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It was in the 19th and early 20th centuries that Cambridge, characterised in the previous century as a place of indolence and complacency, underwent the changes which produced the institutional structures which persist today. Foremost among them was the rise of mathematics as the dominant subject within the university, with the introduction of the Classical Tripos in 1824, and Moral and Natural Sciences Triposes in 1851. Responding to this, Trinity was notable in preparing its students for honours examinations, which came to seem rather like athletics competitions, by working them hard at college examinations. The admission of women and dissenters in the 1860s and 1870s was a major change ushered in by the Royal Commission of 1850, which finally brought the colleges out of the middle ages and strengthened the position of the university, at the same time laying the foundations of the new system of lectures and supervisions. Contributors: JUNE BARROW-GREEN, MARY BEARD, JOHN R. GIBBINS, PAULA GOULD, ELISABETH LEEDHAM-GREEN, DAVID McKITTERICK, JONATHAN SMITH, GILLIAN SUTHERLAND, CHRISTOPHER STRAY, ANDREW WARWICK, JOHN WILKES.
In the early 1970s, fuzzy systems and fuzzy control theories added a new dimension to control systems engineering. From its beginnings as mostly heuristic and somewhat ad hoc, more recent and rigorous approaches to fuzzy control theory have helped make it an integral part of modern control theory and produced many exciting results. Yesterday's art of building a working fuzzy controller has turned into today's science of systematic design. To keep pace with and further advance the rapidly developing field of applied control technologies, engineers, both present and future, need some systematic training in the analytic theory and rigorous design of fuzzy control systems. Introduction to Fuzzy Sets, Fuzzy Logic, and Fuzzy Control Systems provides that training by introducing a rigorous and complete fundamental theory of fuzzy sets and fuzzy logic, and then building a practical theory for automatic control of uncertain and ill-modeled systems encountered in many engineering applications. The authors proceed through basic fuzzy mathematics and fuzzy systems theory and conclude with an exploration of some industrial application examples. Almost entirely self-contained, Introduction to Fuzzy Sets, Fuzzy Logic, and Fuzzy Control Systems establishes a strong foundation for designing and analyzing fuzzy control systems under uncertain and irregular conditions. Mastering its contents gives students a clear understanding of fuzzy control systems theory that prepares them for deeper and broader studies and for many practical challenges faced in modern industry.
No One Was Turned Away is a book about the importance of public hospitals to New York City. At a time when less and less value seems to be placed on public institutions, argues author Sandra Opdycke, it is both useful and prudent to consider what this particular set of public institutions has meant to this particular city over the last hundred years, and to ponder what its loss might mean as well. Opdycke suggests that if these public hospitals close or convert to private management-as is currently being discussed-then a vital element of the civic life of New York City will be irretrievably lost. The story is told primarily through the history of Bellevue Hospital, the largest public hospital in the city and the oldest in the nation. Following Bellevue through the twentieth century, Opdycke meticulously charts the fluctuating fortunes of the city's public hospital system. Readers will learn how medical technology, urban politics, changing immigration patterns, economic booms and busts, labor unions, health insurance, Medicaid, and managed care have interacted to shape both the social and professional environments of New York's public hospitals. Having entered the twentieth century with high hopes for a grand expansion, Bellevue now faces financial and political pressures so acute that its very future is in doubt. In order to give context to the Bellevue experience, Opdycke also tracks the history of a private facility over the same century: New York Hospital. By noting the points at which the paths of these two mighty institutions have overlapped-as well as the ways in which they have diverged-this book clearly and persuasively highlights the significance of public hospitals to the city. No One Was Turned Away shows that private facilities like New York Hospital have generally provided superb care for their patients, but that in every era they have also excluded certain groups. This exclusion has occurred for various reasons, such as patients' diagnoses, their social characteristics, behavior, or financial status-or simply because of a lack of unoccupied beds. Fortunately, however, year in and year out, Bellevue and its fellow public facilities have acted as the city's medical safety net. Opdycke's book maintains that public hospitals will be as essential in the future as they have been in the past. This is a thoughtful and well-written study that will appeal to anyone interested in the history of medicine, public policy, urban affairs, or the City of New York.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Laboratory for Computer Science (LCS) has been responsible for some of the most significant technological achievements of the past few decades. Much of the hardware and software driving the information revolution has been, and continues to be, created at LCS. Anyone who sends and receives email, communicates with colleagues through a LAN, surfs the Web, or makes decisions using a spreadsheet is benefiting from the creativity of LCS members.LCS is an interdepartmental laboratory that brings together faculty, researchers, and students in a broad program of study, research, and experimentation. Their principal goal is to pursue innovations in information technology that will improve people's lives. LCS members have been instrumental in the development of ARPAnet, the Internet, the Web, Ethernet, time-shared computers, UNIX, RSA encryption, the X Windows system, NuBus, and many other technologies.This book, published in celebration of LCS's thirty-fifth anniversary, chronicles its history, achievements, and continued importance to computer science. The essays are complemented by historical photographs.
For more than a century, New York City's public hospitals have played a major role in ensuring that people of every class have had a place to turn for care. This comparison of the history of Bellevue Hospital with that of the private New York Hospital illuminates the unique contribution that public hospitals have made to the city and confirms their continued value today. Portraying the hospital as an urban institution that reflects the social, political, economic, demographic, and physical changes of the surrounding city, this book links the role of public hospitals to the ongoing debate about the place of public institutions in American society.
This is William G. Harley's personal account of the process that produced the MacBride Commission reportoUNESCO's International Commission for Study of Communication Problems. Harley was present at all Commission meetings; he had the complete collection of reports he had sent back to the U.S. State Department. Furthermore, he had a file of relevant personal notes, memos, and letters, a comprehensive collection unique in all the world. The author's account not only tells how international agencies function, for better or worse, but it also sketches the personalities involved in negotiating international communication problems. Harley's reports of the meetings are fascinating exercises in group dynamics which capture the substance and spirit of the debates. The sixteen experts appointed in 1977 by UNESCO Director-General, Amadou Mahtar M'Bow, were responsible for preparing a report that would remedy issues such as Third World hopes for a new world information order and the flow of international information. It was a conscientious effort to reach a consensus in the study of these relations between and within nations and Harley's Creative Compromise affords the reader insights into the complexity of modern communications and their interrelationships with the economic, cultural, and social aspects of our interdependent world.