say about the how the reforms of were implemented in the colonial garrisons and is silent on the separate arrangements for superintendence and inspection of the schools that operated for some thirty years in the three Indian Presidencies of Bengal, Bombay and Madras. This work pays particular attention to the particular circumstances of the Army's school in India throughout the century.##The author explains that the introduction of short service enlistment following Cardwell's reforms in 1870 and the beginnings of national system of elementary education following Forster's Education Act in the same year, raised questions about the continuing need for a separate system of Army schools. This was the subject of intense debate within the military departments which is described in the book's concluding chapters. The War Office decided that there were good reasons to retain the Army's schools, but decided in 1887 that the tuition for recruits and enlisted men seeking promotion as NCOs could be more cost effectively delivered in larger garrison schools by combining soldiers from a number of regiments. It however decided to retain the regimental schools for the children for the practical reason that the battalions of the infantry and the regiments of cavalry continued to move at regular intervals between the camps and barracks at home and across the empire.##By the final decade of the century the schools had become an established part of the life of the regiments in British Army and contributed to the sense of regimental identity that was the essence of the British Army during the period. The schoolmasters and mistresses (both the trained and untrained) who taught in the regimental schools, often in the most difficult conditions, were amongst of the unsung pioneers of elementary education in Great Britain and their schools were exceptional and probably unique in providing not only for children, but also for adults, at a time when there was little continuing education for those who wished to improve their literacy after leaving school. The story of regimental and garrison schools has long deserved a place in the history the British Army during the19th century.
Russia is often portrayed as a regressive, even lawless country, and yet the Russian state has played a major role in shaping and experimenting with law as an instrument of power. In Law and the Russian State, William E. Pomeranz examines Russia's legal evolution from Peter the Great to Vladimir Putin, addressing the continuities and disruptions of Russian law during the imperial, Soviet, and post-Soviet. The book covers key themes, including: * Law and empire * Law and modernization * The politicization of law * The role of intellectuals and dissidents in mobilizing the law * The evolution of Russian legal institutions * The struggle for human rights * The rule-of-law * The quest to establish the law-based state It also analyzes legal culture and how Russians understand and use the law. With a detailed bibliography, this is an important text for anyone seeking a sophisticated understanding of how Russian society and the Russian state have developed in the last 350 years.
A pathbreaking history of how participants in the slave trade influenced the growth and dissemination of medical knowledge As the slave trade brought Europeans, Africans, and Americans into contact, diseases were traded along with human lives. Manuel Barcia examines the battle waged against disease, where traders fought against loss of profits while enslaved Africans fought for survival. Although efforts to control disease and stop epidemics from spreading brought little success, the medical knowledge generated by people on both sides of the conflict contributed to momentous change in the medical cultures of the Atlantic world.
Volume 4 of The Selected Papers of John Jay opens in January 1785 as John Jay assumes office as secretary for foreign affairs and brings system and order to the long-neglected Department of Foreign Affairs. It explores Jay's administration of all aspects of American foreign affairs, including his efforts to implement the peace treaty with Great Britain, facilitate American trade, and renegotiate an intrusive consular treaty with France. It examines Jay's divisive negotiations with Diego de Gardoqui and his politically embarrassing dispute with Lewis Littlepage. It depicts his antislavery efforts as president of the New-York Manumission Society and his participation in the Americanization of the Episcopal Church. It documents his promotion of constitutional change as the weaknesses of the Confederation thwart diplomacy and his defense of the proposed new Constitution as an author of The Federalist and of a far more influential pamphlet. The volume closes as Jay takes leave of absence from office to support ratification of the Constitution as delegate to the New York Ratifying Convention. Access to people, places, and events in the volume is facilitated by detailed annotation, illustrations, a biographical directory, and a comprehensive index.
Citizens of a Common Intellectual Homeland explores the simultaneous emergence of modern concepts of democracy and the nation on both sides of the Atlantic during the age of revolutions.To illustrate the transatlantic emergence of these ideas, Armin Mattes considers the works of pairs of prominent intellectual contemporaries?one in America and the other in Europe?each writing on a common topic. This novels approach of pairing prominent thinkers from both continents highlights the significant impact that the French Revolution had on the development of thought in the period, demonstrating that America was intimately tied to revolutionary events and processes in the larger Atlantic world.
