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Jonathan H Turner - Author

About the Author

Books by Jonathan H Turner

On Human Nature

On Human Nature

Author: Jonathan H Turner Format: Hardback Release Date: 25/11/2020

In this book, Jonathan H. Turner combines sociology, evolutionary biology, cladistic analysis from biology, and comparative neuroanatomy to examine human nature as it was inherited from common ancestors shared by humans and present-day great apes. Selection pressures altered this inherited legacy for the ancestors of humans-termed hominins for being bipedal-and forced greater organization than extant great apes when the hominins moved into open country terrestrial habitats. The effects of these selection pressures increased hominin ancestors' emotional capacities through greater social and group orientation. This shift, in turn, enabled further selection for a larger brain, articulated speech, and culture along the human line. Turner elaborates human nature as a series of overlapping complexes that are the outcome of the inherited legacy of great apes being fed through the transforming effects of a larger brain, speech, and culture. These complexes, he shows, can be understood as the cognitive complex, the psychological complex, the emotions complex, the interaction complex, and the community complex.

On Human Nature

On Human Nature

Author: Jonathan H Turner Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 25/11/2020

In this book, Jonathan H. Turner combines sociology, evolutionary biology, cladistic analysis from biology, and comparative neuroanatomy to examine human nature as it was inherited from common ancestors shared by humans and present-day great apes. Selection pressures altered this inherited legacy for the ancestors of humans-termed hominins for being bipedal-and forced greater organization than extant great apes when the hominins moved into open country terrestrial habitats. The effects of these selection pressures increased hominin ancestors' emotional capacities through greater social and group orientation. This shift, in turn, enabled further selection for a larger brain, articulated speech, and culture along the human line. Turner elaborates human nature as a series of overlapping complexes that are the outcome of the inherited legacy of great apes being fed through the transforming effects of a larger brain, speech, and culture. These complexes, he shows, can be understood as the cognitive complex, the psychological complex, the emotions complex, the interaction complex, and the community complex.

The New Evolutionary Sociology

The New Evolutionary Sociology

Author: Jonathan H. Turner, Richard S. Machalek Format: Hardback Release Date: 21/03/2018

For decades, evolutionary analysis was overlooked or altogether ignored by sociologists. Fears and biases persisted nearly a century after Auguste Comte gave the discipline its name, as did concerns that its effect would only reduce sociology to another discipline - whether biology, psychology, or economics. Worse, apprehension that the application of evolutionary theory would encourage heightened perceptions of racism, sexism, ethnocentrism and reductionism pervaded. Turner and Machalek argue instead for a new embrace of biology and evolutionary analysis. Sociology, from its very beginnings in the early 19th century, has always been concerned with the study of evolution, particularly the transformation of societies from simple to ever-more complex forms. By comprehensively reviewing the original ways that sociologists applied evolutionary theory and examining the recent renewal and expansion of these early approaches, the authors confront the challenges posed by biology, neuroscience, and psychology to distinct evolutionary approaches within sociology. They emerge with key theoretical and methodological discoveries that demonstrate the critical - and compelling - case for a dramatically enriched sociology that incorporates all forms of comparative evolutionary analysis to its canon and study of sociocultural phenomena.

The New Evolutionary Sociology

The New Evolutionary Sociology

Author: Jonathan H. Turner, Richard S. Machalek Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 19/03/2018

For decades, evolutionary analysis was overlooked or altogether ignored by sociologists. Fears and biases persisted nearly a century after Auguste Comte gave the discipline its name, as did concerns that its effect would only reduce sociology to another discipline - whether biology, psychology, or economics. Worse, apprehension that the application of evolutionary theory would encourage heightened perceptions of racism, sexism, ethnocentrism and reductionism pervaded. Turner and Machalek argue instead for a new embrace of biology and evolutionary analysis. Sociology, from its very beginnings in the early 19th century, has always been concerned with the study of evolution, particularly the transformation of societies from simple to ever-more complex forms. By comprehensively reviewing the original ways that sociologists applied evolutionary theory and examining the recent renewal and expansion of these early approaches, the authors confront the challenges posed by biology, neuroscience, and psychology to distinct evolutionary approaches within sociology. They emerge with key theoretical and methodological discoveries that demonstrate the critical - and compelling - case for a dramatically enriched sociology that incorporates all forms of comparative evolutionary analysis to its canon and study of sociocultural phenomena.

