Employing insights from a broadly conceived social psychology, Simon N. Herman examines contemporary Jewish life in its totality as a constellation of interdependent factors. He sets forth criteria for the Jewish identity, analyzes the religious and national elements that interweave in it, the constancies and variations in that identity across the years and across countries, the impact on it of the Holocaust and the establishment of the state of Israel. An illuminating chapter is devoted to the question Who is a Jew? In his foreword to the fkst edition of this volume, Herbert Kelman of Harvard University described it as a pioneering contribution to the study of ethnic/national identity. The second edition incorporates additional data derived from two recent studies conducted by the author. It includes a discussion of the direction of changes in the Jewish identity in the decade since publication of the first edition. Special attention is given to the Jewish reactions to the worldwide resurgence of anti-Semitism and to the turbulent events in and around Israel. A careful analysis is undertaken of the factors in the present situation that strengthen and weaken the Jewish identity.