This collection of essays seeks to challenge the notion of the supremacy of the brain as the key organ of the Enlightenment, by focusing on the workings of the bowels and viscera that so obsessed writers and thinkers during the long eighteenth-century. These inner organs and the digestive process acted as counterpoints to politeness and other modes of refined sociability, drawing attention to the deeper workings of the self. Moving beyond recent studies of luxury and conspicuous consumption, where dysfunctional bowels have been represented as a symptom of excess, this book seeks to explore other manifestations of the visceral and to explain how the bowels played a crucial part in eighteenth-century emotions and perceptions of the self. The collection offers an interdisciplinary and cross-cultural perspective on entrails and digestion by addressing urban history, visual studies, literature, medical history, religious history, and material culture in England, France and Germany. -- .
The Papers of James Madison project, housed at the University of Virginia, was established in 1956 to publish annotated volumes of the correspondence and writings of James Madison, the Virginia statesman most often remembered for his public service as Father of the Constitution and as fourth president of the United States. The published volumes provide accurate texts of Madison's incoming and outgoing correspondence, informative notes on textual and subject matters, and comprehensive indexes. They are incomparably rich sources for students of Madison's life and valuable research tools for those interested in the general history of the period in which Madison lived (1751-1836). The project has collected more than 27,000 copies of documents related to Madison's life, including letters, essays, notes, diaries, account books, ledgers, wills, legal papers, and inventories. The project serves the public by translating into print these decaying and often nearly illegible manuscripts, thereby preserving them for future generations and making them easier to use. The published volumes also make the contents of Madison related documents, the originals of which are housed in some 250 archives worldwide, easily accessible to libraries and interested individuals anywhere books travel. The Presidential Series,covering the years 1809 to early 1817, centres largely on Madison's record as commander-in-chief during the War of 1812, the first full-scale conflict to be waged under the U.S. Constitution of 1787. Madison's correspondence as president deals with a particularly wide range of concerns - national politics, international diplomacy and war, Indian affairs, the construction of the nation's capital, even petitions from ordinary citizens for charity and mercy - to which Madison responded.
Multiple Modernities approaches the concept of modernity through two historical phases of Norway. The first study focuses on the interplay between Lutheran state officials and popular movements in the nineteenth century as an essential aspect of the growth of social democracy. The second examination of modernization centres on twentieth-century Norway up to World War II. The book is balanced between theoretical remarks on conceptual issues (through the eyes of a trained philosopher rather than historian), an assessment of modernization processes, and a study of basic epistemic and structural challenges that confront us in our time. Scandinavian countries are often noted as cases of successful modernization processes. However, these references to a Scandinavian model tend to focus on the mid-twentieth century after World War II. In Skirbekk's view, the uniqueness of modernization processes in Scandinavia, for instance in Norway, is better conceived by focusing on the nineteenth century, with a continuation into the twentieth century.
How chartered company-states spearheaded European expansion and helped create the world's first genuinely global order From Spanish conquistadors to British colonialists, the prevailing story of European empire-building has focused on the rival ambitions of competing states. But as Outsourcing Empire shows, from the seventeenth to the twentieth centuries, company-states-not sovereign states-drove European expansion, building the world's first genuinely international system. Company-states were hybrid ventures: pioneering multinational trading firms run for profit, with founding charters that granted them sovereign powers of war, peace, and rule. Those like the English and Dutch East India Companies carved out corporate empires in Asia, while other company-states pushed forward European expansion through North America, Africa, and the South Pacific. In this comparative exploration, Andrew Phillips and J. C. Sharman explain the rise and fall of company-states, why some succeeded while others failed, and their role as vanguards of capitalism and imperialism. In dealing with alien civilizations to the East and West, Europeans relied primarily on company-states to mediate geographic and cultural distances in trade and diplomacy. Emerging as improvised solutions to bridge the gap between European rulers' expansive geopolitical ambitions and their scarce means, company-states succeeded best where they could balance the twin imperatives of power and profit. Yet as European states strengthened from the late eighteenth century onward, and a sense of separate public and private spheres grew, the company-states lost their usefulness and legitimacy. Bringing a fresh understanding to the ways cross-cultural relations were handled across the oceans, Outsourcing Empire examines the significance of company-states as key progenitors of the globalized world.
Der Band bietet eine historische Analyse des langen und verschlungenen Weges zum Frieden zwischen den christlichen Konfessionen. Dabei schlagt er einen thematischen Bogen von Luthers Kriegsleuteschrift im 16. Jahrhundert uber den preussischen Pietismus und den Irrweg des Nationalprotestantismus im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert bis hin zur Inneren Fuhrung der Bundeswehr und zur gegenwartigen Militarseelsorge. Daruber hinaus gewahrt er Einblicke in neuere Forschungsergebnisse und Fragestellungen, die fur das Verstandnis der Neuausrichtungen des Protestantismus seit der zweiten Halfte des 20. Jahrhunderts von Bedeutung sind.