Eugene Dynkin is a rare example of a contemporary mathematician who has achieved outstanding results in two quite different areas of research: algebra and probability. In both areas, his ideas constitute an essential part of modern mathematical knowledge and form a basis for further development. Although his last work in algebra was published in 1955, his contributions continue to influence current research in algebra and in the physics of elementary particles. His work in probability is part of both the historical and the modern development of the topic. This volume presents Dynkin's scientific contributions in both areas. Included are commentary by recognized experts in the corresponding fields who describe the time, place, role, and impact of Dynkin's research and achievements. Biographical notes and the recollections of his students are also featured.