Revolt from the Middle

Revolt from the Middle

Author: Jonathan H. Turner Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 28/09/2017

Those who address conflict resulting from differing socio-economic groups (stratification systems) focus on the arousal of negative emotions. Less frequently explored are the effects of positive emotions, particularly among the middle classes in industrial and post-industrial societies. In more developed societies, those experiencing positive emotional energy far outnumber those who endure negative emotions. Jonathan H. Turner sees the distribution of positive and negative emotions in developed societies as another basis for grouping people into socio-economic classifications. Such distribution explains the commitments of middle classes to the system and the lack of class-based social movements from lower classes. Turner argues for Marx's theory when a population's vast majority is consistently experiencing negative emotions, the potential for revolution within society increases. Turner explains why class-conflict potential is low in developed societies and how it might increase if the middle classes lose their share of resources. He notes the beginnings of this shift, but says that the overall positive emotions of the middle class have not yet transitioned from positive to negative. Capitalism will persist, but it will be a reformed capitalism, especially in the United States, as taxes and regulation by government assure higher levels of resource redistribution to members of a society.

The Emergence and Evolution of Religion

The Emergence and Evolution of Religion

Written by leading theorists and empirical researchers, this book presents new ways of addressing the old question: Why did religion first emerge and then continue to evolve in all human societies? The authors of the book-each with a different background across the social sciences and humanities-assimilate conceptual leads and empirical findings from anthropology, evolutionary biology, evolutionary sociology, neurology, primate behavioral studies, explanations of human interaction and group dynamics, and a wide range of religious scholarship to construct a deeper and more powerful explanation of the origins and subsequent evolutionary development of religions than can currently be found in what is now vast literature. While explaining religion has been a central question in many disciplines for a long time, this book draws upon a much wider array of literature to develop a robust and cross-disciplinary analysis of religion. The book remains true to its subtitle by emphasizing an array of both biological and sociocultural forms of selection dynamics that are fundamental to explaining religion as a universal institution in human societies. In addition to Darwinian selection, which can explain the biology and neurology of religion, the book outlines a set of four additional types of sociocultural natural selection that can fill out the explanation of why religion first emerged as an institutional system in human societies, and why it has continued to evolve over the last 300,000 years of societal evolution. These sociocultural forms of natural selection are labeled by the names of the early sociologists who first emphasized them, and they can be seen as a necessary supplement to the type of natural selection theorized by Charles Darwin. Explanations of religion that remain in the shadow cast by Darwin's great insights will, it is argued, remain narrow and incomplete when explaining a robust sociocultural phenomenon like religion.

The Emergence and Evolution of Religion

The Emergence and Evolution of Religion

Author: Jonathan H. Turner, Alexandra Maryanski, Anders Klostergaard Petersen, Armin W. Geertz Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 21/08/2017

Written by leading theorists and empirical researchers, this book presents new ways of addressing the old question: Why did religion first emerge and then continue to evolve in all human societies? The authors of the book-each with a different background across the social sciences and humanities-assimilate conceptual leads and empirical findings from anthropology, evolutionary biology, evolutionary sociology, neurology, primate behavioral studies, explanations of human interaction and group dynamics, and a wide range of religious scholarship to construct a deeper and more powerful explanation of the origins and subsequent evolutionary development of religions than can currently be found in what is now vast literature. While explaining religion has been a central question in many disciplines for a long time, this book draws upon a much wider array of literature to develop a robust and cross-disciplinary analysis of religion. The book remains true to its subtitle by emphasizing an array of both biological and sociocultural forms of selection dynamics that are fundamental to explaining religion as a universal institution in human societies. In addition to Darwinian selection, which can explain the biology and neurology of religion, the book outlines a set of four additional types of sociocultural natural selection that can fill out the explanation of why religion first emerged as an institutional system in human societies, and why it has continued to evolve over the last 300,000 years of societal evolution. These sociocultural forms of natural selection are labeled by the names of the early sociologists who first emphasized them, and they can be seen as a necessary supplement to the type of natural selection theorized by Charles Darwin. Explanations of religion that remain in the shadow cast by Darwin's great insights will, it is argued, remain narrow and incomplete when explaining a robust sociocultural phenomenon like religion.

