America gave up the three R's and got back the three I's: ignorance, illiteracy, and illegitimacy. Parents of the postwar years wanted a kinder and gentler nation, just like former President Bush. They had just been through the horrors of World War II, and they were in no mood for a repeat performance. Americans were vulnerable, therefore, to the arguments of behavioral psychologists, which came at them, first through articles and books touting appealing but unworkable philosophies of child management that eschewed adult guidance and leadership. These messages were later repeated through colleges of education in the form of courses in educational psychology. Todaya s schools promote success without achievement, ethics without religion, and character without morals. Clinical-sounding labels such as emotionally handicapped may make failure more palatable. They certainly make it more permanent.