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Underground mine and quarry workings are to be found in all counties in England. This little-seen and often exciting world has workings that are different from each other in terms of what was extracted and how this was achieved. The archaeological evidence allows us to interpret what was being done and when this took place. Some places have impressive workings and these have such things as engine chambers, arched levels, deep shafts, underground canals, drainage soughs, and discarded equipment. This book presents a detailed introduction to the underground mining and quarrying heritage in England. It reviews the many types of mineral and stone taken from the ground over several millennia and also looks at the wide range of archaeological remains that survive today and are accessible to those who venture underground. It is designed to illustrate the many and varied wonders to be found underground and give the reader ways forward should they wish to follow up their interest in particular types of extraction or what is present in their region.
Gardom's Edge is an area of gritstone upland situated on the Eastern Moors of the Derbyshire Peak District. Like other parts of the Eastern Moors, Gardom's Edge has long been renowned for the wealth of prehistoric field systems, cairns and other structures which can still be traced across the surface. Drawing on the results of original survey and excavation, An Upland Biography documents prehistoric activity across this area, exploring the changing character of occupation from the Mesolithic to the Iron Age. It also tacks back and forth between local detail and regional patterns, to better understand the broader social worlds in which Gardom's Edge was set.
Set within the stunning landscape of the Peak District National Park, exquisite Chatsworth House is one of the most visited properties in England. Its vast gardens and parks, which stand in direct contrast to the upland moors that surround them, are the result of a labour of love by successive dukes and duchesses of Devonshire over a period of three hundred years (1600 to 1900). This wonderful book explores the history of this landscape both `BC' (`Before Chatsworth') and later, beginning with the earliest landscaping of the Elizabethan Bess of Hardwick and the ambitious project of the first dukes to create gardens and landscapes that complemented their innovative, state-of-the-art mansion, completed at the turn of the 18th century. Intended `to delight, amuse and impress', the landscape was the result of earthmoving on a massive scale, culminating in the extraordinary Canal Pond. Further afield, a deer park, enclosures, lakes, weirs, cascades and driveways tamed the moors. The landscape was repeatedly transformed and recreated by successive generations of dukes, designers and architects, notably Capability Brown who `naturalised' the grounds in the 18th century, while 19th-century tastes created much of what we see today, with conservatories, arboretums, Paxton's Emperor Fountain and the model village of Edensor. The authors also survey the earlier history of Chatsworth, the archaeology of the surrounding peaks, the remains of the medieval village of Edensor which, as was often the case with country estates, was swept away only to be later resurrected according to Victorian taste, and a number of fine, ancient oaks which have seen it all and still stand today. The book is illustrated throughout with many excellent colour photographs of the estate, and old plans and paintings which demonstrate the many changes the centuries have brought. Another excellent landscape study by Windgather Press.
The Peak District has been inhabited by humans for tens of thousands of years, beginning the process that irreperably changed the shape of the landscape. This volume focuses on this relationship between human settlers and farmers and the landscape showing how both have been affected by the other. Following a brief examination of the earliest evidence for hunter-gatherers, principally stone artefacts and cave sites, the authors focus on the activity that, more than anything else, has shaped the landscape that we see today, agriculture. The study searches for evidence of the earliest farmers in the remains of fields, structures, sacred monuments and burials, including over 500 barrows. The authors trace fluctuations in farmers' fortunes, especially during the Iron Age when the climate changed for the worse. Supported by maps, photographs and illustrations, the book discusses the impact of hillforts and the Romans, the increase in mining, Christian monuments, the creation of villages, the uses of woodland, common ground and enclosed areas, the introduction of turnpike roads and the industrial monuments of the 18th and 19th centuries. This is more of a chronological survey than an in-depth study of the Peak District although the narrative is informative if rather impersonal.