Revolt from the Middle

Revolt from the Middle

Author: Jonathan H. Turner Format: Hardback Release Date: 30/10/2014

Those who address conflict resulting from differing socio-economic groups (stratification systems) focus on the arousal of negative emotions. Less frequently explored are the effects of positive emotions, particularly among the middle classes in industrial and post-industrial societies. In more developed societies, those experiencing positive emotional energy far outnumber those who endure negative emotions. Jonathan H. Turner sees the distribution of positive and negative emotions in developed societies as another basis for grouping people into socio-economic classifications. Such distribution explains the commitments of middle classes to the system and the lack of class-based social movements from lower classes. Turner argues for Marx's theory-when a population's vast majority is consistently experiencing negative emotions, the potential for revolution within society increases. Turner explains why class-conflict potential is low in developed societies and how it might increase if the middle classes lose their share of resources. He notes the beginnings of this shift, but says that the overall positive emotions of the middle class have not yet transitioned from positive to negative. Capitalism will persist, but it will be a reformed capitalism, especially in the United States, as taxes and regulation by government assure higher levels of resource redistribution to members of a society.

Theoretical Principles of Sociology, Volume 1

Theoretical Principles of Sociology, Volume 1

Author: Jonathan H. Turner Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 19/10/2014

In a general study of Sociological Theory, social processes are usually broken down into three tiers: macrodynamics (societies and large-scale institutions), microdynamics (interpersonal encounters), and mesodynamics (corporations, communities, smaller organizations). In this seminal work, the author pulls these separate areas of research into one comprehensive general theory of social reality. More than analytical distinctions or research terminology, the author demonstrates that the social world actually unfolds along these three (macro, micro, and meso) levels of interaction. By developing a set of explanatory, testable, repeatable principles, the author creates a general empirical framework for sociological research. The three volumes of Principles of Sociology explore each level of social dynamics individually, with cross-references to bring the three together. This work will be essential for researchers in Sociological Theory and Social Psychology. Individual volumes will present new research of interest for researchers in Race and Ethnicity, Stratification, Demography, Political Sociology, Organizations and Community Movements, Motivation and Emotions.

Theoretical Principles of Sociology, Volume 2

Theoretical Principles of Sociology, Volume 2

Author: Jonathan H. Turner Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 19/10/2014

Micro-level dynamics revolve around face-to-face interactions among individuals. What occurs within encounters is constrained by their embedding with corporate and categoric units and, by extension, institutional domains, stratification systems, community networks, societies, and inter-societal systems. In this Handbook, the author explores the effect of microdynamics on these larger social systems.

Theoretical Principles of Sociology, Volume 3

Theoretical Principles of Sociology, Volume 3

Author: Jonathan H. Turner Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 11/06/2014

The meso-level realm of social reality is structured by corporate and categoric units, along with their respective cultures. Unlike the macro and micro realms of social reality, the meso-level does not reveal its own unique forces. Rather, the dynamics of meso-structures and cultures are driven by macro- and micro-level forces pushing on individual and collective actors as they build corporate units and develop parameters defining membership in particular social categories.

Theoretical Sociology

Theoretical Sociology

Author: Jonathan H. Turner Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 05/09/2013

