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In No Middle Ground: Anti-Imperialists and Ethical Witnessing During the Philippine-American War, Erin L. Murphy argues that activists in the Anti-Imperialist movement against the Philippine-American War, led by the Anti-Imperialist League, followed an evolving path of ethical witnessing where leaders empathically considered the experience of imperialist violence as it was expressed by marginalized anti-imperialists. Murphy explores how the perspectives of marginalized anti-imperialists like white women, black women and men, and Filipino/as, led Anti-Imperialist League leaders, who were predominantly white men of some prominence, to evolve their activism from focusing on defending the U.S. Constitution through electoral politics and the legality of U.S. Empire to exposing the imperialist violence committed by the U. S. military as crimes against fundamental human rights. Activists believed that advocating for human rights held true to the principles in the U.S. Constitution while U.S. Empire only dismembered it. Murphy further analyzes the ways in which Anti-Imperialist League leaders and supporters began forming other organizations based on the principles of advocating for human rights and liberty, such as the National Association for Colored People, Women's International League for Peace and Freedom, National Consumers League, American Civil Liberties Union, and the Ethical Society.