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Distillation Engineering by Reinhard Billet


Distillation Engineering by Reinhard Billet

Partial Table of Contents I. The Thermal Separation of LiquidsII. Thermodynamics of Mixtures1. Definitions and RelationshipsA. Separability of a Liquid MixtureB. Partial Pressures in Vapor MixturesC. Evaporation of Liquid Mixtures2. Types of MixturesA. Ideal Binary MixturesB. Nonideal Binary MixturesC. Ideal Multicomponent MixturesD. Nonideal Multicomponent MixturesIII. Continuous Rectifiers1. Mode of Operations2. Operating LinesA. Enrichment LineB. The Stripping Line3. Stepwise Separation in RectifiersA. Theoretical Plates for Separation of BinariesB. The Reflux Ratio in the Separation of BinariesC. Multicomponent Mixtures4. Column Diameter and Column Throughput5. Heat RequirementsIV. The Batch Still1. Operation2. Operating Line and Separation Steps3. Column Diameter, Column Throughput, and Heat Requirements4. Time for Separation and Related Variables at ConstantProduct ConcentrationA. Molar Vapor Load Constant in TimeB. Heat Requirement Constant in Time5. Separation Time for Variable Heating AreaV. The Semicontinuous Still1. Operation2. Finding the Operating Lines, the Separation Steps, theColumn Load, the Column: Size, and the Heat DemandVI. Engineering Data, Optimization of Costs, and Selection of Column Internals1. GeneralA. Packing TypesB. Plates and Trays2. Designs and FunctionsA. Packed TowersB. Plate Columns3. Evaluation of Rectifying Columns and Best Mode of OperationA. Evaluating and Calculations, Separating Effect,Pressure Loss, Load, Specific Column Volume, and Specific Column CostB. Numerical Evaluation for Packed TowersC. Quantitative Evaluation for Plate-Type ColumnsD. Packed Columns versus Tray Columns-OperationalFeatures and CostE. Special Designs for Vacuum Operation4. Tests of Full-Size Tower InternalsVII. Optimum Separation1. Optimization of Simple ColumnsA. The Theory and Its ApplicationB. Quantitative Evaluation2. Optimization of Multiple ColumnsA. Duplex Columns: Number of Theoretical Steps, RefluxRatios, and Vapor LoadsB. Vapor Loads of Multiple Columns Subdivided Because ofLimited HeightC. Optimizing Duplex Rectifiers for Minimum Pressure Loss3. Optimum Operation of Combined Columns of Different TypesUnder Special ConsiderationA. Parallel ArrangementB. Series Arrangement4. Specialized OperationsA. Specialized Hookups and their CalculationB. Rectification in Straight Stripping ColumnsC. Rectification in Straight Enriching ColumnsD. Direct Heating of ColumnsE. Saving Heat in RectificationVIII. Detail Planning of Separating Columns1. General Viewpoints in the Selection of Column Types2. Packed ColumnsColumns3. Special Packings4. Plate-Type Columns5. Pressure Losses in Rectification ColumnsIX. Partial Distillation1. Separation of Liquids by Continuous Partial Distillation2. Separation of Liquids by Discontinuous Partial DistillationX. Partial Condensation1. Partial Condensation in Dephlegmators2. Partial Countercurrent Direct Condensation in ColumnsXI. Laboratory Columns and Pilot Plants1. Distillation Columns with Miniature Size Packing2. Transferring Data Gained From Semi-industrial Units to Full-ScaleXII. Distillation in Fine and High Vacuum1. Molecular Distillation2. Thin-Film Distillation3. Mechanism of SeparationXIII. Components of a Separation Plant1. Internal Components2. Heat Exchangers3. Pumps4. Measuring and ControlsXIV. Use of ComputersXV. Distillation and Environmental ProtectionXVI. OutlookBibliographySymbols and UnitsGlossaryIndex

About the Author

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Book Info

Publication date

30th January 1979


Reinhard Billet

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Author 'Like for Like'


Chemical Publishing Co Inc.,U.S.


534 pages


Alcoholic beverages
Food & beverage technology



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