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Globalization of Japan Japanese Sakoku Mentality and US Efforts to Open Japan by Mayumi Itoh

Globalization of Japan Japanese Sakoku Mentality and US Efforts to Open Japan


Globalization of Japan Japanese Sakoku Mentality and US Efforts to Open Japan by Mayumi Itoh

More than a decade ago, Japan embarked on the third Kaikoku (open door policy) with the ultimate goal of internationalization ( Kokusaika ). The Japanese government reluctantly took up internationalization under the pressure of foreign governments, especially in the United States and Europe however, Japan has made only modest progress at a superficial level. In Globalization of Japan , Mayumi Itoh examines the various aspects of Japan's resistance to internationalization. She shows how the opening up of Japan involves not only the accessibility of Japanese markets to foreign goods, but also the liberalization of the Japanese psyche from the sakoku (secluded nation) mentality. Itoh unearths the roots of the sakoku mentality and reveals it as the fundamental impediment to Japan's internationalization, examining various Japanese sakoku policies. She also analyzes the three open door policies that Japan has undertaken in the past and demonstrates how the United States played a crucial role in each one.


'This book is an insightful analysis of one of the cardinal problems of any New World Order.' - Chalmers Johnson, President, Japan Policy Research Institute'

About the Author

MAYUMI ITOH is Associate Professor of Political Science, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV).

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Book Info

Publication date

3rd November 2000


Mayumi Itoh

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Palgrave Macmillan


302 pages


International relations
Cultural studies



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