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Elements Top TrumpsTM is an entertaining, fast-paced chemistry card game. With eye-catching imagery and fascinating facts about the elements, it's a great way to have fun and learn about the elements. Recommended for children aged 7-14, the game can be played by two or more players. Each of the 30 cards represents an element. Players compare numerical properties of the elements (melting point, density, price, discovery date and the size of the atom) and choose the category they think will win. Elements Top Trumps is created by the Royal Society of Chemistry in partnership with Winning Moves Ltd, the makers of Top TrumpsTM. This product is also available in packs of six.
It is becoming increasingly evident that liquids and solutions are far from homogeneous and are structured on lengths scales from supramolecular to mesoscopic. Such structure ranges from hydrogen-bonded clusters in water, through pre-nucleation clusters in saturated solutions and mesoscopic structures in room-temperature ionic liquids, to macroscopic phase separation associated with liquid-liquid phase transitions. This gives rise to dynamics over a huge range of timescales ranging from femtoseconds to kiloseconds presenting a challenge to experiment and theory. Many aspects of liquid structuring such as the proposed presence of a second critical point in the supercooled phase of liquid water or the macroscopic phase separation of molecular liquids due to a liquid-liquid phase transition have proven to be controversial. Bringing together up to date contributions from experimentalists and theoretician, this Faraday Discussion will present these issues and their role in practical situations. This title will appeal to researchers interested in liquid structuring issues which play a defining role in determining chemical reactivity, transport properties, crystal nucleation, and other physicochemical properties important to engineering and biology.
This volume focuses on the synthesis of emerging knowledge of the atmospheric aerosol systems, assessment of the validity and usefulness of existing frameworks, and the development of robust aerosol system descriptions on scales ranging from the interpretation of laboratory data to assessment of global impacts. Suspended particulate material in the atmosphere gives rise to a number of poorly determined problems of major current concern. Direct and indirect radiative forcing (the ability of aerosol particles to affect the Earth's radiation budget) each carries larger uncertainties than all other agents of climate change. Furthermore, there are significant challenges associated with the uncertainties of the impacts of particulate material on air quality and human health. A significant contributor to these uncertainties is the vast heterogeneity in the distribution of aerosols by virtue of their disparate sources (both primary and secondary) and transformations in the moist oxidising atmosphere. The complexity of aerosol precursors and variability in the oxidising environment leads to a highly variable loading of particles of widely ranging size, age and property. The topics covered in this volume include: * Formation, * Transformation, * Fate, and * Impacts of tropospheric aerosols.
The classical field of electroanalysis is emerging as a new and exciting tool in the 21st century. The characterisation, detection and theoretical behaviour of ions and electrons at the nanoscale is a growth area, of immense interest in the diverse fields of science and technology ranging from biological applications, fuel cells, surface and materials characterisation to sensing. Electrochemistry at the nanoscale is closely linked to interfacial chemistry at the solid-liquid, liquid-liquid phases, material sciences and condensed matter physics. The paradigm shift in electrochemistry started in the 1980s with development of new trends such as structured micro and nano-electrodes allowing atomic scale and dynamic investigations. Enabling in-situ techniques such as Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy combined with AFM, spectro-electrochemical methods together with advanced theoretical calculations using DFT and Monte Carlo simulations have revolutionised the field. Mention should also be made of nano-materials e.g. based on CNTs, graphene, TiO2 and other metal oxides.
Photochemistry and molecular photophysics have been highly active fields of research for more than half a century; however, during the last two decades synergistic advances in experimental technology and computational methodology have led to a renewed interest in understanding photochemistry and photophysics at the quantum level - photo-initiated quantum molecular dynamics. One of the grand challenges for the 21st century is to develop such a detailed understanding of energy flow in molecules, following the absorption of a photon, that we can begin to develop the knowledge and tools to control photochemistry. Photo-initiated quantum molecular dynamics is not only core fundamental science, it has potentially wide impact. Perhaps one of the most compelling reasons for developing a more detailed understanding of energy flow in molecules between light, electrons and chemical bonds, is to enable us to contribute to some of the challenges in designing light harvesting systems for clean energy generation thus addressing one of the big problems facing society. There are also important applications in fields such as photocatalysis, the design of efficient light-driven molecular devices for data storage and processing, and photomedicine.
The last ten years have seen dramatic developments in our understanding of the surface science of nanoparticles grown on solid surfaces. These developments are continuing apace, not least in our understanding of nanoparticle structures at the atomic scale. Well-defined materials can now be prepared and the detailed nature of reactions at the atomic and molecular scale are emerging. Ensemble-averaging techniques are being combined with local, atomically-resolving probes such as STM, exposing such materials to scientific understanding, especially regarding local morphology and its effect on reactivity and catalysis. The book covers important aspects of these areas as well as outlining current developments including in-situ measurements of catalytic reactivity at high pressure and temperature.
One of the key challenges in biophysics and chemical biology is gaining an understanding of the underlying physico-chemical basis of the highly complex structure and properties of biomembranes. It used to be thought that the lipid component played a mainly passive role, simply acting as a self-assembled bilayer matrix within which the active protein components functioned. However, it has now become clear that there is a intimate two-way interplay between the lipid and the protein components in determining membrane structure, organization and dynamics, and that lipids play many active roles in biological function. Concepts such as lateral segregation and domain formation, lateral pressure, curvature and curvature elasticity have attracted enormous interest in recent years, although their validity when applied to real biomembranes remains unclear or even obscure. This Faraday Discussion considered recent developments in the study of biomembrane structure, ordering and dynamics, with particular emphasis on the roles of lipids in these phenomena. As well as discussing new experimental and theoretical findings and novel methodologies, the meeting focused on exploring the relevance of concepts from amphiphile self-assembly and soft matter physics to understanding biomembranes.