Undergraduate students of social and sociological theory

Theoretical Sociology

Theoretical Sociology

Author: Jonathan H. Turner Format: Hardback Release Date: 27/11/2012

Written by award-winning scholar, Jonathan Turner, Theoretical Sociology: 1830 to the Present is a monumental book that offers like no other book in sociology both in-depth and comprehensive coverage of the classical and modern traditions in sociological theorizing. This is not a shallow review of theory, but a serious effort to understand theoretical sociology from its beginnings in the 1830s to its present profile today. Part 1 is composed of detailed analyses of the theories of the classical tradition, including the works of August Comte, Herbert Spencer, Karl Marx, Max Weber, Georg Simmel, Emile Durkheim, and George Herbert Mead. Their theories are examined in detail and depth. As a result, the reader gets much more than a surface primer on the classical tradition; rather, analysis of each theorist in the classical tradition is comprehensive and deep, giving a reader a true understanding of the power of the ideas developed by theorists of the classical era. Part 1 closes with a long chapter summarizing how each of the key figures in sociology's early pantheon influenced the development of contemporary theory, examined in Part 2. Part 2 of the book examines all of the principle theoretical traditions in sociology during the modern era. Each chapter is long because both the diversity and depth of work in each theoretical approach is examined, including the functional, general systems, ecological, evolutionary, conflict, exchange, symbolic interactionist, role and status, dramaturgical, phenomenological, structuralist, cultural, postmodern, European-critical, and American-style critical theories. Part 3 reviews the state of sociological theory today. First, the elements that make theory scientific are outlined. And then, Turner explores how to overcome roadblocks that have prevented sociological theories from realizing their full explanatory power. Coverage spans both classical and contemporary theoretical sociology, with an eye to giving readers complete coverage of theoretical sociology. This one book is resource for both the classical and contemporary courses, thus providing a unified book for readers in a wide variety of theory courses.

Theoretical Sociology

Theoretical Sociology

Author: Jonathan H. Turner Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 20/11/2012

Written by award-winning scholar, Jonathan Turner, Theoretical Sociology: 1830 to the Present is a monumental book that offers like no other book in sociology both in-depth and comprehensive coverage of the classical and modern traditions in sociological theorizing. This is not a shallow review of theory, but a serious effort to understand theoretical sociology from its beginnings in the 1830s to its present profile today. Part 1 is composed of detailed analyses of the theories of the classical tradition, including the works of August Comte, Herbert Spencer, Karl Marx, Max Weber, Georg Simmel, Emile Durkheim, and George Herbert Mead. Their theories are examined in detail and depth. As a result, the reader gets much more than a surface primer on the classical tradition; rather, analysis of each theorist in the classical tradition is comprehensive and deep, giving a reader a true understanding of the power of the ideas developed by theorists of the classical era. Part 1 closes with a long chapter summarizing how each of the key figures in sociology's early pantheon influenced the development of contemporary theory, examined in Part 2. Part 2 of the book examines all of the principle theoretical traditions in sociology during the modern era. Each chapter is long because both the diversity and depth of work in each theoretical approach is examined, including the functional, general systems, ecological, evolutionary, conflict, exchange, symbolic interactionist, role and status, dramaturgical, phenomenological, structuralist, cultural, postmodern, European-critical, and American-style critical theories. Part 3 reviews the state of sociological theory today. First, the elements that make theory scientific are outlined. And then, Turner explores how to overcome roadblocks that have prevented sociological theories from realizing their full explanatory power. Coverage spans both classical and contemporary theoretical sociology, with an eye to giving readers complete coverage of theoretical sociology. This one book is resource for both the classical and contemporary courses, thus providing a unified book for readers in a wide variety of theory courses.

Contemporary Sociological Theory

Contemporary Sociological Theory

Author: Jonathan H. Turner Format: Paperback / softback Release Date: 20/11/2012

Written by award-winning scholar, Jonathan Turner, Contemporary Sociological Theory covers the range of diversity of theory in nine theoretical traditions, and variants of theoretical approaches in these traditions. The result is a comprehensive review of present-day theorizing in sociology covering functional, evolutionary, ecological, conflict, interactionist, exchange, structuralist, cultural, and critical theories and the major proponents of these theories. Moreover, for each theoretical tradition, it origins are examined in a separate chapter with an eye to how classical theorists influenced the work of key contemporary scholars. This book will serve as a valuable resource for those readers seeking in-depth and comprehensive coverage of contemporary traditions in their historical contexts. Unlike many texts, coverage is comprehensive and deep. The theories and their origins are examined in detail so that readers can fully understand the origins and present profile of theories in present-day sociology.

Theoretical Principles of Sociology, Volume 3

Theoretical Principles of Sociology, Volume 3

Author: Jonathan H. Turner Format: Hardback Release Date: 23/05/2012

The meso-level realm of social reality is structured by corporate and categoric units, along with their respective cultures. Unlike the macro and micro realms of social reality, the meso-level does not reveal its own unique forces. Rather, the dynamics of meso-structures and cultures are driven by macro- and micro-level forces pushing on individual and collective actors as they build corporate units and develop parameters defining membership in particular social categories.