The hydration of ions and the interactions of ions with (bio)molecules play a key role in many natural and technological processes. These effects are usually framed in terms of the lyotropic or Hofmeister series which traditionally orders cations and anions according to their ability to salt-out proteins. Since its formulation more than one hundred years ago, the lyotropic series has been invoked in myriad effects including the crystallization of proteins, enzyme activities, the swelling of tissues, salt solubilities, ion exchange, surface tension of electrolytes, and bubble coalescence. Although it is now clear that the Hofmeister series is intimately connected with ion hydration in homogeneous and heterogeneous environments and with ion pairing, the molecular origin of these effects has been poorly understood. Biochemists and physical chemists have been typically using the term Hofmeister series to put a label on ion specific behaviour in various environments, rather than to reach a molecular level understanding and, consequently, an ability to predict a particular effect of a specific salt ion. This meeting (which took place at Queen's College Oxford in September 2012) aimed to respond to the emerging situation in which science has matured enough to be able to provide answers about the molecular nature of ion specific effects. It explored the most important issues in understanding the chemistry and biological effects of ions, with state of the art work being presented using advanced experimental and computational methods. Investigation of ion specific effects is truly interdisciplinary since it requires chemists, biochemists, and biophysicists to collaborate with each other, combining experimental and computational approaches. We invited researchers in these fields to take part in the Discussion and join the chosen speakers who are among the key scientists behind the recent renaissance of interest in ion specific effects. Themes covered included: Solvation of ions in the aqueous bulk and at interfaces Ion-ion interactions in water Interactions between ions and biomolecules (proteins, nucleic acids, membranes, etc.) in water. Specific Hofmeister effects of ions and osmolytes on protein association, precipitation, folding/unfolding, and activity
This volume focuses on assessing recent progress in our general understanding of coherence and control in chemistry and defining new avenues for future research. The prospect of exploiting quantum interference to direct the outcome of a chemical reaction is known as coherent control. Over the last twenty years or so, many schemes to exploit the coherence property of laser light have been proposed to exert such control over molecules, and in the last decade or so these have become realisable through advances in laser and pulse shaping technology. Many practical demonstrations of molecular coherent control, with applications ranging from laser cooling of molecules to chemically selective bond breaking or the generation of coherent x-ray light through high harmonic generation, have been made. We now also know that many photochemical reactions of fundamental importance in biology appear to exploit quantum coherence in order to transfer energy efficiently to do work rather than dissipate the energy as heat. This volume brings together experimentalists and theoreticians working in all areas of physics and chemistry who have an interest in probing and controlling chemical interactions at the quantum resolved level.
Gold has been a topic that has fascinated mankind for millennia. It is the most noble of metals; it does not tarnish on exposure to air. However, until recently, gold has presented very little fascination for chemists, as its chemical inertness as a bulk metal appeared to provide very limited opportunities to open up new and exciting chemistries. The chemistry of gold was once relatively undeveloped, but this is no longer the case. The observation that gold, when sub-divided to the nanoscale, can be exceptionally active as a catalyst, has spurred a great number of discoveries. Gold now fascinates material scientists, catalysis, surface and synthetic chemists and theoreticians in great numbers. One reason for this is that gold catalysis provides a link between model systems that can be produced by materials and surface scientists, probed by theoreticians and the real systems used in catalyst discovery. The newly-discovered chemistry of gold can be used to gain a deeper understanding of catalysis, and how materials can be synthesized and stabilized at the nanoscale. The precise nature of the active sites and the mechanisms of the catalysed reactions of gold are as yet unknown. FD152 focused on the origins of high catalytic activity observed with gold nanoparticles. The aim was to bring together the catalysis and surface science communities with materials scientists and theoreticians, so that new insights could be gained.
The need in healthcare to detect biomolecular species such as proteins, oligonucleotides (DNA and RNA) and cells for diagnostics is driving the current development of physical techniques. The development is generally based on optical, electrochemical and mass spectrometric transduction to enable these measurements. These are now also being exploited in array formats, enabling the development of high throughput detection to inform systems biology and pathway medicine by giving new insights into biomolecular pathways and the identification of new target analytes. This is a highly topical and exciting area which opens up the real prospect of theranostics (the use of diagnostics in informing patient specific therapy), but for which development and optimisation of detection requires an understanding and control of the fundamental physical processes occurring both in sensing and in signal transduction and the comparatives merits of alternative detection strategies. For high throughput detection, bioinformatics (the processing and interpretation of vast amounts of data) also presents a real challenge. Faraday Discussion 149 is organised by the Faraday Division in association with the Analytical Division.
The aim of this title is to document the meeting exploring the key challenges in understanding the biological chemistry of metals. State of the art work using advanced physical and computational methods to probe the electronic structure and the reactivity at the active sites of metalloenzymes is discussed. These investigations are truly interdisciplinary and the development and application of physical methods and computational chemistry to biological problems require spectroscopists and theoretical chemists to collaborate with each other and with a wide range of other scientists, notably biochemists and coordination chemists. This is particularity true as spectroscopy and theory typically prove insight into slightly different aspects of reactivity. The book will provide substantial benefits to both experimentalists and theoreticians working in this filed.
Water is perhaps the most important chemical substance known. Without it, the very existence of life would be questionable. Yet its detailed structure and behaviour in the condensed phase and the interfaces between the condensed phase and its environment remain somewhat controversial. Indeed as ever more sophisticated and novel experimental and theoretical tools are applied to the study of bulk liquid water and ice and its interfaces, it is becoming increasingly clear that this disparate information could heat the debate on the phase and interface behaviour of water rather than cool it! This book plans to achieve a unification of views towards the goal of understanding the microscopic structure and behaviour of condensed phases of water at interfaces and progressing into the bulk.